THE CALCULATION OF YAKOV'S YEARS
(Rabah): Learning Torah is greater than honoring parents;
Yakov was punished for 22 years that he was away, but not for the 14 years that he learned in the house of Ever.
The Torah records Yishmael's years to teach about Yakov's years. (When Yakov left home, Esav went to Yishmael and married Machalas, Nevayos' sister. Yishmael engaged her to Esav and soon died, so Nevayos finalized the marriage.)
Yishmael died at 137. Yitzchak was 14 years younger, for Avraham was 86 and 100 at the times of their respective births.
Yakov was born when Yitzchak was 60, so Yakov was 63 when he left home.
Yakov worked for Lavan for 14 years before Yosef was born. Yosef was 30 when he came in front of Paro.
Question: Yakov came to Paro nine years later (seven years of plenty and two of famine), and said that he was 130. Our calculation shows that he was 116!
Answer: He learned in Ever's academy for 14 years before coming to Lavan.
(Beraisa): Yosef was separated from Yakov for 22 years. This was a punishment for his 22 years away from home.
Question: Yakov was by Lavan only 20 years!
Answer: He tarried two years on the way home:
(Beraisa): Yakov left Aram Naharayim and went to Sukos, and spent 18 months there - "Va'Yiven Lo Bayis ul'Miknehu Osah Sukos" (the house was for one winter, Sukos (plural) alludes to shacks for two summers);
He spent six months in Beis Kel and offered Korbanos.
MISHNAH: HALACHOS OF KERI'AS HA'MEGILAH
One is not Yotzei Keri'as ha'Megilah through reading it in the following ways:
Out of order;
In Arameic translation or in any other language.
One may read in La'az (a foreign language) to a Lo'ez (one who speaks La'az).
The following were Yotzei:
A Lo'ez who heard Ashuris (Hebrew. Ritva - this is l'Chatchilah; it says 'one who heard' for parallel structure with the Reisha.)
One who paused or dozed in the middle of reading.
One who was writing, expounding or proofreading a Megilah is Yotzei if he intended.
One is Yotzei only if the Megilah is written in Ashuris, with ink, on parchment.
THINGS WHICH MUST BE READ IN ORDER
(Gemara) Question: What is the source that the Megilah must be read in order?
Answer #1 (Rava): "Ki'Chsavam vechi'Zmanam" - just like the times cannot be out of order (the 15th cannot precede the 14th), also (reading) what is written may not be out of order.
Objection: The verse discusses doing (the days of Purim), not Keri'as ha'Megilah!
Answer #2: Rather, We learn from "Are remembered and done" - we equate the remembrance (Kri'ah) with the doing, which cannot be out of order.
(Beraisa): Similarly Hallel, Keri'as Shema and prayer must be said in order.
Question: What is the source for Hallel?
Answer #1 (Rabah): "From the east (rising) of the sun until its setting" (just like these are never out of order, also Keri'as ha'Hallel).
Answer #2 (Rav Yosef): "This is the day" (just like a day always passes in order... )
Answer #3 (Rav Avya): "Hash-m's name should be blessed" (just like His name is in order, so must be praise of His name).
Answer #4 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): "From now and forever."
Question: What is the source regarding Keri'as Shema?
Answer (Beraisa - Rebbi): Keri'as Shema must be recited like it is written (in Hebrew);
Chachamim permit all languages.
Question: What is Rebbi's reason?
Answer: It says "v'Hayu (ha'Devarim ha'Eleh)" -- the words must be like they are (in the Torah, in Hebrew).
Question: What is Chachamim's reason?
Answer: "Shema"- in any language you hear (understand).
Question: How does Rebbi expound "Shema"?
This teaches that one must say the words audibly to his own ears.
Chachamim hold like the opinion that one is Yotzei even if it was not audible.
Question: How do Chachamim expound v'Hayu?
Answer: This teaches that one may not recite Shema out of order.
Question: What is Rebbi's source for this?
Answer: It could have said 'Devarim' - he expounds the Hei in "ha'Devarim";
Chachamim do not expound the Hei.
Inference: Rebbi holds that Torah (Parshiyos that one must recite, such as Parshas Zachor or Keri'as Bikurim) may be recited in any language;
If he held that Torah must be recited in Hebrew, he would not need "v'Hayu" to teach that Shema must be recited in Hebrew!
Rejection: He could hold that it must be recited in Hebrew; "v'Hayu" is needed, so we will not learn from "Shema" to permit any language.
Inference: Chachamim hold that Torah must be recited in Hebrew;
If they held that Torah may be recited in any language, they would not need Shema to permit Keri'as Shema in any language!
Rejection: They could hold that Torah may be recited in any language; "Shema" is needed so we will not learn from "v'Hayu" to require Hebrew.
ORDER OF THE EIGHTEEN BERACHOS OF PRAYER
Question: What is the source that Tefilah must be read in order?
Answer #1 (Beraisa): Shimon ha'Pekuli ordered the 18 Berachos in Yavneh (when the Sanhedrin sat there).
Answer #2 (R. Yochanan): 120 Chachamim, including some Nevi'im, enacted 18 Berachos in order.
(Beraisa): The order of the Berachos is as follows, and for the coming reasons:
Avos - "Havu la'Shem Benei Elim";
Gevurah - (the above verse continues) "Havu la'Shem Kavod va'Oz".
Kedushah - (the next verse is) "Havu la'Shem Kevod Shemo".
Binah - because "V'Hikdishu Es Kedosh Yakov" is followed by "V'Yad'u So'ei Ru'ach Binah".
Teshuvah - because the verse says "His heart will understand, and he will repent and be cured."
Question: If so, Refu'ah should follow repentance!
Answer: Selichah follows Teshuvah, for it says "He will repent ... Hash-m forgives greatly".
Question: Why does this override "he will repent and be cured"?
Answer: Another verse teaches that Selichah precedes healing and redemption - "He forgives ... He cures and redeems".
Question: "He will repent (and be cured)" teaches that Refu'ah should be right after Teshuvah!
Answer: "He will be cured" refers to Selichah, and not to physical healing.
(Rava): Geulah - the future redemption will be in the seventh year (of the Shmitah cycle), so Ge'ulah was made to be the seventh Berachah.
Question: It was taught that in the seventh year will be wars, and the next year Mashi'ach ben David will come!
Answer: The wars begin the redemption.
(R. Acha): Refu'ah - Refu'ah was fixed to be the eighth Berachah because circumcision, which is on the eighth day, needs Refu'ah.
(R. Alexandri): Prosperity - this Berachah thwarts those who inflate the price of grain, and Tehilim 9 discusses breaking the arm of such people.
Gathering of exiles - this follows prosperity, for it says "Mountains of Yisrael... bear fruit for my nation Yisrael, for they will come soon."
Judgment of Resha'im - this follows gathering of exiles, for it says "I will return My hand on you and remove your refuse", leading to "I will return your judges like from the beginning".
Deniers and Mezidim - after the wicked are judged, both of these will pass from the world. (This Berachah was added in Yavneh, making the total 19).
Tzadikim - when sinners are finished, Tzadikim are elevated. Converts are included, because right after "V'Hadarta Penei Zaken" it says "V'Chi Yagur Itchem Ger".
Yerushalayim - Tzadikim will be elevated in Yerushalayim.
Malchus David - this will follow the rebuilding of Yerushalayim.