KESUVOS 52 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

[52a - 53 lines; 52b - 43 lines]

1)[line 5]המדיר את אשתוHA'MADIR ES ISHTO- one who makes a vow prohibiting his wife from having benefit from him

2)[line 17]וקיים לה הואV'KIYEM LAH HU (HAFARAS and KIYUM NEDARIM - Annulling and Endorsing vows)

(a)A man has the right to annul certain vows of his wife and his daughter, as the Torah states in Bamidbar 30:6, 9, 13-14. He accomplishes this if on the day that he hears the vow he states "Mufar Lach" ("it is annulled"). There is an argument among the Tana'im whether the vow must be annulled before nightfall on the day the husband/father heard it, or before 24 hours pass from when he heard it (Shabbos 157a). If he does not annul the vow by the end of the day, or if he is Mekayem (upholds) the vow even before the day is over (by saying "the vow should remain valid!"), the vow takes effect and his wife or daughter must abide by her vows.

(b)A father may annul the vows of his daughter while she is a minor or Na'arah (when she grows two pubic hairs) until she becomes a Bogeres (six months after she becomes a Na'arah). If the father marries her off when she is a minor, during the period of Erusin both the father and the future husband must annul the vows in order for the annulment to take place. After the period of Nisu'in, the husband may annul the vows and not the father. Nobody may annul the vows of an unmarried mature woman; they need to be revoked, as follows.

(c)When an adult makes a Neder (or designates Chalah, Terumah or Kodshim) or Nezirus, he may have it revoked by a Beis Din of three (if they are not outstanding authorities) or a Yachid Mumcheh (an outstanding authority). The general method used is that Beis Din investigates whether the person would not have made the Neder in the first place had he been aware of a particular fact.

3)[line 46]חביביCHAVIVI- (lit. my beloved one) Rebbi Chiya, Rav's uncle. Rav's father Aibo was Rebbi Chiya's brother from the same father. However, they did not share the same mother. Aibo married Rebbi Chiya's sister from his mother, and as such, Rav was the son of Rebbi Chiya's brother and sister (Sanhedrin 5a)


4)[line 12]רפואה שיש לה קצבהREFU'AH SHE'YESH LAH KITZVAH- a cure or treatment that has a limit, since the illness is not chronic

5)[line 16]קריביה דרבי יוחנןKERIVEI D'REBBI YOCHANAN- Rebbi Yochanan's relatives

6)[line 16]איתת אבאITAS ABA- father's wife (stepmother)

7)[line 18]איזילו קוצו ליה מידי לרופאIZILU KUTZU LEI MIDI L'ROFEI- go, set a price with the doctor [that will cover the cost of all of the treatments that she will receive] (so that the treatments will be a Refu'ah she'Yesh Lah Kitzvah and will be deducted from her Kesuvah)

8)[line 19]כעורכי הדייניןORCHEI HA'DAYANIN- lawyers (who try to influence the outcome of a Halachic ruling)

9)[line 20]"[הלוא פרס לרעב לחמך ועניים מרורים תבוא בית כי תראה ערם וכסיתו] ומבשרך לא תתעלם""... U'MI'BESARCHA LO TIS'ALAM" - "[If you will 'break (give) your bread to the hungry, and the wretched poor you will take home, when you see a naked person you will clothe him] and from your own flesh and blood you will not hide." (Yeshayah 58:7) (A GENUINE FAST)

(a)The Navi here answers the people, who wanted to know why their fasts were not being accepted. His answer was now forthcoming: What is the use of fasting and bowing one's head in mock humility, wearing sack-cloth and ashes, while one indulges in squabbling?

(b)What HaSh-m wants, he explained to them, is that they rid themselves of their evil ways, stop harassing the poor, and set free their servants, and that they fulfill the requirements in the above verse. Then, as the Navi concludes, "HaSh-m will be happy to answer their prayers and heed their cries."

