THE KRI'AH ON ROSH CHODESH (cont.)
Answer (Rava): I did not hear this, but I heard the answer to a similar question (from which we can answer your question):
(Mishnah): On Sunday, Ma'amados read Parshiyos Bereishis and Yehi Raki'a.
(Beraisa): Bereishis is split among two Olim. One Oleh reads Yehi Raki'a.
Question: Bereishis has five verses. How do we divide it?
(Beraisa): One does not read less than three verses.
Answer #1 (Rav): The second person repeats a verse read by the first.
Answer #2 (Shmuel): Each reads two and a half verses.
Rav didn't say like Shmuel, for he holds that we do not split verses of the Torah.
Question: Does Shmuel permit to split verses of the Torah?!
R. Chanina ha'Gadol permitted splitting a verse only to help children learn, because there is no other solution!
Answer: Shmuel says that here also, there is no other solution.
Shmuel didn't say like Rav, because we are concerned lest people who enter or leave in the middle think that the other person read only two verses (they do not know that a verse was repeated. A similar solution for Rosh Chodesh is if two Olim read (altogether) the first five verses (Rav would say to repeat verse three, Shmuel would divide verse three between the two), and the latter two Olim read five verses each. Other solutions are also possible.)
Question (Beraisa): A Parshah of six verses is read by two Olim. A Parshah of five verses is read by one Oleh.
If (b'Di'eved) one read three verses of the five, the next Oleh reads the remaining two and one of the next Parshah;
Some say that he reads three of the next Parshah, since we do not start less than three verses of a Parshah.
According to the opinion that we repeat, he should repeat! [According to the opinion that we break (read a partial verse), he should break!] (The texts of Rashi and Tosfos omit what is in brackets.)
Answer: There, it is possible without this. (The Beraisa discusses Monday and Thursday. We can read from the next Parshah, for it is also appropriate for the day. Regarding Ma'amados, the next Parshah pertains to the following day.)
(R. Tanchum): The Halachah follows the second opinion in the Beraisa.
(R. Tanchum): Just as we don't begin less than three verses in a Parshah, we do not end less than three verses before a Parshah.
Question: This is obvious! The first Tana is lenient to start less than three verses in a Parshah, and the second Tana is stringent about this. The first Tana is stringent not to leave less than three verses in a Parshah, all the more so the second Tana is stringent!
Answer: We might have thought that one may leave less than three because people rarely leave during Keri'as ha'Torah, so there is no concern (that someone will think that the last person read only two).
Question: The first Tana forbids to leave less than three lest people leave in the middle. He should likewise forbid to begin less than three verses of a Parshah, lest one who enters during the Kri'ah think that the Olah read less than three!
Answer: One who enters asks what happened before.
(Rav Yosef): The Halachah is that the middle person repeats a verse.
HOW MANY READ ON A TA'ANIS?
Question: How many read on a Ta'anis?
The Mishnah said that four read on days with Musaf. Ta'aneisim do not have a Korban Musaf, but there is an additional prayer (Rashi - Aneinu; Me'iri - Ne'ilah. Rashi himself (Ta'anis 26a DH Ne'ilas) says that it was the custom to pray Ne'ilah on every Ta'anis)!
Answer #1: The Mishnah said that four read on Rosh Chodesh and Chol ha'Moed. It did not include Ta'aneisim!
Objection: The Mishnah said that three read on Monday, Thursday and Shabbos afternoon, but it did not include Ta'aneisim!
Conclusion: We cannot bring a proof from the Mishnah.
Answer #2: Rav came to Bavel on a Ta'anis. He blessed before reading in the Torah, but not after reading. Everyone fell on his face (when saying Tachanun), but Rav did not.
Suggestion: Rav is a Yisrael, so he read third. He did not bless afterwards because someone else would read after him!
Rejection: No Rav read first, like Rav Huna used to.
Question: Rav Huna read first, because even the greatest Kohanim of Eretz Yisrael were submissive to him. Rav showed honor to Shmuel, who was a Kohen, so Rav would not read first!
