12th CYCLE DEDICATION:
 
MEGILAH 21 - Dedicated by Alex and Helen Gross of Rechavya, Jerusalem, lovers of Torah and builders of a home molded by dedication to Torah study. May the Zechus of the Torah always provide for and protect their entire family!

1)

(a)From where does d'Bei Rebbi Yanai learn that the neck of the Eglah Arufah must be broken by day?

(b)What do we learn from the Pasuk "Zos Tih'yeh Toras ha'Metzora b'Yom Taharaso"?

(c)We learned in our Mishnah that the cutting of the Omer must be performed by night. Which other Mitzvah follows the same pattern as the cutting of the Omer?

(d)And what do we learn from the Pasuk (with regard to the Korban Tamid) "Kol ha'Laylah ad ha'Boker"?

1)

(a)d'Bei Rebbi Yanai learns that the neck of the Eglah Arufah must be broken by day - from the fact that the Torah writes "Kaparah" with regard to it (like by Kodshim).

(b)We learn from the Pasuk "Zos Tih'yeh Toras ha'Metzora b'Yom Taharaso" - that the purification ceremony of the Metzora must take by day.

(c)We learned in our Mishnah that the cutting of the Omer must be performed by night. The Mitzvah of - Sefiras ha'Omer follows the same pattern (see also Tosfos 20b. DH 'Kol ha'Laylah').

(d)And we learn from the Pasuk (with regard to the Korban Tamid) "Kol ha'Laylah ad ha'Boker" - that the burning of the limbs and the fat-pieces of the Tamid and other Korbanos may be burned all night.

2)

(a)Our Mishnah says 'Zeh ha'Klal, Davar she'Mitzvaso ba'Yom, Kasher Kol ha'Yom'. This comes to include Sidur Bazichin and Siluk Bazichin, like Rebbi Yosi. What is ...

1. ... 'Sidur Bazichin'?

2. ... 'Siluk Bazichin'?

(b)What does Rebbi Yosi say?

(c)What do the Rabanan hold?

(d)'Davar she'Mitzvaso ba'Laylah Kasher Kol ha'Laylah' comes to include the eating of the Korban Pesach, like Rebbi Akiva. What does Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah say?

2)

(a)Our Mishnah says 'Zeh ha'Klal, Davar she'Mitzvaso ba'Yom, Kasher Kol ha'Yom'. This comes to include 'Sidur Bazichin' and the 'Siluk Bazichin', like Rebbi Yosi.

1. ... 'Sidur Bazichin' - comprises the arrangement of the two new bowls of frankincense which accompany the two rows of freshly-baked loaves on to the Table (though it also incorporates here, the arrangement of the of loaves themselves).

2. 'Siluk Bazichin' - is the removal of the old bowls (and of last-week's loaves).

(b)Rebbi Yosi says - that the Kohanim were even permitted to remove the old loaves in the morning and to place the fresh ones in the afternoon (because, in his opinion, as long as the Table does not spend the night without the loaves, it still constitutes "Tamid").

(c)The Rabanan however - require the fresh loaves to be placed simultaneously with the removal of the old ones (because, according to them "Tamid" is literal). Note, that 'Kol ha'Yom' in this particular case has a different connotation than it does in all the other cases in the Mishnah.

(d)'Davar she'Mitzvaso ba'Laylah Kasher Kol ha'Laylah' comes to include the eating of the Korban Pesach, like Rebbi Akiva. According to Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah - the Korban Pesach must be eaten by mid-night (min ha'Torah; Rebbi Akiva agrees with this ruling, mid'Rabanan).

HADRAN ALACH 'HA'KOREI L'MAFRE'A'

PEREK HA'KOREI ES HA'MEGILAH

3)

(a)Our Mishnah permits the Ba'al Korei who reads the Megilah to sit whilst reading the Megilah. What do we learn from the Pasuk in Ki Sisa "v'Atah Poh Amod Imadi"?

(b)What does Rebbi Avahu comment (on the word "Imadi")? What we would not be able to say, were it not for this Pasuk?

(c)Which second Halachah (with regard to a Rebbe teaching his disciples) does Rebbi Avahu learn from "Imadi"?

3)

(a)Our Mishnah permits the Ba'al Korei who reads the Megilah to sit whilst reading it. We learn from the Pasuk "v'Atah Poh Amod Imadi" - that the Ba'al Korei who reads from the Torah is obligated to stand.

