[7a - 53 lines; 7b - 53 lines]
1)[line 10]קבעוני לדורותKIV'UNI L'DOROS- make a remembrance for me for all generations (by celebrating the day of the salvation and reading the Megilah)
2)[line 15]בכוליה סדר מועד כל כי האי זוגא חלופי רבי יוחנן ומעייל רבי יונתןB'CHULEI SEDER MO'ED, KOL KI HAI ZUGA, CHALUFEI REBBI YOCHANAN U'ME'AYEIL REBBI YONASAN- (In all of Seder Mo'ed, when these four are mentioned together, some say that actually Rebbi Yonasan was in the group, and not Rebbi Yochanan.) This is a parenthetical statement.
3)[line 17]"הלא כתבתי לך שלישים...""HA'LO KASAVTI LECHA SHALISHIM..." - "Have I not written for you three..." (Mishlei 22:20) (MEGILAS ESTHER BECOMES PART OF KESUVIM)
(a)Initially, the Chachamim rejected Esther's request for her Sefer to become part of Kesuvim, because "Shalishim" in the earlier verse confines mention of battles with Amalek to three times, which already exist in Parshas Beshalach, Ki Seitzei, and Sefer Shmuel. Until they expounded the second verse, where "Zos" refers to the two references in the Torah (Beshalach and Ki Seitzei), "Zikaron" to the reference in Nevi'im (Shmuel), and "ba'Sefer" provides for one more additional mention in Kesuvim, which Chazal now ascribed to Megilas Esther. (See Torah Temimah.)
(b)The Maharsha cites a Yerushalmi which records - as the Chachamim's initial source for their refusal to accept Esther's proposal - the final verse in Sefer Vayikra, "Eleh ha'Mitzvos Asher Tzivah HaSh-m Es Moshe," which implies that nothing more may be added to our liturgy. The Maharsha points out that our Gemara disagrees with the Yerushalmi. The Torah Temimah asserts that the Gemara cites the verse in Mishlei only as a Siman, to stress three times and not four, but that the real source is indeed the verse at the end of Vayikra.
(c)The Maharatz Chayus explains Chazal's dilemma differently. In his opinion, they did not wish to include Megilas Esther until they had proof that its inclusion was permitted (presumably, on account of the Limud from the Yerushalmi). Also, they did not want to add it as a Sefer on its own, due to the verse in Mishlei. Only when they found support from the verse in Vayikra which allowed its inclusion did they insert it in Kesuvim.
4)[line 39]"ויבוא המן ויאמר לו המלך מה לעשות באיש אשר המלך חפץ ביקרו ויאמר המן בלבו למי יחפץ המלך לעשות יקר יותר ממני""VA'YAVO HAMAN VA'YOMER LO HA'MELECH, 'MAH LA'ASOS BA'ISH ASHER HA'MELECH CHAFETZ BI'YKARO?' VA'YOMER HAMAN B'LIBO, 'L'MI YACHPOTZ HA'MELECH LA'ASOS YAKAR YOSER MIMENI?'" - "And Haman came, and the king said to him, 'What does one do to the man whose honor the king desires? And Haman said in his heart, 'Whom would the king want to honor more than me?'" (Esther 6:6) (THE INTELLECT OF AN EVILDOER IS DOMINATED BY HIS EMOTION)
(a)The Midrash learns from this verse that Resha'im are controlled by their hearts. The verse uses the identical phrase, "va'Yomer... b'Libo," with regard to Esav and Yeravam. This is consistent with the idea that David ha'Melech writes, "Amar Naval (the base person) b'Libo" (Tehilim 14:1).
(b)Tzadikim on the other hand, have control over their hearts. That is why the Pasuk writes "ve'Chanah Hi Medaberes al Libah". It uses a similar expression with regard to Daniel and David. Indeed, Tzadikim take after their Creator, by whom it is written "Vayomer HaSh-m el Libo" (end of Parshas Bereishis).
5)[line 39]"ושאר היהודים אשר במדינות המלך נקהלו ועמד על נפשם ונוח מאיביהם והרוג בשנאיהם חמשה ושבעים אלף ובבזה לא שלחו את ידם""U'SHE'AR HA'YEHUDIM ASHER B'MEDINOS HA'MELECH NIKHALU V'AMOD AL NAFSHAM V'NO'ACH ME'OYEVEIHEM V'HAROG B'SON'EIHEM CHAMISHAH V'SHIV'IM ELEF UVA'BIZAH LO SHALCHU ES YADAM." - "And the rest of the Jews who resided in the provinces of the king gathered to defend themselves, and they rested from their enemies, and they killed seventy-five thousand of their haters, but they did not stretch out their hands to take the booty." (Esther 9:16) (THE REASON WHY THEY TOOK NO BOOTY)
(a)Rashi at the end of Parshas Ki Seitzei observes that the Torah juxtaposes the Parshah of Amalek to that of fair weights and measures because it is the sin of false weights and measures that causes Amalek to attack Yisrael.
