[24a - 21 lines; 24b - 58 lines]

1)[line 1]מעשר שני / חומשMA'ASER SHENI / CHOMESH

(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.

(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been removed, and it is known as Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.

(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.

(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth, and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.

(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional Chomesh, i.e. a fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.

2)[line 10]דאתא מבי נשאD'ASA MI'BEI NASHA- [fruit of Ma'aser Sheni] that came from the house of her father (i.e. that she inherited)

3)[line 11, 13]/ ממון הדיוט הוא מעשר ממון הקדש הואMA'ASER, MAMON HEKDESH HU / MAMON HEDYOT HU

(a)The Tana'im argue as to whether Ma'aser Sheni (see above, entry #1) produce is Mamon Gavo'ah (the property of HaSh-m's estate) or Mamon Hedyot (the property of its [mortal] owner (Kidushin 54b).

(b)According to Rebbi Meir, who rules that it is Mamon Gavo'ah, Ma'aser Sheni is not personal property. The owner is only given custodianship of the produce, along with the right to eat it, drink it or (in the case of oil) rub with it (Rashi here and Yevamos 73a). According to the Rabanan who rule Mamon Hedyot Hu, Ma'aser Sheni is like any other personal property, except that the Halachah requires that it be eaten in a specific manner and place (see Background to Sukah 34:15).

4)[line 14]יוצא בשן ועיןYOTZEI V'SHEN V'AYIN

See Background to Kidushin 16:8.

5)[line 15]וראשי אברים שאינן חוזריםV'ROSHEI EIVARIM SHE'EINAN CHOZRIM- limb-tips that do not regenerate if they are dismembered

6)[line 19]שני כתובים הבאים כאחד אין מלמדיןSHNEI CHESUVIM HA'BA'IM K'ECHAD EIN MELAMDIN - we do not learn from two subjects that express the same Halachah (lit. that come together)

(a)A Binyan Av (lit. "building through a father"; "father" in this sense means a Biblical source) is a rule of Biblical interpretation in which one subject is deemed a prototype in order to apply a Halachah stated by that subject to other comparable subjects.

(b)If two verses express the same Halachah regarding two different subjects, we cannot apply the Halachah elsewhere through a Binyan Av. Through the fact that the Torah found it necessary to repeat the law the second time, we may deduce that the Halachah is not meant to be applied automatically in all situations.

24b----------------------------------------24b

7)[line 1]שן דחלבSHEN D'CHALAV- a "milk" tooth, i.e. a baby tooth

8)[line 4]כלל ופרט אין בכלל אלא מה שבפרטKLAL U'FRAT EIN BI'CHLAL ELA MAH SHEBI'FRAT

(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael, who is Doresh Klalei and Pratei (see Background to Kidushin 21:15), lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Klal u'Frat Ein bi'Chlal Ela Mah shebi'Frat.

(b)When a Klal (general term) is followed by a Prat (specification), without teaching any new Halachos that pertain to that Prat, then the Halachah of the verse is limited and applies only to the Prat.

9)[line 6]כלל ופרט וכלל אי אתה דן אלא כעין הפרטKLAL U'FRAT U'CHLAL IY ATAH DAN ELA K'EIN HA'PRAT

According to the approach that learns Klalei u'Fratei (see previous entry), when a Klal is followed by a Prat, which is followed in turn by another Klal, then everything belonging to the general category that is similar to the Prat is included. Anything that is not in the general category of the limiting Prat is not included.

10)[line 12]אלמהALAMAH?- why?