(b)Rebbi Avahu comments on the word "Imadi" (implying that that even Hash-m (kiv'Yachol) stood up when reading the Torah to Moshe) - that were it not for this Pasuk, we would not dare to say such a thing.

(c)Rebbi Avahu also learns from "Imadi" - that a Rebbe who learns with his Talmidim should not allow them to sit on the floor whilst he sits on a couch (but either they all sit on couches or they all sit on the floor).

4)

(a)Our Mishnah rules that on an ordinary weekday and at Shabbos Minchah, three people are called up to the Torah. Why is one not permitted to call up more people ...

1. ... on a weekday?

2. ... at Shabbos Minchah?

(b)According to the Tana of our Mishnah, how many people are called up on Rosh Chodesh and on Chol ha'Mo'ed, on Yom Tov, on Yom Kippur and on Shabbos, respectively?

(c)One is never permitted to call up less than the prescribed amount of people. On which of the above days ...

1. ... may one call up more?

2. ... does one read the Haftarah?

(d)How many Berachos did they recite during the reading of the Megilah in the days of the Mishnah?

4)

(a)Our Mishnah rules that on an ordinary weekday and at Shabbos Minchah, three people are called up to the Torah. One is not permitted to call up more people ...

1. ... on a weekday - because of 'Bitul Melachah' (people need to go to work).

2. ... at Shabbos Minchah - because in former times, the Rav would Darshen most of the afternoon, and by the time they Davened Minchah it was already close to night (and one still needs to eat Se'udas Shelishis).

(b)According to the Tana of our Mishnah - four people are called up on Rosh Chodesh and on Chol ha'Mo'ed, five on Yom Tov, six on Yom Kippur and seven on Shabbos.

(c)One is never permitted to call up less than the prescribed amount of people. One ...

1. ... may call up more on Yom Tov, Yom Kippur and Shabbos (because there is no Bitul Melachah).

2. ... reads the Haftarah - on the same days (and for the same reason).

(d)In the days of the Mishnah - they would recite two Berachos over the entire reading, the first Aliyah would recite the Berachah before reading, and the last Aliyah, the Berachah after reading.

5)

(a)What is the Mishnah in Sotah referring to when it says that from the death of Raban Gamliel, Kavod ha'Torah became Batel?

(b)In one Pasuk in Ekev, Moshe writes "va'Eshev ba'Har"; and in another, va'Anochi Amadti ba'Har". Rav explains that Moshe stood when he heard the Halachah from Hash-m, but sat down when he reviewed it on his own. How does Rebbi Chanina resolve the discrepancy?

(c)Rebbi Yochanan draws on the Pasuk "va'Teshvu b'Kadesh" to resolve it. How in fact, does he translate the Pasuk "va'Eshev ba'Har"?

(d)Rava answers the Kashya in similar vein to Rav. What does he say?

5)

(a)When the Mishnah in Sotah says that from the time that Raban Gamliel died, Kevod ha'Torah became Batel - it is referring to the fact that, until then, people used to learn Torah standing up (out of respect), and it was following Raban Gamliel's death that people became weaker, and they began learning sitting-down.

(b)In one Pasuk Moshe writes "va'Eshev ba'Har"; and in another, "va'Anochi Amadti ba'Har". Rav explains that Moshe stood when he heard the Halachah from Hash-m, but sat down when he reviewed it on his own. Rebbi Chanina explains - that in fact, Moshe neither stood nor sat, but learned in a bowing position.

(c)Rebbi Yochanan draws on the Pasuk "va'Teshvu b'Kadesh" to resolve it. "va'Teshev" he explains, means (not "and you sat in Kadesh", but) - "and you stayed in Kadesh". And that is what Moshe meant when he wrote "va'Eshev ba'Har".

(d)Rava answers (in similar vein to Rav) - that Moshe stood for the easier Halachos, and sat for the more difficult ones.

21b----------------------------------------21b

6)

(a)We learned in our Mishnah that even two people may read the Megilah simultaneously. Why is this permitted, despite the fact that, when it comes to Keri'as ha'Torah and reading in the Navi, the Beraisa forbids it?

(b)Which other reading does the Tana equate with Megilah in this regard?

(c)Seeing as two people are forbidden even to translate Torah simultaneously, why does he permit it with regard to Navi?

(d)Is there any difference whether two or ten people read the Megilah together?

