KIDUSHIN 62 - Dedicated by a Talmid of Rabbi Kornfeld in Chicago. May Hashem bestow upon him and his wife Berachah in all their endeavors, and Yiddishe Nachas and joy from their dear children.

The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

[62a - 52 lines; 62b - 49 lines]

1)[line 1]"חֶרֶב תְּאֻכְּלוּ""CHEREV TE'UKELU"- "[But if you refuse and rebel,] you shall be devoured with the sword; [for the mouth of HaSh-m has spoken it]" (Yeshayah 1:20).

2)[line 1]מילחא גללניתאMILCHA GELALENISA- (O.F. sel geme) rock-salt

3)[line 2]נהמא דשערי אקושא ובצליNAHAMA D'SA'AREI A'KUSHA U'VETZALEI- hard barley bread and onions (YA'AVETZ finds a hint to the word "Cherev" in these three items: Milcha, Sa'arei, u'Vetzalei)

4)[line 2]פת פורני חריבהPAS PURNI CHAREIVAH- a large, dry loaf of bread baked in a large oven or furnace

5a)[line 5]"... אם לא שכב איש אותך ואם לא שטית טומאה תחת אישך; הנקי...""... 'IM LO SHACHAV ISH OSACH V'IM LO SATIS TUM'AH TACHAS ISHECH; HINAKI...'"- "[And the Kohen shall charge her by an oath, and say to the woman,] 'If no man has had relations with you, and if you have not gone astray to become Temei'ah with another instead of your husband, you shall be free (i.e. you will have been proven innocent) [from this bitter water that causes the curse]'" (Bamidbar 5:19).

b)[line 5]שטיתSATIS - gone astray (SOTAH)

(a)A Sotah is a woman who is suspected of committing adultery because she was warned by her husband not to seclude herself with a certain man and she violated the warning. The process of warning her in front of witnesses is called Kinuy. The witnesses who see her seclude herself with the suspected adulterer are called Eidei Stirah. The time of seclusion must be at least for the time that it takes to roast an egg and swallow it. The woman is forbidden to her husband and the alleged adulterer until she drinks Mei Sotah (see (c), below).

(b)The husband must bring his wife to the Beis ha'Mikdash, along with a sacrifice consisting of 1/10 of an Eifah (approx. 2 quarts) of barley meal as a Minchah offering. The Kohen reads Parshas Sotah, the portion of the Torah describing the curses with which a Sotah is cursed, out loud (in any language that the Sotah understands) and makes the Sotah swear that she has been faithful to her husband.

(c)An earthenware jug is then filled with half a Log of water from the Kiyor, and dirt from the floor of the Azarah is placed on top of the water. Parshas Sotah (that contains numerous appearances of Hash-m's name) is written on parchment and then immersed in the water, which causes the ink to dissolve, erasing the Holy Names. The Sotah afterwards drinks from the water. If she was unfaithful to her husband and allowed herself to become defiled, the water would enter her body and poison her, causing her belly to swell out and her thigh to rupture. If she was faithful to her husband, she remained unharmed and would be blessed that she would become pregnant (Bamidbar 5:11-31). In times when there is no Mei Sotah such as in the present day, she must be divorced and does not receive her Kesuvah.

6)[line 6]הנקיHINAKI- you shall be free (lit. clean), i.e. you will have been proven innocent

7)[line 7]אלא לרבי מאיר חנקי מיבעי ליהELA L'REBBI MEIR, CHANKI MIBA'EI LEI- but, according to Rebbi Meir, the verse should have stated [the corresponding clause, i.e. "and if you are guilty] you shall be choked"

8)[line 8]הנקי כתיבHINAKI KESIV- (a) "Hinaki" is written without a letter "Yud," such that if we were to homiletically replace the letter "Hei" for a letter "Ches," the word "Chanki" could apply to the following phrase in the next verse (5:20), "Chanki... v'At Ki Satis..." - "You shall be choked... if you have strayed," providing the corresponding clause for the Tenai Kaful (RASHI); (b) the word "Hinaki" - "you shall be free," also has the connotation of "you[r body] shall be free [of your soul]," i.e. the corresponding clause can be inferred from the word "Hinaki," and in and of itself it is considered a Tenai Kaful (ARUCH)


(a)The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired female cow is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes. Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches (hyssops) and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).