11a)[line 12]תלש בזקנוTALASH B'ZIKNO- he (the master) pulled the beard [of his Eved]

b)[line 12]ודילדל בו עצםV'DILDEL BO ETZEM- and broke off a [piece of his jaw] bone (RASHI)

12)[line 14]וצמתהV'TZAMSAH- and his hand withered

13)[line 18]בכולםB'CHULAM- (lit. with all of them) for severing any of the principle limbs for which an Eved Kena'ani goes free

14)[line 21]המכריעים לפני חכמיםHA'MACHRI'IM LIFNEI CHACHAMIM- those who seek to find a compromise among the opinions of the Chachamim (see Rashi to Gitin 42b)

15)[line 25]ומדרש חכמיםU'MIDRASH CHACHAMIM- and an explication of [the verses by] the Chachamim

16)[line 29]וסמאהV'SAMA'AH- and he was blinded

17)[line 30]וחרשהV'CHERSHAH- and he deafened

18)[line 30]נגד עינוNEGED EINO- near his eye

19)[line 35]ותקעV'TAKA- and he crowed

20)[line 35]נזק שלםNEZEK SHALEM (TZEROROS)

(a)If one's animal caused damage to another person's property in an indirect manner - that is, with the force of its body but without its body coming into contact with the damaged item, such as by walking and kicking up pebbles (which caused damage through their ballistic movement caused by the force of the animal's body), the owner is obligated to pay restitution for the damage.

(b)The Tana'im argue what the extent of the owner's liability is in such a case (Bava Kama 17b). Sumchus maintains that he is obligated to pay for the full damage (Nezek Shalem). The Rabanan maintain that there is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai that the owner is obligated to pay for only half of the damage (Chatzi Nezek).

21a)[line 36]סוס שצנףSUS SHE'TZANAF- a horse that neighed

b)[line 36]וחמור שנערV'CHAMOR SHE'NI'ER- and a donkey that brayed

22)[line 38]חצי נזקCHATZI NEZEK

See above, entry #20.

23)[line 39]איהו מיבעית נפשיהIHU MIV'IS NAFSHEI- he scared (shocked) himself

24)[line 40]פטור מדיני אדם וחייב בדיני שמיםPATUR B'DINEI ADAM V'CHAYAV B'DINEI SHAMAYIM- he is exempt from laws of man, but he is liable by the laws of Heaven

25)[line 41]תקע באזנוTAKA B'OZNO- (lit. one who blows into the ear [of his friend]) this refers either to making a loud noise in someone's ear, or to hitting a person near or on his ear (see RASHI to Kidushin 11b, DH ha'Toke'a).

26a)[line 42]וכהתהV'CHAHASAH- and it was weakened

b)[line 43]ונדדהV'NADEDAH- and it became loose

27)[line 47]אם יכול להשתמש בהן כברIM YACHOL L'HISHTAMESH BAHEM KEVAR- if he was able to use them before [the injury]

28a)[line 49]נהורא בריאNEHORA BARI- healthy eyesight

b)[line 49]נהורא כחישאNEHORA KECHISHA- weak eyesight

29)[line 52]לכחול לו עינוLIKCHOL LO EINO- to color his eye (with medicinal drops)

30)[line 52]לחתור לו שינוLACHTOR LO SHINO- to scrape around his tooth

31)[line 52]שיחק באדוןSICHEK BA'ADON- he laughs at the master

32)[line 53]עד שיתכוין לשחתהAD SHE'YISKAVEN L'SHACHASAH- until he intends to destroy [the eye or tooth]

33)[line 56]וחטטהV'CHATETAH- and gouged it out (knocked it out of the socket)

34)[line 57]ותנא תונאV'TANA TUNA- and the Tana of our Mishnayos also taught

35)[line 57]תמות וזכרות בבהמה ואין תמות וזכרות בעופותTAMUS V'ZACHRUS B'VEHEMAH, V'EIN TAMUS V'ZACHRUS B'OFOS

In order for an animal to be brought as a Korban Olah, it must meet the requirements of the Torah (Vayikra 22:18-19) with regard to being unblemished (Tamus) and male (Zachrus). Similarly, a Korban Chatas must be unblemished and female. When a bird is offered for these Korbanos, though, it does not require those specifications. A bird-offering may be male or female, and it is only invalidated by a missing limb and not by a blemish.

36)[last line]יבשה גפהYAVSHAH GAPAH- its wing dried up

37)[last line]נקטעה רגלהNIKTE'AH RAGLAH- its leg was cut off

38)[last line]נחטטה עינהNECHTETAH EINAH- its eye was gouged out (of the socket)

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