[8a - 46 lines; 8b - 55 lines]
1)[line 1]יוצרYOTZER- Who created
2)[line 2]בצלמוB'TZALMO- in His image
3)[line 2]בצלם דמות תבניתוB'TZELEM DEMUS TAVNISO- in the image of the form of [man's] structure (AVUDRAHAM)
4)[line 3]התקין לו ממנו בנין עדי עדHISKIN LO MIMENU BINYAN ADEI AD- he fashioned for him - of himself - an everlasting construction. This refers to Chavah, who was "built" from Adam's side (Bereishis 2:22). See also Insights.
5)[line 4]שוש תשיש ותגל העקרה...SOS TASIS V'SAGEL HA'AKARAH...- bring great joy and delight to the barren one (the city of Yerushalayim), with the gathering of her children happily into her midst.... This Berachah is recited at this point in order to predicate the joyous occasion with the remembrance of the destruction of Yerushalayim (as per Tehilim 137:6).
6)[line 6]שמח תשמח ריעים האהובים...SAMEI'ACH TESAMACH REI'IM HA'AHUVIM- bring great happiness to the beloved companions (the groom and bride), as You once gladdened Your creation (Adam) in the Garden of Eden
7a)[line 10]גילהGILAH- delight
b)[line 10]רינהRINAH- joyful song
c)[line 10]דיצהDITZAH- gladness
d)[line 10]חדוהCHEDVAH- delight
e)[line 11]אחוהACHVAH- brotherhood
f)[line 11]ריעותREI'US- friendship
8)[line 12]חוצות ירושליםCHUTZOS YERUSHALAYIM- the public areas of Yerushalayim
9)[line 14]מצהלותMITZ'HALOS- exultations
10)[line 14]משתה נגינתםMISHTEI NEGINASAM- their parties of song
11)[line 16]איקלעIKLA- came
12)[line 16]ביBEI- the house of
13)[line 16]הלוליהHILULEI- the wedding
14)[line 16]בריך חמשBRICH CHAMESH- he recited five [of the aforementioned six] blessings (skipping "Yotzer ha'Adam")
15a)[line 17]חדא יצירה הואיCHADA YETZIRAH HAVA'I- there was [only] one act of creation [involved in the creation of Adam and Chava, as Adam was first created with a female aspect who faced out from his back who was subsequently separated from him]
b)[line 17]שתי יצירות הואיSHTEI YETZIROS HAVA'EI- there were two acts of creation [involved in the creation of Adam and Chava, as Chava was created subsequently from a minor appendage (a "Zanav") of Adam] (Eruvin 18a)
16)[line 20]בתרBASAR- following
17)[line 22]רמיRAMI- posed a contradiction
18)[line 28]אפושי שמחה בעלמאAFUSHEI SIMCHAH B'ALMA- a mere abundance of happiness [insufficient to require all of the blessings included in Birkas Chasanim]
19)[line 29]מברך שהשמחה במעונוMEVARECH SHEHA'SIMCHAH VI'ME'ONO- he [included the] blessing "in Whose dwelling is happiness" [in the Zimun (introduction to Birkas ha'Mazon)]
20)[line 29]משבעה ועד שלשיםMI'SHIV'AH V'AD SHELOSHIM- from seven [days after the wedding] until thirty [days after the wedding]
21)[line 30]מחמת הלולאMACHMAS HILULA- [this meal is] in honor of the wedding
22)[line 35]תריסר ירחי שתאTEREISAR YARCHEI SHASA- a twelve-month year
23)[line 36]מעיקראME'IKARA- from [after the betrothal but] before [the wedding]
24)[line 36]מכי רמו שערי באסינתאMI'CHI RAMU SA'AREI B'ASINTA- from when barley kernels are placed in a (a) vat [of water so as to begin the fermentation process for the beer to be served at the wedding (RASHI, first explanation)]; (b) flowerpot [in which they will sprout and be shown at the wedding as if to say, "Just as these seeds have sprouted, so should the young couple be fruitful and multiply" (RASHI, second explanation)]; (c) mortar [in which they will be ground into meal and then used as an ingredient in a dish served at the wedding (ARUCH)]
25)[line 38]איעסקI'ASAK- was involved [with finding a bride]
26)[line 38]הוה טריח ליהHAVAH TARI'ACH LEI- he had [already] put forth effort [into preparing the wedding feast]
27)[line 40]קים לי בגוייהו דלא הדרי בהוKIM LI B'GAVAIHU D'LO HADRI BEHU- I am sure that they will not retract [their consent to the marriage]
28)[line 40]לא אסתייע מילתאLO ISTAYE'A MILSA- the matter was not helped [from Above]
29)[line 41]בר מערבאBAR MA'ARAVA- from Eretz Yisrael
30)[line 41]שית אריכתאSHIS ARICHTA- lit. six long ones; six Berachos, all of which both began and ended with a Berachah
31)[line 42]בי מהולאBEI MEHULA- the festive meal following a Bris Milah
32)[line 43]טרידיTERIDEI- they are preoccupied [with worry]
33)[line 43]אית ליה צערא לינוקאIS LEI TZARA LI'YENUKA- the baby is in pain
34)[line 44]אבליםAVELIM (AVEILUS - The Mourning Period)
(a)One who loses his father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter, or spouse is obligated to bury his dead relative and then observe specific laws of mourning. Until the burial, one has the status of an Onen (see Background to Yoma 13:23). After the burial, his status changes to that of an Avel.