(b)If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a Mes or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah. (Bamidbar 19:17-19)

10)[line 21]דקא ממעט בימי טהרהD'KA MAPISH B'YEMEI TAHARAH- since he is increasing the [interval between the day on which he touched Tum'ah and the] days of Taharah (ritual purity)

11)[line 24]לקדשיםKODASHIM (MIKDASH)

There are three main Machanos (designated holy areas) within the city of Yerushalayim, corresponding to their respective areas in the Midbar (desert):

1.The entire area within the walls of Yerushalayim, excluding Har ha'Bayis, is Machaneh Yisrael. This area corresponded to the area of encampment of the twelve tribes in the Midbar. Machaneh Yisrael is off-limits to Metzora'im. Metzora'im are also forbidden to enter any walled city in Eretz Yisrael.

2.The area between the Azarah and the wall encompassing Har ha'Bayis, including the Ezras Nashim courtyard (TY #10), is Machaneh Leviyah. This corresponded to the area around the Mishkan, where the Leviyim encamped. Not only Metzora'im are prohibited to enter this area, but also Zavin, Zavos, Nidos, and Yoldos.

3.The entire area within the Azarah (i.e. the Ezras Yisrael (TY #22) and the Ezras Kohanim (TY #25) that contained the Beis ha'Mikdash, the Mizbe'ach (TY #47), and various Lishkos or chambers - but not the Ezras Nashim - is Machaneh Shechinah (excluding the area under the gate to the Azarah known as Sha'ar Nikanor - TY #18). This corresponded to the area of the Mishkan [within the Kela'im, curtains]. This area is even prohibited to a person who is Tamei Mes, about whom our Gemara is referring (Bamidbar 5:1-4).

12)[line 24]לתרומהTERUMAH

(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:12; Devarim 18:4). Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi (Bamidbar 18:21). The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:26).

(b)The produce may not be eaten (and is known as Tevel) until both Terumos have been removed. The punishment for eating Tevel b'Mezid (intentionally) is Malkos and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. A non-Kohen may not eat Terumah. Even Kohanim and their families and slaves may not eat Terumah unless they are Tehorim (ritually pure). Our Gemara rejects the possibility that one sprinkling of Mei Chatas (see above, entry #9) is enough to be Metaher a person to eat Terumah.

13a)[line 26]כהנתKOHENES- the daughter of a Kohen

b)[line 26]לויהLEVIYAH- the daughter of a Levi

14)[line 29]שלא הטעתוSHE'LO HIT'ATU- since she did not mislead him

15)[line 33]לאחר שיחלוץ ליך יבמיךL'ACHAR SHE'YACHALOTZ LICH YEVAMICH - after your Yavam performs Chalitzah with you (YIBUM / CHALITZAH)

(a)If a married man dies childless and has brothers who survive him, his widow (or widows) may not remarry until one of the deceased husband's brothers performs Yibum (levirate marriage) or Chalitzah (levirate release) with the widow (or one of the widows), as it states in Devarim 25:5-10. Chazal learn from the verses that if there are a number of brothers, there is a preference for the oldest brother to perform Yibum or Chalitzah (Yevamos 24a).

(b)Yibum is a type of marriage. Unlike ordinary Kidushin, though, it can be accomplished only through Bi'ah and not through Kesef or Shtar (see Background to Kidushin 2:1:II:b). Nevertheless, the Rabanan instituted that one should precede Yibum with an act similar to Kidushei Kesef or Shtar, which is known as Ma'amar (see Background to Kidushin 43:19).

