KESUVOS 50 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

1)

TZEDAKAH

(a)

(R. Ila'a): In Usha it was enacted that one should not give more than a fifth of his income to Tzedakah, lest he come to need to take from people.

(b)

Support (Beraisa): One should not give more than a fifth of his income to Tzedakah, lest he come to need to take from people;

1.

Version #1: A case occurred in which a man wanted to give more. His colleague, R. Yesheivav, did not allow him.

2.

Version #2: R. Yesheivav wanted to give more. His colleague, R. Akiva, did not allow him.

(c)

(Rav Nachman): We learn from "Aser A'asrenu (I will tithe twice)".

(d)

Question: The second tithe (is a tenth of the 90% remaining after the first tithe) is less than a tenth. In all, less than a fifth is given!

(e)

Answer (Rav Ashi): "A'asrenu" - I will take the second tithe (on it, i.e. all that You give to me,) like the first tithe.

(f)

(Rav Simi bar Ashi): These three teachings of R. Ila'a are in descending order (of the number of Amora'im he quoted).

1.

A Siman (way) to remember the order of the teachings is 'children wrote and squandered'.

2)

WHEN TO TEACH CHILDREN TORAH

(a)

(R. Yitzchak): In Usha it was enacted that a man should be gentle with a son that does not want to learn until age 12. From then on, he should whip him and deprive him of food.

(b)

Question: Rav said 'Do not accept to teach a child below six. After six, stuff him (with Torah) like an ox!

(c)

Answer #1: One stuffs him with Torah, but does not whip or hunger him until 12.

(d)

Answer #2: Six is the age to afflict a son who refuses to learn Chumash. Twelve is the age for one who refuses to learn Mishnah.

1.

(Abaye, citing his (surrogate) mother): Six is the age to learn Chumash, 10 is the age to learn Mishnah, 13 is the age to fast (on Yom Kipur) the entire day, and for a girl, 12.

2.

(Abaye, citing his mother): If a boy is bitten by a scorpion on the day he turns six, he will die.

3.

Question: What is the cure?

4.

Answer: Take bile of a white Dayah bird and anoint him with it, and give him some to drink with beer.

5.

(Abaye, citing his mother): If a boy is stung by a bee on the day he turns one, he will die.

6.

Question: What is the cure?

7.

Answer: Put moss of a date tree in water; anoint him with it, and give him some to drink.

(e)

Version #1 (Rav Katina): If one starts teaching his child before six, he will run but not succeed (to cure him).

(f)

Version #2: His peers will run but not succeed (to attain his level of learning).

(g)

Resolution #1: Both are true. He will be weak and learned.

(h)

Resolution #2: If a sickly child starts learning before 6, he will never be cured. If he is healthy, he will learn greatly.

(i)

(R. Yosi bar Chanina): In Usha they enacted that if a woman sold her Nichsei Melug (property that she brought into the marriage), when she dies her husband takes the property from the buyers.

(j)

R. Yosi bar Yitzchak heard from R. Avahu that R. Yosi bar Chanina taught this. R. Yosi learned this from him 40 times, until it was utterly ingrained in him.

(k)

Question: "Happy is the one who guards justice and constantly does Tzedakah" - is it possible to constantly do Tzedakah?!

(l)

Answer #1 (Our teachers in Yavneh): This refers to one who feeds his children when they are minors.

(m)

Answer #2 (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): This refers to one who raises orphans in his home and marries them off.

(n)

(Rav Huna or Rav Chisda): "Wealth in his house; his Tzedakah stands forever" refers to one who learns and teaches Torah;

(o)

(The other of Rav Huna and Rav Chisda): This refers to one who writes Sefarim (Tanach) and lends them to others.

(p)

(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): "And you will see children to your sons; Shalom upon Yisrael." If all sons have children, there is no need for Yibum or Chalitzah (which leads to strife).

(q)

(R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): When there are children there is no dispute about who inherits. There will be Shalom among the judges of Yisrael.

3)

FEEDING THE DAUGHTERS

(a)

(Mishnah): R. Elazar ben Azaryah expounded...

50b----------------------------------------50b

(b)

(Rav Hamnuna): Just like sons inherit only land, also daughters are fed only from land.

(c)

Objection (everyone): If one died without land, don't his sons inherit (Metaltelim)?!

(d)

Suggestion (Rav Yosef): Perhaps Rav Hamnuna refers to Kesuvas Benin Dichrin (an enactment that sons inherit their mother's dowry - 52b).

(e)

Rav Hamnuna: You are a great Chacham, therefore you understood what I meant.

(f)

(R. Chiya bar Yosef): Rav was Zan from wheat of Aliyah (this will be explained).

(g)

Possibility #1: 'Zan' refers to Parnasah (dowry). 'Aliyah' refers to the estimation of how much the father would have given, like Shmuel;

1.

(Shmuel): We estimate the father's generosity to determine how much of a dowry to give to his daughters (from his estate after he died).

(h)

Possibility #2: 'Zan' literally means fed. 'Aliyah' refers to nice teachings said in the attic:

1.

(R. Yitzchak bar Yosef): In the attic, they enacted that daughters be fed (also) from Metaltelim.

(i)

A case occurred in which Shmuel ruled to be Zan orphan girls be fed from Metaltelim.

(j)

Suggestion: He literally fed them, like R. Yitzchak bar Yosef's teaching.

(k)

Rejection: No, it was Parnasah, like he holds;

1.

(Shmuel): We estimate the generosity of the father to determine how much of a dowry to give his daughters. (Therefore, we give even from Metaltelim).

(l)

A case occurred in Nehardai; Rav Chana bar Bizni fed the girls from Metaltelim.

1.

Rav Nachman: Return them, or I will confiscate your houses!

(m)

Rav Ami and Rav Asi planned to feed from Metaltelim.

1.

R. Yakov bar Idi: Will you do something that R. Yochanan and Reish Lakish did not do?!

(n)

R. Elazar planned to feed from Metaltelim.

1.

R. Shimon ben Elyakim: Surely you know that this is not the law. You merely want to be merciful. Refrain, lest Talmidim see and establish this to be the Halachah forever!

(o)

Rav Yosef ruled that daughters be fed from dates on mattresses.

(p)

Question (Abaye): A creditor would not collect from them (they are Metaltelim of heirs)!

(q)

Answer (Rav Yosef): I referred to dates ready to be put on mattresses (they are ready to be harvested).

(r)

Question: What is ready to be harvested is considered to be harvested (i.e. Metaltelim)!

(s)

Answer (Rav Yosef): I referred to dates that must remain on the tree a little longer.

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