10)[line 21]בנין דכרין דיהוו ליכי מינאיBENIN DICHRIN D'YEHEVU LICHI MINAI- sons that you will have from me

11)[line 21]יתר על חולקהון דעם אחוהוןYESER AL CHULAKHON D'IM ACHUHON- over and above their portion of the estate that will be divided among them and their brothers

12)[line 22]בנן נוקבןBENAN NUKEVAN- daughters

13)[line 23]יהוין יתבן בביתיYEHEVYAN YASVAN B'VEISI- will dwell in my house

14)[line 23]ומיתזנן מנכסיU'MITZANAN MI'NICHSAI- and will be fed from my properties

15)[line 23]עד דתלקחון לגובריןAD D'SILAKCHON L'GUVRIN- until they will get married

16)[line 24]כל ימי מיגר אלמנותיךKOL YEMEI MEIGAR ALMENUSICH- all the days of the extent of your widowhood

17)[line 26]גלילGALIL- the land of Galil, consisting of the modern-day Galil, north of Megido

18)[line 26]יהודהYEHUDAH- the land of Yehudah, consisting of the lands south of the ancient city of Antipatris, near the modern-day Rosh ha'Ayin

19)[line 29]ויכתוב לבתו כבנוV'YICHTOV L'VITO KI'VENO- so that he will consign to his daughter [part of his assets as a dowry while he is alive] just as [he bequeaths his assets to] his son

20)[line 30]ברא לירות ברתא לא תירותBERA LIROS, BARTA LO TEIROS- a son should inherit [but] a daughter should not inherit

21)[line 30]ומתקני דתירות ברתאU'MESAKNEI D'SEIROS BERATA?!- and they enact an ordinance that causes the daughter to inherit?!; i.e. since the daughter gets as a dowry a portion of the father's estate (while he is alive) that was destined to be inherited only by his sons

22)[line 30]"[בנו בתים ושבו ונטעו גנות ואכלו את פרין.] קחו נשים והולידו בנים ובנות וקחו לבניכם נשים ואת בנותיכם תנו לאנשים [ותלדנה בנים ובנות ורבו שם ואל תמעטו]""[BENU BATIM V'SHEVU, V'NIT'U GANOS V'ICHLU ES PIRYAN.] KECHU NASHIM V'HOLIDU BANIM U'VANOS, U'KECHU LI'VENEICHEM NASHIM V'ES B'NOSEICHEM TENU LA'ANASHIM, [V'SEILADNAH BANIM U'VANOS, U'REVU SHAM V'AL TIM'ATU]" - "[Build houses and dwell in them, plant gardens and eat their fruit.] Marry women and bear sons and daughters, take wives for your sons and give your daugthters to men, [and let them give birth to sons and daughters; multiply there and do not become diminished.]" (Yirmeyahu 29:5-6) (SETTLING DOWN IN GALUS)

The Navi here instructs the people to prepare to settle down to seventy years of exile, and to ignore the predictions of the false prophets among them who were assuring them that that they would soon return to Eretz Yisrael and that they should prepare themselves for only a short stay in Galus. Rather, he advised them, they should pray for the peace of Yerushalayim, for as long as there would be peace in Yerushalayim they, too, would enjoy peace in Galus.

23)[line 33]דנלבשה וניכסהD'NILBESHAH V'NICHSAH- that he should clothe her and dress her

24)[line 34]כי היכי דקפצי עלהKI HEICHI D'KAFTZI ALAH- in order that bachelors should hurry (lit. jump) to marry her

25)[line 35]עד לעישור נכסיAD L'ISUR NICHSEI- up to one tenth of the father's possessions

26)[line 35]ואימא דאב לירות דבעל לא לירותV'EIMA D'AV LIROS, D'VA'AL LO LIROS- perhaps the sons of the wife should inherit only the dowry given by her father, but not the part of the Kesuvah given by the husband

27)[line 40]מותר דינרMOSAR DINAR- an extra Dinar [above and beyond the value of the two Kesuvos]. (Kesuvas Benin Dichrin only takes effect if there are assets in the father's estates that can be apportioned according to the Torah laws of inheritance. If not, all of the sons share all of the assets equally.)

28)[line 41]יאיעסק ליה לבריהI'ASAK LEI LI'VREI- looked for a prospective bride for his son

29)[line 42]נפק אתא איתחזי ליהNAFAK ASA ISCHAZI LEI- he (Yehudah bar Mereimar) went out to meet him (Rav Papa)

30)[last line]כי מטו לפיתחאKI MATU L'FISCHA- when they arrived at the door

31)[last line]הוה קא מפטר מיניהHAVAH KA MIFTAR MINEI- he (Yehudah bar Mereimar) acted as if he were taking leave of him (Rav Papa)

32)[last line]ניעול מר בהדאיNEI'OL MAR BAHADAI?- Please, sir, enter with me