KESUVOS 31 (14 Adar) - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas HaRav Ze'ev Wolf Rosengarten of Zurich, Switzerland, a person of "Sheleimus" in every way. Well-known for his Shimush of the Brisker Rav, Rav Wolf passed away on 14 Adar 5760. Dedicated in honor of his Yahrzeit by his nephew and Talmid, Eli Rosengarten of Zurich.

KESUVOS 31 (20 Tishrei) - Dedicated by Al, Sophia and Jared Ziegler of Har Nof, Jerusalem, in loving memory of Al's mother, Chaya bas Berel Dov Ziegler, on the day of her Yahrzeit, and towards Jared's continued growth in Torah and Yir'as Shamayim.

[31a - 32 lines; 31b - 44 lines]

1)[line 1]שיראיןSHIRA'IN- silk garments


(a)HOTZA'AH is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either 1. transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid to a Reshus ha'Rabim, 2. Hachnasah, which refers to transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid, 3. Ma'avir Arba Amos bi'Reshus ha'Rabim, or carrying an object from one place in Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos, 4. Moshit, which involves passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah in Shabbos 96a, see Background to Shabbos 4a). These are all Biblical prohibitions.

(b)AKIRAH & HANACHAH - In order to transgress the Biblical prohibition of Hotza'ah, certain conditions must be met. An Akirah (initiation of movement) and a Hanachah (placing of the object to rest) must be performed on the object by one person. If one person does the Akirah and another the Hanachah, only a rabbinical prohibition is involved (Shabbos 3a).

(c)One transgresses the Biblical prohibition of Hotza'ah only if he picked up the object which he moved (Akirah) with the intention of placing it down again in another Reshus. If he decides to place it in another Reshus only after picking it up, he has not transgressed a Biblical prohibition, and hence need not bring a Korban Chatas for atonement.

3)[line 10]גחיןGACHIN- he can bend over

4)[line 23]היה מגרר ויוצאHAYAH MEGARER V'YOTZEI- if he was dragging it out

5)[line 27]להצניעוL'HATZNI'O- to store it

6)[line 27]ונמלךV'NIMLACH- and he changed his mind

7)[line 29]המפנה חפציםHA'MEFANEH CHAFATZIM- one who removes articles

8)[line 30]מזוית לזויתMI'ZAVIS L'ZAVIS- from one corner of the house to another

9)[line 20]שלא היתה עקירה משעה ראשונהSHE'LO HAYESAH AKIRAH MI'SHA'AH RISHONAH L'CHACH- see above, entry #2

10a)[last line]לכתףL'CHATEF- to rearrange the burden on his shoulder

b)[last line]לפושLAFUSH- to rest


11)[line 4]מהלך כעומד דמיMEHALECH K'OMED DAMI- a person who is walking is Halachically considered as if he stops and stands after each step

12a)[line 8]ברברביB'RAVREVEI- with large ones

b)[line 9]בזוטריB'ZUTREI- with small ones

c)[line 10]במיצעיB'MITZ'EI- of medium size

13)[line 15]לצידי רשות הרביםL'TZIDEI RESHUS HA'RABIM- to an area at the side of Reshus ha'Rabim (which is set off with pegs and large stones stuck into the ground as a barrier so that people and wagons will not rub against the walls at the side of Reshus ha'Rabim) which is used by the public only when Reshus ha'Rabim is congested