(b)For the following twelve months, an Avel may not buy new clothing nor attend weddings or other celebrations. For the first thirty days, in addition to these restrictions, he may not receive a haircut nor iron his clothing. Additionally, for the first seven days, he must refrain from bathing, washing his clothing, and leaving his house. He must also sit on the ground.
(c)During the first seven days of Aveilus, those who wish to comfort the Avel come to his house. They may not speak until they are first addressed by the Avel, and they then offer words of comfort before leaving.
35)[line 44]מתניתא קא רמית עליה דרב?MASNISA KA RAMIS ALEI D'RAV?- are you posing a Mishnah as a contradiction to Rav?
36)[line 45]רב תנא הוא ופליגRAV TANA HU U'PALIG - Rav May Argue with Tana'im
(a)Mishnayos, Beraisos, and Toseftos were authored by Tana'im. The commentary on the Mishnayos, called the Gemara, was authored by Amora'im. Together, these texts constitute the main body of the Oral Torah. Since the Tana'im (as a group) lived many years before the Amora'im, they were the greater Torah authorities. Therefore, an Amora cannot disagree with a Tana unless his opinion is shared by a different Tana. As such, the Gemara will often attempt to disprove the statement of an Amora from a Mishnah, Beraisa, or Tosefta. If no other Tana is known to share the opinion of the Amora, the Gemara will either explain the statement of either the Tana or Amora in such a way that they are not contradictory, or it will conclude that the Amora is disproved.
(b)Rav was a first-generation Amora. Although he was a contemporary of Rebbi (Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi), who organized the Mishnayos and is quoted extensively within, the opinion of Rav is never found in a Mishnah or Beraisa. The Gemara therefore poses questions on his opinions from these texts. If possible, the Gemara will find a Tana who agrees with Rav or will otherwise explain the contradiction away. However, the Gemara will never conclude that Rav is incorrect. This is because "Rav Tana Hu u'Palig" - "Rav has the status of a Tana and may disagree [with them]." In certain instances, Rav clearly disagrees with Tana'im (see, for example, Bava Basra 175b).
(c)TOSFOS DH Rav maintains that Rebbi Yochanan, at least, did not agree with this classification of Rav, for otherwise he would never have disagreed with him. (The Kovetz Shi'urim to Bava Basra 170b argues that Rav Sherira Ga'on disagrees with Tosfos and understands that Rebbi Yochanan agreed that Rav had the ability to disagree with Tana'im.)
(d)Six times throughout Shas Rav is described as a Tana. The Gemara in Bava Metzia (5a) uses this argument in defense of Rebbi Chiya, and the Gemara in Shabbos (64b) applies it to Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi (whose father was the Tana, Rebbi Yosi). As was true regarding Rav, Rebbi Chiya and Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi were contemporaries of Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi.
37)[line 1]בברכת המזוןB'VIRKAS HA'MAZON- regarding [counting him toward the three men necessary in order to recite] Birkas ha'Mazon [with a Zimun (introductory blessing)]
After a burial, the close relatives of the deceased are comforted before they leave the cemetery. Those present line up in rows of at least ten people per row (Shurah), and offer words of comfort to the mourners as they pass by to their left (Rambam Hilchos Avel 13:1-2).
39)[line 4]ברכת אבליםBIRKAS AVEILIM (BIRKAS RECHAVAH)
After a burial, the close relatives of the deceased are greeted on their way back home in the street (Rechavah). A meal is prepared for them, and the mourners eat it before entering the house where they are to sit in mourning. During this meal, one of the comforters present recites a series of blessings known as "Birkas Rechavah." One of these blessings praises HaSh-m for the comfort that He affords mourners (Kesuvos 8b).