(b)The Kli Yakar, who equates this sin with a love of money, also comments that it is for the same reason that we read Parshas Zachor (Amalek) after that of Shekalim. He explains that the Shekalim themselves come to atone for the sin of the Egel ha'Zahav, which was the result of the Jews' lust for gold (as he explains in Parshas Ki Sisa), which is the root of the sin of false weights and measures. It is for the very same sin that Haman (who descended from Amalek) set out to destroy Yisrael by offering the king ten thousand talents of silver.
(c)The Kli Yakar explains that the reason why Mordechai ordered the Jews not to take any spoils was to atone for the sin which set Haman against them in the first place.
6)[line 44]"והימים האלה נזכרים ונעשים בכל דור ודור משפחה ומשפחה מדינה ומדינה ועיר ועיר וימי הפורים האלה לא יעברו מתוך היהודים וזכרם לא יסוף מזרעם""VEHA'YAMIM HA'ELEH NIZKARIM V'NA'ASIM B'CHOL DOR VA'DOR, MISHPACHAH U'MISHPACHAH, MEDINAH U'MEDINAH V'IR VA'IR, V'YEMEI HA'PURIM HA'ELEH LO YA'AVRU MI'TOCH HA'YEHUDIM V'ZICHRAM LO YASUF MI'ZAR'AM" - "And these days are to be remembered and made in every generation, each family, each province, and each town, and these days of Purim will not pass from the Jews, and their remembrances will not perish from their descendants." (Esther 9:28) (THE PERPETUITY OF PURIM)
(a)Rav Yosef derives from the words, "and these days of Purim will not pass from the Jews," that Megilas Esther must have been written with Ru'ach ha'Kodesh, for otherwise how could its author know what will happen in future times? Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak derives this from the end of the verse, "and their remembrances will not perish from their descendants."
(b)The Yerushalmi teaches that in the days of Mashi'ach, the books of the Nevi'im and Kesuvim will be nullified, and that Megilas Esther will be the sole exception.
(c)The Torah Temimah explains that Nevi'im and Kesuvim consist mainly of Tochachos (rebukes), which will become unnecessary in the days of Mashi'ach, when people will have no inclination to sin. This is consistent with the Gemara in Nedarim (22b) which states that had Yisrael not sinned, they would have been given only the five Books of the Torah and Sefer Yehoshua (the latter due to the great esteem of Eretz Yisrael). The reason why Megilas Esther will remain intact is due to the greatness of the miracle that it describes.
(d)The Midrash (to Mishlei) states similarly that while the Yamim Tovim will become obsolete, Purim will remain. The Rambam at the end of Hilchos Megilah explains that this is because the troubles that the Yamim Tovim commemorate will become totally forgotten, whereas the events that led to Purim will not.
(e)The Torah Temimah, however, prefers the explanation of his father (the author of the Aruch ha'Shulchan), who explains as follows. All of the events that surround the formation of the Yamim Tovim were open miracles which leave no room for doubt. In contrast, the events of Purim were all hidden miracles, which one can easily ascribe to natural means. The Midrash means not that the Yamim Tovim will become obsolete in the days of Mashi'ach, but that from the time we went into Galus we survived on hidden miracles, such as that of Purim, and not on open miracles, such as those that led to the Yamim Tovim.
(f)The Yerushalmi also cites this verse as the source for Chazal's establishment of a special Masechta for Purim (Maseches Megilah), despite the relatively few Halachos that it covers which could have inserted in one of the other Masechtos of Seider Moed (as was done with the laws of Chanukah). It is due to this Derashah, the Torah Temimah explains, that they gave Purim a Masechta of its own.
7)[line 47]כי קא מפיש טובא ואמרKI KA MAFISH TUVA V'AMAR- when he went on and on, saying many things (to bring the king's horse and garments, etc.)