(c)If the live brother does not wish to marry the dead brother's widow, he must perform Chalitzah. To do so, he appears before a Beis Din of three and states, "I do not want to marry her," after which his sister-in-law approaches him before the elders, takes off his right sandal and spits in front of him. She then declares, "This is what shall be done to the man who will not build up a family for his brother." After this process is completed, she is free to marry whomever she wants.

(d)The connection of the live brother or brothers to the dead man's wife or wives, which prevents the wives from marrying without Yibum or Chalitzah, is called "Zikah," and the wife is called a "Zekukah." Another name for the widow who awaits Yibum or Chalitzah is a "Shomeres Yavam." It is forbidden for her to accept Kidushin from anyone while she is a Shomeres Yavam. This prohibition is known as "Yevamah la'Shuk" - "a Yevamah [who is prohibited] to [anyone from] the marketplace. If she transgresses this prohibition and accepts Kidushin from a man other than a Yavam, the Amora'im argue as to whether the Kidushin is legally binding or not (Yevamos 92b).

16)[line 38]אין תורמין מן התלוש על המחוברEIN TORMIN MIN HA'TALUSH AL HA'MECHUBAR

(a)See above, entry #12.

(b)The requirement to give Terumah Gedolah only starts once the produce is classified as Dagan (i.e. once it is processed), as the verse (Devarim 18:4) states, "Reishis Degancha... Titen Lo" - "You should give him the first [part that you separate] from your produce." This process includes removing the chaff in the field and piling up the grain there. Separating Terumah before this stage does not remove the status of Tevel from the produce and the grain that was separated does not have the sanctity of Terumah.

17)[line 41]ערוגהARUGAH- a garden patch

18)[line 49]לאחר שתמות אחותיךL'ACHAR SHE'TAMUS ACHOSICH - [one who says to a woman, "You are hereby Mekudeshes to me,] after your sister dies," and he was married (either presently or formerly) to her sister (ARAYOS: ACHOS ISHTO)

A man may not marry his wife's sister. This prohibition is limited to during his wife's (or former wife's) lifetime (Vayikra 18:18).

19)[line 51]גרGER (GERUS)

When a Nochri converts, a male must be circumcised, and a male and a female must immerse in a Mikvah, and bring an animal or two birds as a Korban Olah (today, when there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, it is not necessary for a Ger to bring a Korban). Three Jews must be present when the convert immerses, and they must inform him of the Mitzvos. If a man is Mekadesh a woman who is a Nochriyah on the condition that she converts, the Kidushin does not take effect, as the Gemara explains.


20)[line 2]דמזדקקוD'MIZDAKEKO- who will involve themselves

21)[line 29]בשחתSHACHAS- grain in an early stage of growth, at which point it can be used as animal fodder, e.g. wheat grass

22)[line 30]באגםAGAM- onion or leek sprouts in an early stage of growth, when it is just a soft sprout (and cannot even be used for animal fodder)

23)[line 31]לישנא דבוצלנאLISHNA D'BUTZALNA- the language of earliest growth, sprouting

24)[line 32]"הלכוף כאגמון ראשו""HA'LACHOF K'AGMON ROSHO"- "is it to bow down his head like a bulrush" (Yeshayah 58:5) - Bulrushes are always bent, therefore their name took on the connotation of any plant in its earliest stage of growth, when it bends easily.

25a)[line 40]דבי כיבשאBEI KIVSHA- a field irrigated naturally, by rainwater

b)[line 40]דבי שקיאBEI SHAKYA- a field irrigated artificially, by a manmade irrigation system

26)[line 48]אדם מקנה דבר שלא בעולםADAM MAKNEH DAVAR SHE'LO BA LA'OLAM

There is a Machlokes Tana'im as to whether "Adam Makneh Davar she'Lo Ba l'Olam" - "a person can acquire a thing that has not yet emerged into the world," or not (Kidushin 63a). Some exaemples of things that have not yet emerged into the world are the fruits that will grow on a tree or the goods to be produced by one's wife.