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There are three symbols of a Jewish person: he is merciful, easily embarrassed, and does kind deeds. (1)
David passed the children of Shaul in front of the Aron and the ones who were absorbed by the Aron were put to death. (2)
David prayed that the Aron would not absorb Mefiboshes ben Yehonasan.
It is worthwhile to uproot a letter from the Torah and kill the sons for the sins of their fathers in order to avoid desecrating the name of Hashem.
The bodies of the offspring of Shaul were left hanging in order to sanctify the name of Hashem. (3)
Moshe Rabeinu decreed that the Nesinim would be servants for that generation, and Yehoshua and David extended the decree further. (4)
A Seris Adam may perform Chalitzah, and if he dies with no children his wife must do Chalitzah, but a Seris Chamah may not do Chalitzah, and his wife does not require Chalitzah. (5)
A Saris and an Ailonis may not do Chalitzah or Yibum.
Rebbi Akiva: A child born from an Isur Lav is a Mamzer just like a child born from an Isur Kares.
Rebbi Akiva: A Ger is not considered part of the congregation and may marry a Saris.
If a Petzu'a Daka, Kerus Shafchah, or Saris does Yibum, b'Di'eved it is a valid Yibum, but he may not remain married to the Yevamah. (6)
If the wife of the Yavam is a Ketanah who was married off by her mother, and she is the sister of the Yevamah, she may remain married to the Yavam. (7)
Every person becomes a Seris Chamah in the moments prior to death.


1. Only people with these three symbols are fit to marry into Klal Yisrael. Since the Nesinim lacked these symbols, they were unfit to marry into Klal Yisrael.
2. The Nesinim insisted that seven children of Shaul should be put to death as revenge for Shaul killing the Kohanim. Only that would pacify them enough for the drought to end.
3. When Nochrim asked about the bodies, they were told that these princes were hanged because they did an injustice to converts. This caused 150,000 people to convert.
4. Yehoshua bin Nun extended the decree for as long as the Beis ha'Mikdash would be standing, and David ha'Melech extended the decree forever.
5. The difference is that that a Seris Adam is not infertile from birth, while a Seris Chamah is infertile from birth. Rebbi Eliezer holds that the reverse is true. The difference between a Seris Adam and a Seris Chamah, according to Rebbi Eliezer, is that a Seris Adam cannot be cured and a Seris Chamah can be cured.
6. This is true according to the view that, according to Rebbi Akiva, an Isur Lav who is not a relative does not make the offspring into a relative.
7. This is the opinion of Raban Gamliel, who maintains that the Yavam waits until she is a Gedolah and the marriage becomes valid mid'Oraisa, and at that point the Yevamah is free to marry without Chalitzah because she is the sister of the Yavam's wife.


The Gemara says that when the Nochrim saw that the princes of Klal Yisrael were punished for the injustice that was done to converts, 150,000 people converted. The Ritva asks that the Gemara earlier said that no Gerim were accepted in the times of David ha'Melech and Shlomo ha'Melech. The Ritva answers that the reason why the Gerim were not accepted was that it is most likely that they wanted to convert only out of fear of David, or because of the wealth of Shlomo. In this case, it was obvious that they were converting because they were cognizant of the holiness and truth of the Torah and the righteousness of the Dinim.


If a person from the Seven Nations converts, he is not prohibited from marrying into Klal Yisrael. It is well-known that the only people among the Seven Nations to covert were the Giv'onim, and Yehoshua bin Nun forbade them from marrying into Klal Yisrael. The prohibition of Yehoshua applied only during the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash. These Giv'onim are called "Nesinim" because they were "given over" for the service of the Beis ha'Mikdash. David ha'Melech came and prohibited them forever from marrying into Klal Yisrael, even after there no longer was a Beis ha'Mikdash. Why did David ha'Melech and his Beis Din prohibit them from marrying into Klal Yisrael? He saw their brazenness and cruelty at the time they requested that seven children of Shaul ha'Melech be hanged and they killed them without mercy. (Rambam, Hilchos Isurei Bi'ah 12:22-24)

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