6)

(a)We learned in our Mishnah that even two people may read the Megilah simultaneously. This is permitted, despite the fact that, when it comes to Keri'as ha'Torah and reading in the Navi, it is forbidden - because, whereas under normal circumstances it is difficult to hear properly when two people speak at the same time, Megilah is different, because it is so popular, that everyone makes the effort to listen carefully however many people read it together ...

(b)... and the Tana issues the same ruling with regard to Halel (for the same reason).

(c)Even though two people are forbidden even to translate Torah simultaneously, he nevertheless permits it with regard to Navi - because there are not many Mitzvos in Navi, so it is not so serious if people do not hear it clearly.

(d)It makes no difference whether two or ten people read the Megilah together - either way, the community is Yotzei.

7)

(a)We learned in our Mishnah that reciting a Berachah over the Megilah depends on the Minhag. How does Abaye qualify this Halachah? Which Berachah is the Mishnah referring to?

(b)The source for this is the principle of Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel. What does Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel say?

(c)What is the principle known as?

(d)We know that 'Over' implies 'before' (i.e. in front of) from various sources: some learn it from "va'Yaratz Achima'atz ... va'Ya'avor es ha'Kushi" (Melachim 1), and others, from "va'Ya'avor Malkam Lifneihem, va'Hashem b'Rosham" (Michah). Others again, learn it from a Pasuk in Vayishlach. Which Pasuk?

7)

(a)We learned in our Mishnah that reciting a Berachah over the Megilah depends on the Minhag. Abaye qualifies this - by restricting the Mishnah to the Berachah that one recites after the Megilah, but not to the one before it, which is obligatory.

(b)The source for this is the principle of Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel - that one always recites a Berachah immediately before performing a Mitzvah (even though there are many exceptions to this rule).

(c)The principle is known as 'Over la'Asiyasan'.

(d)We know that 'Over' implies 'before' (i.e. in front of) from various sources: some learn it from "va'Yaratz Achima'atz ... va'Ya'avor es ha'Kushi", and others, from "va'Ya'avor Malkam Lifneihem, va'Hashem b'Rosham". Others again, learn it from the Pasuk in Vayishlach - "v'Hu Avar Lifneihem" (with regard to Yakov Avinu passing in front of his wives to go and greet Esav).

8)

(a)When Rav Sheshes from Katraza came before Rav Ashi, he recited MaNaCh. What does 'MaNaCh' represent?

(b)According to some, the Berachah after the Megilah ends 'Baruch Atah Hash-m, ha'Nifra l'Yisrael mi'Kol Tzareihem'. What does Rava say?

(c)What do we therefore do?

8)

(a)The Siman for the Berachos that one recites before reading the Megilah is 'MaNaCh' - representing the first major letters of 'al Mikra Megilah', 'she'Asah Nisim ... ', and 'she'he'Chiyanu'.

(b)According to some, the Berachah after the Megilah concludes 'Baruch Atah Hash-m, ha'Nifra l'Yisrael mi'Kol Tzareihem'; according to Rava - it concludes 'ha'Kel ha'Moshi'a'.

(c)We therefore conclude ' ... ha'Nifra l'Yisrael mi'Kol Tzareihem, ha'Kel ha'Moshi'a'.

9)

(a)According to Rav Asi, the three Aliyos that one reads on Monday, Thursday and Shabbos Minchah correspond to Torah, Nevi'im and Kesuvim. What does Rava say?

(b)According to Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, the ten (minimum) Pesukim that one reads, correspond to the ten Batlanim. What does Rav Yosef say?

(c)Rebbi Yochanan maintains that they correspond to the ten commands with which Hash-m created the world. How do we reconcile this with the fact that the Pasuk mentions only nine commands (i.e. the word "va'Yomer" appears only nine times)?

9)

(a)According to Rav Asi, the three Aliyos that one reads on Monday, Thursday and Shabbos Minchah correspond to Torah, Nevi'im and Kesuvim; according to Rava - they correspond to the Kohanim, the Leviyim and the Yisraelim.

(b)According to Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, the ten (minimum) Pesukim that one reads correspond to the ten Batlanim. According to Rav Yosef - they correspond to the Ten Commandments.

(c)Rebbi Yochanan maintains that they correspond to the ten commands with which Hash-m created the world. There is no problem with the fact that the Pasuk mentions only nine (i.e. the word "va'Yomer" appears only nine times) - because "Bereishis" is considered a command as well (as the Pasuk writes in Tehilim "bi'Devar Hash-m Shamayim Na'asu").

