READING IN THE TORAH AND NEVI'IM
(Mishnah): One may not read less than three verses in the Torah. One may not read a second verse until the translator translates the first verse.
One may read three verses of Navi at a time, before they are translated. If they are in different Parshiyos, they are read individually.
We may skip while reading in Nevi'im, but not in Torah.
One may skip only a small amount so that he can roll the Sefer to the new place before the translator finishes translating.
(Gemara - Rav Asi): The three verses correspond to Torah, Nevi'im, and Kesuvim.
The Mishnah connotes that three consecutive verses can be in three Parshiyos. We find this in Yeshayahu (52:3-5) "Chinam Nimkartem... Mitzrayim Yarad Ami... Ki Lukach Ami". (Ritva - these are not literally three Parshiyos, but they are three different matters.)
(Mishnah): We may skip in the Nevi'im, but not in Torah.
Contradiction (Mishnah): The Kohen Gadol skips when reading the Torah on Yom Kipur!
Resolution #1 (Abaye): He may skip within the time it takes the translator to translate, but no more.
Rejection: The Mishnah said that this is how much one may skip in Nevi'im. This implies that such skipping in Torah is forbidden!
Resolution #2 (Abaye): We may skip in Torah only within one subject.
Support (Beraisa): We can skip in Torah within one subject. In Navi we may skip to a second subject. In both cases, we may not skip longer than it takes the translator to translate.
(Beraisa): We may not skip from one Navi to another. This is permitted within Trei Asar (the 12 minor) Nevi'im, but only in forward order.
WHO LEADS THE CONGREGATION
(Mishnah): The one who usually reads Maftir is Pores Al Shema, Over Lifnei ha'Teivah (repeats Shemoneh Esre out loud), and gives Birkas Kohanim;
If he is a child, his father or Rebbi is Over Lifnei ha'Teivah in his stead.
A child may read the Torah and translate, but he may not be Pores Al Shema, be Over Lifnei ha'Teivah, or give Birkas Kohanim.
One whose clothing is torn may be Pores Al Shema or translate, but he may not read in the Torah, be Over Lifnei ha'Teivah, or give Birkas Kohanim.
A blind person may be Pores Al Shema or translate;
R. Yehudah says, if he never saw the luminaries he may not be Pores Al Shema.
(Gemara): Why is the Maftir Over Lifnei ha'Teivah?
Answer #1 (Rav Papa): This is to honor him.
Answer #2 (Rabah bar Simi): It is to avoid fights.
In a place where the Shali'ach Tzibur is not paid, honor still applies, but people would not fight to be Over Lifnei ha'Teivah.
(Mishnah): If he is a child, his father or Rebbi goes in his place.
Question: If the concern is fights, there was no need to enact this, for a child will not fight!
Counter-question: If the concern is honor, we need not enact to honor a child!
Answer: You must say that we want to honor the father or Rebbi.
Answer: Similarly, we are concerned that his father or Rebbi will fight!
Question (Ula bar Rav): May a child with torn clothing read the Torah?
Question (Abaye): Why don't you ask about an unclothed person?
Answer: Surely it is forbidden for it is a disgrace to the Tzibur.
Answer (Abaye): Likewise, a child with torn clothing is a disgrace to the Tzibur!
(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): One who never saw the luminaries may not be Pores Al Shema.
(Beraisa - Rabanan (to R. Yehudah)): Many were able to expound about the Merkavah (Hash-m's chariot), even though they never saw it!
R. Yehudah: That depends on understanding, but to bless on the luminaries one must benefit from them!
Chachamim hold like R. Yosi:
(Beraisa - R. Yosi): I never understood "V'Hayisa Memashesh b'Tzaharayim ka'Asher Yemashesh ha'Iver ba'Afelah" - it makes no difference whether a blind person is in light or in darkness!
Once, I encountered a blind person walking with a torch. He explained that the torch helps others to warn him about pits and thorns.
MUMIM THAT DISQUALIFY A KOHEN FROM BIRKAS KOHANIM
(Mishnah): A Kohen who has Mumim on his hands may not Duchan;
R. Yehudah forbids even if his hands are dyed, because people look at him.
(Gemara - Beraisa): Mumim on hands, feet and face disqualify a Kohen from Berachah.
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi, and Beraisa): One with white patches on his hands may not bless.
(Beraisa): One whose hands are bent (in or to the side) may not bless.
(Rav Asi): If one is from a place where people do not speak clearly, he may not Duchan.
Support (Beraisa): If one is from a place where people pronounce 'Aleph' like 'Ayin' or vice-versa, he may not be Over Lifnei ha'Teivah.
R. Chiya (to R. Shimon bar Rebbi): If you were a Levi, your deep voice would disqualify you.
Rebbi (to R. Shimon): Tell R. Chiya (who pronounces 'Ches' like 'Hei') that when he reads "V'Chikisi la'Shem" (it sounds like 'v'Hikisi', I hit), he blasphemes!
(Rav Huna): One whose eyes drip tears may not bless.
Question: Such a person blessed in Rav Huna's area!
Answer: People were used to him. A Beraisa explicitly permits blessing in such a case.
(R. Yochanan): Someone blind in one eye may not bless.
Question: Such a person blessed in R. Yochanan's area!
Answer: People were used to him. A Beraisa explicitly says that in such a case, he may bless.
(Beraisa): R. Yehudah agrees that if most people in the city work with dye, dyed hands do not disqualify a Kohen from blessing.
PEOPLE SUSPECTED OF HERESY
(Mishnah): One who says that he will not be Over Lifnei ha'Teivah in colored clothing or sandals may not be Over Lifnei ha'Teivah even if he changes clothing or removes his sandals;
One who wears round Tefilin is not Yotzei, and it is dangerous (if there is a decree against Tefilin at the time; alternatively, he could bang his head).
It is the way of heretics to wear Tefilin on the forehead or on the palm. It is the way of outsiders to cover it with gold and put it on the sleeve.
(Gemara - Question): Why may he not be Over Lifnei ha'Teivah?
Answer: We are concerned lest he is a heretic.
(Mishnah): One is not Yotzei with round Tefilin.
Suggestion: The Mishnah teaches like a Beraisa, which cites a tradition from Sinai that Tefilin must be square.
(Rava): One must ensure that they remain square when sewing them (the diagonal must be seven fifths as long as the side).
Rejection (Rav Papa): Perhaps the Mishnah disqualifies nut-shaped Tefilin (but even round Tefilin are Kosher).