40)[line 6]רחבהRECHAVAH- main street; the town square
41)[line 12]מקרי בניה דריש לקיש הוהMAKREI BANEI D'REISH LAKISH HAVAH- was the teacher of verses to the sons of Reish Lakish
42)[line 13]מתניMASNEI- the teacher of Mishnayos
43)[line 14]שכיב ליה ינוקאSHACHIV LEI YENUKAH- [Rav Chiya bar Aba's] young son passed away
44)[line 14]יומא קמא לא אזל לגביהYOMA KAMA LO AZAL L'GABEI- the first day [of mourning] he did not go to him
45)[line 15]דבריהDABREI- he led him on a walk
46)[line 16]מתורגמניהMETURGEMANEI- his Meturgeman [whose job was to (a) repeat the lesson of the Rav in a louder voice (RASHI to Berachos 56a); (b) translate the lesson of the Rav from Hebrew into the vernacular (RASHI to Yoma 20b)]
47)[line 16]קום אימא מלתא כל קביל ינוקאKUM EIMA MILSA KOL KEVEIL YENUKA- stand and say something that will (a) [comfort Rav Chiya bar Aba] on the [loss of his] child (RASHI); (b) [explain why] the child [died] (MAHARSHA)
48)[line 17]"וַיַּרְא ה' וַיִּנְאָץ מִכַּעַס בָּנָיו וּבְנֹתָיו.""VA'YAR HASH-M VA'YIN'ATZ, MI'KA'AS BANAV U'VENOSAV"- "And HaSh-m saw and became angry, provoked by His sons and His daughters." (Devarim 32:19) - The Meturgeman of Reish Lakish interpreted this verse homiletically to mean, "And HaSh-m saw the loathsome acts of His nation and became angry, and He took out His anger upon their young sons and daughters."
49)[line 21]בחורBACHUR- a young unmarried man
50)[line 21]"עַל-כֵּן עַל-בַּחוּרָיו לֹא-יִשְׂמַח ה', וְאֶת-יְתֹמָיו וְאֶת-אַלְמְנוֹתָיו לֹא יְרַחֵם; כִּי כֻלּוֹ חָנֵף וּמֵרַע, וְכָל-פֶּה דֹּבֵר נְבָלָה; בְּכָל-זֹאת לֹא-שָׁב אַפּוֹ, וְעוֹד יָדוֹ נְטוּיָה.""AL KEN AL BACHURAV LO YISMACH HASH-M..."- "Therefore HaSh-m will not be happy with His young men, nor will He take pity on His orphans and widows; for all are flatterers and evildoers, and every mouth speaks vulgarly. Yet His anger still does not abate, and His hand is still outstretched." (Yeshayah 9:16) - In this verse the Meturgeman of Reish Lakish found a reference to that which HaSh-m sometimes takes the life of an unmarried young man for his father's sin.
51)[line 28]נחתםNECHTAM- sealed
52)[line 28]שבעים שנהSHIV'IM SHANAH- Seventy years is the average lifespan of a person (Tehilim 90:10). The letter "Ayin" - which has the Gematriya (numerical value) of seventy - in the word "Od" refers to the Derashah taught in our Gemara.
53)[line 29]אתא לנחומי; צעורי קמצער ליה!ASA L'NECHUMEI; TZI'UREI KA'METZA'ER LEI!- he came to comfort him; [instead] he pained him [by implying that his son died due to his sins]!
54)[line 30]חשיב את לאתפוסי אדראCHASHIV AT L'ATFUSEI A'DARA- You are prestigious enough to be punished for [the sins of] the generation. The Gemara (Shabbos 33b) teaches that a punishment meted out to the outstandingly righteous of the generation atones for the sins of the entire nation.
55)[line 32]אדירADIR- mighty
56)[line 32]נוראותNORA'OS- awe-inspiring actions
57)[line 32]עד אין חקרAD EIN CHEKER- that are unfathomable
58a)[line 34]המיוגעיםHA'MEYUGA'IM- who are weary
b)[line 34]המדוכאיןHA'MEDUKA'IN- who are depressed
59)[line 35]לחקורLA'CHKOR- to delve into
60)[line 35]נתיבNESIV- a path
61)[line 36]רבים שתו רבים ישתוRABIM SHASU, RABIM YISHTU- (a) many have drunk [the cup of misfortune] (i.e., they have died); many will drink [the cup of misfortune] (MAHARSHA, 1st explanation); (b) many have drunk [cups of wine to numb their sorrow over losing a relative] (see below); many will drink [cups of wine to numb their sorrow over losing a relative] (MAHARSHA, 2nd explanation)
62)[line 37]כמשתה ראשוניםK'MISHTEH RISHONIM- as the meal [served to mourners] of the first (i.e., current) [mourners]
63)[line 40]"לוּלֵי ה' צְבָאוֹת הוֹתִיר לָנוּ שָׂרִיד כִּמְעָט,] כִּסְדֹם הָיִינוּ, לַעֲמֹרָה דָּמִינוּ.""... KI'SEDOM HAYINU, LA'AMORAH DAMINU."- "[If not for that which HaSh-m, Master of Legions, left us a tiny remnant,] we were like Sedom, comparable to Amorah." (Yeshayah 1:9) - Sedom and Amorah were destroyed utterly (Bereishis 19).