10)

(a)Since the three Aliyos read (at least) ten Pesukim between them, someone has to read four Pesukim. Whoever reads four, says Rava, is praiseworthy. What do we learn in this regard, from ...

1. ... the three boxes with which they emptied the Terumas ha'Lishkah?

2. ... the principle 'Ma'alin ba'Kodesh v'Lo Moridin'?

(b)And what does Rebbi Yochanan learn from the Pasuk in Beha'aloscha "el Mul Pnei ha'Menorah Ya'iru Shiv'as ha'Neiros"?

(c)Which way must the Menorah have been placed, according to this opinion?

10)

(a)Since the three Aliyos read (at least) ten Pesukim between them, someone has to read four Pesukim. Whoever reads four, says Rava, is praiseworthy. In this regard, we learn from ...

1. ... the three boxes with which they emptied the Terumas ha'Lishkah - that the first one is the praiseworthy one, because they would mark the boxes with 'Aleph', 'Beis' and 'Gimel', in order to know which box was filled first.

2. ... the principle 'Ma'alin ba'Kodesh v'Lo Moridin' - that it is the last one which is the most praiseworthy.

(b)Whereas Rebbi Yochanan learns from the Pasuk in Beha'aloscha "el Mul P'nei ha'Menorah Ya'iru Shiv'as ha'Neiros" - that the middle one is the one that is praiseworthy, because the three right-hand lights and the three left-hand ones faced it, whilst it faced westwards (towards the Shechinah).

(c)This Beraisa holds that the Menorah was placed - facing north-south.

11)

(a)Which Aliyah did Rav Papa praise for reading four Pesukim in the Beis ha'Midrash of Abi Gubar?

(b)We learned in our Mishnah (as clarified by the Tana in the Beraisa) that only the first person and the last one recited a Berachah over the reading. Why did the Amora'im change it to our current Minhag (where each person who is called up recites two Berachos)?

11)

(a)Rav Papa praised - the first Aliyah for reading four Pesukim in the Beis ha'Midrash of Abi Gubar.

(b)We learned in our Mishnah (as clarified by the Tana in the Beraisa) that only the first person and the last one recited a Berachah over the reading. The Amora'im changed it to our current Minhag (where each person who is called up recites two Berachos) - because of people who come late to Shul (and who will otherwise think that no Berachah is recited before reading), and because of those who leave before the end (who will think that no Berachah is recited after reading).

12)

(a)The first Parashah of the Rosh Chodesh reading ("Tzav es Bnei Yisrael") only contains eight Pesukim, creating a problem with regard to the four Aliyos on Rosh Chodesh. What is the problem with ...

1. ... reading three Pesukim each, leaving Shelishi to read the last two Pesukim plus the two Pesukim of "uv'Yom ha'Shabbos"?

2. ... dividing it between the Kohen and the Levi - four Pesukim each?

(b)Then let Shelishi read the two Pesukim of "uv'Yom ha'Shabbos plus two Pesukim from "uv'Roshei Chodsheichem", leaving Revi'i to read the last three Pesukim?

(c)Then why not let Shelishi read three Pesukim from "uv'Roshei Chodsheichem"?

12)

(a)The first Parashah of the Rosh Chodesh reading ("Tzav es Bnei Yisrael") only contains eight Pesukim, creating a problem with regard to the four Aliyos on Rosh Chodesh. The problem with ...

1. ... reading three Pesukim each, leaving Shelishi to read the last two Pesukim plus the two Pesukim of "uv'Yom ha'Shabbos" is that - one is not permitted to stop within three Pesukim of the end of a Parashah.

2. ... dividing it between the Kohen and the Levi - four Pesukim each, is that then - we will have a problem with dividing the remaining seven Pesukim into two Aliyos (as we shall now see).

(b)We cannot let Shelishi read the two Pesukim of "uv'Yom ha'Shabbos plus two Pesukim from "uv'Roshei Chodsheichem", leaving Revi'i to read the last three Pesukim - because one is not permitted to stop within three Pesukim of the beginning of a Parashah.

(c)Nor can we let Shelishi read three Pesukim from "uv'Roshei Chodsheichem" - because that will leave us with only two Pesukim till the end of the Parashah.

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