Answer: Shmuel was submissive to Rav. Rav showed honor to Shmuel, but only when Shmuel was around.
Support: Surely he read first, for it says that he blessed before reading!
Rejection: Perhaps this was after the enactment that everyone blesses.
Question: If so, he should have blessed afterwards as well!
Answer: In Rav's area people did not leave during the reading, so there was no need for everyone to bless after reading.
(Beraisa): The rule is, any day on which people may work, such as Ta'aneisim and Tish'ah b'Av, three people read. On days when people do not work, such as Rosh Chodesh and Chol ha'Moed, four read.
Contradiction (Rav Ashi - Mishnah): On any day that has Musaf and is not Yom Tov, four read.
(The Mishnah explicitly teaches about Rosh Chodesh and Chol ha'Mo'ed. Surely,) this rule comes to include Ta'aneisim and Tish'ah b'Av, which have Musaf, i.e. Tefilas Aneinu is added!)
Counter-question: If so, the Mishnah is unlike both of the following Tana'im!
(Beraisa): If Tish'ah b'Av falls on Monday or Thursday, three read and one is Maftir. If it falls on another day, one reads and one is Maftir;
R. Yosi says, in either case, three read and one is Maftir.
Question: Seemingly Rav Ashi is refuted, but how do we answer his question?
Answer: The rule in the Mishnah teaches about Rosh Chodesh and Chol ha'Moed.
Question: These were taught explicitly!
Answer: The Tana merely gives a way to remember the law, lest people equate Chol ha'Moed with Yom Tov. Rather, the rule is that any day that has an attribute over another day has an additional reader. Therefore:
There is Musaf on Rosh Chodesh and Chol ha'Moed, so four read;
Melachah is forbidden on Yom Tov, so five read;
Yom Kipur is punishable by Kares, so six read;
(Melachah on) Shabbos is punishable by stoning, so seven read.
FALLING ON ONE'S FACE
Rav came to Bavel on the day of a Ta'anis Tzibur. He read in the Sefer Torah. Before reading he blessed, but not after reading.
Question: All fell on their faces, but Rav did not. Why didn't he?
Answer: There was a stone floor.
(Beraisa): "V'Even Maskis Lo Sitnu b'Artzechem Lehishtachavos Aleha" - you may not bow on your stone floor, but you may bow on the floor of the Mikdash.
Question: If so, why did the others fall on their faces?
Answer #1: Only the floor in front of Rav was made of stone.
Question: Why didn't Rav move to their place, so he could fall on his face?
Answer: He did not want to impose on them to stand up for him.
Answer #2: Rav used to spread his hands and feet when he fell on his face.
(Ula): The Torah forbids only to spread the hands and feet.
Question: He should have fallen on his face without spreading his hands and feet!
Answer: He did not want to change his custom.
Answer #3: An important person is different.
(R. Elazar): An important person may not fall on his face unless he is sure that he will be answered, like Yehoshua - "Va'Yomer Hash-m El Yehoshua Kum Lech... " (Rashi in Ta'anis (14b) says that Yehoshua was answered. Here he says that Yehoshua was not answered. Perhaps Rashi means, in this matter you will not be answered (Sefas Emes). Alternatively, we learn from Hash-m's rebuke that an important person may not fall on his face unless he will surely be answered.)
(Beraisa): "Kidah" is (bowing) on one's face - "Va'Tikad Bas Sheva Apayim Artzah";
"Kri'ah" is on the knees - "mi'Kro'ah Al Birkav."
"Hishtachava'ah" is spreading hands and feet - "... Lehishtachavos Lecha Artzah".
Levi demonstrated Kidah to Rebbi, and this caused him to become limp.
Question: There was a different cause!
(R. Elazar): One should never speak harshly towards Hash-m. A great person did so and became limp, i.e. Levi!
Answer: Both caused him to become limp.
(R. Chiya bar Avin): I saw Abaye and Rava lean on their sides (since important people may not fall on their faces unless they are sure that they will be answered).