8)[line 48]נדמתה לוNIDMESAH LO- she (Esther) appeared to him
9)[line 49]פריסתקי שדורPERISTAKEI SHADUR- messengers were sent
10)[line 50]טבא חדא פלפלתא חריפתאTAVA CHADA PILPALTA CHARIFTA- one grain of sharp pepper (alt., one sharp peppercorn) is better
11)[line 50]ממלי צני קריMI'MALEI TZANEI KAREI- than baskets full of gourds
12a)[last line]אטמאATMA- thigh
b)[last line]דעיגלא תלתאIGLA TILTA- (a) a third-grown calf (that has reached one-third of its full growth and is particularly tasty) (RASHI Eruvin 63a); (b) a calf that has reached one-third of its expected lifespan, at which time it has reached its full growth (RASHI Sanhedrin 65b); (c) a calf that is a cow's third offspring which is well developed and fat (RASHI here, Sanhedrin 65b, Shabbos 11a, Pesachim 68b); (d) a calf that is healthy and good to eat (TOSFOS Gitin 56a). See Insights to Shabbos 136a.
13)[last line]וגרבא דחמראGARBA D'CHAMRA- a bottle of wine
14)[line 3]מלא טסקא דקשבאMELO TASKA D'KASHVA- a sack full of dates
15)[line 4]קמחא דאבשונאKIMCHA D'AVSHUNA- flour ground from oven-dried kernels of wheat (the drying process sweetens the kernels)
16a)[line 5]אי חקלאה מלכא ליהויIY CHAKLA'AH MALKA LEHEVEI- if a villager becomes a king
b)[line 5]דיקולא מצואריה לא נחיתDIKULA MI'TZAVAREI LO NACHIS- he does not take the basket [of animal fodder that he carried as a villager] off his neck
17)[line 7]דזנגבילאZANGEVILA- ginger
18)[line 7]דפלפלתא אריכאPILPALTA ARICHA- a hot pepper
19a)[line 9]חוליאCHULYA- sweet food
b)[line 9]חורפאCHURFA- hot, spicy food
20)[line 11]שיתין צעיSHITIN TZA'EI- sixty plates
21)[line 12]שיתין פלוגיSHITIN PELUGEI- sixty portions
22)[line 13]ובעאי למיכס צעאU'VA'A'I L'MEICHAS TZA'A- and I wanted to chew the plate
23)[line 15]כפין עניא ולא ידעKAFIN ANYA V'LO YADA- a poor person is hungry but does not realize it
24)[line 15]רווחא לבסימא שכיחRAVCHA L'VESIMA SHECHI'ACH- there is always room for dessert (sweet foods)
25)[line 17]מחלפי סעודתייהו להדדיMECHALFEI SE'UDASAIHU L'HADADI- (a) they would be each other's guest from year to year (RASHI); (b) they would switch their meals with each other (RAN)
26)[line 18]לבסומיLIVSUMEI- to become inebriated
27)[line 24]מתרחישMISRACHISH- occurs
28)[line 35]אוכל נפשOCHEL NEFESH
(a)The Mishnah states that the only difference between Shabbos and Yom Tov is that the preparation of food is permitted on Yom Tov. This is learned from the verse, "Ach Asher Ye'achel L'chol Nefesh Hu Levado Ye'aseh Lachem" - "Only that which is done so that everyone will be able to eat, only that may be done by you" (Shemos 12:16). This verse excludes food preparation from the prohibitions of Yom Tov.
(b)All Melachos of Shabbos are prohibited on Yom Tov even if they are done expressly for the purpose of food preparation, except for the Melachos of Hotza'ah mi'Reshus li'Reshus (transferring objects from one domain to another) and Hav'arah (transferring flames), which are necessary for food preparation. Since these Melachos were permitted for the purpose of food preparation, they were also permitted for any purpose. (RAMBAM Hilchos Yom Tov 1:4)
29)[line 35]מכשירי אוכל נפשMACHSHIREI OCHEL NEFESH- actions performed as preparation for cooking food on Yom Tov (or for any other Melachah necessary for food preparation)
30)[line 46]"[ארבעים יכנו לא יסיף פן יסיף להכתו על אלה מכה רבה] ונקלה אחיך לעיניך""[ARBA'IM YAKENU LO YOSIF PEN YOSIF L'HAKOSO AL ELEH MAKAH RABAH] V'NIKLAH ACHICHA L'EINECHA"- "[Forty shall he strike him, he shall not add, lest he strike him an additional blow beyond these] and your brother shall be smitten before your eyes." (Devarim 25:3) - The Gemara derives from here that once a wrongdoer has been punished with Malkus, he is considered "your brother" and is no longer subject to divine punishment.