64)[line 41]"שִׁמְעוּ דְבַר-ה', קְצִינֵי סְדֹם; [הַאֲזִינוּ תּוֹרַת אֱלֹקֵינוּ, עַם עֲמֹרָה.]""SHIM'U DEVAR HASH-M, KETZINEI SEDOM; [HA'AZINU TORAS ELOKEINU, AM AMORA.]"- "Hear the word of HaSh-m, leaders of Sedom; [listen to the law of our G-d, nation of Amorah.]" (Yeshayah. 1:10)
65)[line 42]גומלי חסדיםGOMLEI CHASADIM- those who bestow acts of kindness upon others
66)[line 43]("כִּי יְדַעְתִּיו לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר יְצַוֶּה אֶת-בָּנָיו וְאֶת-בֵּיתוֹ אַחֲרָיו וְשָׁמְרוּ דֶּרֶךְ ה', לַעֲשׂוֹת צְדָקָה וּמִשְׁפָּט...)"("KI YEDATIV LEMA'AN ASHER YETZAVEH...")- ("For I hold him dear due to that which he commands his children and his household to follow in his path and to safeguard the way of HaSh-m, to perform acts of charity and justice...") (Bereishis 18:19) - Most manuscripts include this verse, although RASHI apparently may not have had it in his text; see also MAHARSHAL and MAHARSHA.
67)[line 43]בעל הגמולBA'AL HA'GEMUL- the Master of reward
68a)[line 45]פדהPADEH- redeem
a)[line 45]הצלHATZEL- rescue
c)[line 45]מלטMALET- deliver
d)[line 45]הושעHOSHA- save
69a)[line 46]דברDEVER- plague
b)[line 46]ביזהBIZAH- looting
c)[line 46]שדפוןSHIDAFON- (a) blight (a disease that affects crops); (b) crops damaged by searing eastern winds
d)[line 46]ירקוןYERAKON- (a) disease [that affects people] (RASHI to Ta'anis 19a); (b) mildew [affecting the crops] (RASHI to Devarim 28:22)
70)[line 46]פורעניות המתרגשות ובאות לעולםPUR'ANUYOS HA'MISRAGSHOS U'VA'OS LA'OLAM- calamities that gather and come upon the world
71)[line 47]טרם נקרא, ואתה תענהTEREM NIKRA, V'ATAH TA'ANEH- before we call, may you answer (cf. Yeshayah 65:24)
72)[line 47]עוצר המגפהOTZER HA'MAGEFAH- He who stops the plague
73)[line 48]כוסותKOSOS- cups [of wine, which serve to numb the sorrow of a mourner (see Mishlei 31:6)]
74)[line 49]לפתוח את בני מעיוLI'FTO'ACH ES BNEI ME'AV- lit. to open his innards; to [aid in digestion by properly] preparing his intestines
75)[line 49]לשרותLI'SHROS- to soak [and aid in the digestion of]
76)[line 50]הזן... ברכת הארץ... בונה ירושלים... הטוב והמטיבHA'ZAN... BIRKAS HA'ARETZ... BONEI YERUSHALAYIM... HA'TOV VEHA'METIV- These refer to the four Berachos of Birkas ha'Mazon, after each of which the mourner would drink a cup of wine. The GRA deletes this line, suggesting that perhaps the mourner would drink a cup after each of the four Berachos of the Birchas Rechavah.
77)[line 51]חזני העירCHAZANEI HA'IR- those in charge of burying the dead of the city (the Chevrah Kadishah)
78)[line 51]פרנסי העירPARNESEI HA'IR- the patrons of the city [who funded funerals for those whose relatives could not afford to pay the expenses]
79)[line 52]בית המקדשBEIS HA'MIKDASH- [that which we mourn the destruction of] the Beis ha'Mikdash [as one mourns a close relative]
80)[line 52]משתכריןMISHTAKRIN- to get drunk
81)[line 52]ליושנהL'YOSHNAH- to its original form [of ten cups] (see Insights)
82)[line 53]הוצאת המתHOTZA'AS HA'MES- the monetary outlay [required to bury] a corpse [in silken or otherwise expensive shrouds, as was then the custom]
83)[line 54]בורחיןBORCHIN- they would flee
84)[line 54]קלותKALUS- that which was not befitting his stature
85)[line 54]כלי פשתןKLEI PISHTAN- linen shrouds
86)[last line]האידנאHA'IDNA- nowadays
87)[last line]נהוג עלמאNAHUG ALMA- the general custom is
88)[last line]צרדא בר זוזאTZERADA BAR ZUZA- [shrouds made from] hemp worth [only] one Zuz