[8a - 46 lines; 8b - 55 lines]

1)[line 1]YOTZER- Who created

2)[line 2]B'TZALMO- in His image

3)[line 2] B'TZELEM DEMUS TAVNISO- in the image of the form of [man's] structure (AVUDRAHAM)

4)[line 3] HISKIN LO MIMENU BINYAN ADEI AD- he fashioned for him - of himself - an everlasting construction. This refers to Chavah, who was "built" from Adam's side (Bereishis 2:22). See also Insights.

5)[line 4] ...SOS TASIS V'SAGEL HA'AKARAH...- bring great joy and delight to the barren one (the city of Yerushalayim), with the gathering of her children happily into her midst.... This Berachah is recited at this point in order to predicate the joyous occasion with the remembrance of the destruction of Yerushalayim (as per Tehilim 137:6).

6)[line 6] ...SAMEI'ACH TESAMACH REI'IM HA'AHUVIM- bring great happiness to the beloved companions (the groom and bride), as You once gladdened Your creation (Adam) in the Garden of Eden

7a)[line 10]GILAH- delight

b)[line 10]RINAH- joyful song

c)[line 10]DITZAH- gladness

d)[line 10]CHEDVAH- delight

e)[line 11]ACHVAH- brotherhood

f)[line 11]REI'US- friendship

8)[line 12] CHUTZOS YERUSHALAYIM- the public areas of Yerushalayim

9)[line 14]MITZ'HALOS- exultations

10)[line 14] MISHTEI NEGINASAM- their parties of song

11)[line 16]IKLA- came

12)[line 16]BEI- the house of

13)[line 16]HILULEI- the wedding

14)[line 16] BRICH CHAMESH- he recited five [of the aforementioned six] blessings (skipping "Yotzer ha'Adam")

15a)[line 17] CHADA YETZIRAH HAVA'I- there was [only] one act of creation [involved in the creation of Adam and Chava, as Adam was first created with a female aspect who faced out from his back who was subsequently separated from him]

b)[line 17] SHTEI YETZIROS HAVA'EI- there were two acts of creation [involved in the creation of Adam and Chava, as Chava was created subsequently from a minor appendage (a "Zanav") of Adam] (Eruvin 18a)

16)[line 20]BASAR- following

17)[line 22]RAMI- posed a contradiction

18)[line 28] AFUSHEI SIMCHAH B'ALMA- a mere abundance of happiness [insufficient to require all of the blessings included in Birkas Chasanim]

19)[line 29] MEVARECH SHEHA'SIMCHAH VI'ME'ONO- he [included the] blessing "in Whose dwelling is happiness" [in the Zimun (introduction to Birkas ha'Mazon)]

20)[line 29] MI'SHIV'AH V'AD SHELOSHIM- from seven [days after the wedding] until thirty [days after the wedding]

21)[line 30] MACHMAS HILULA- [this meal is] in honor of the wedding

22)[line 35] TEREISAR YARCHEI SHASA- a twelve-month year

23)[line 36]ME'IKARA- from [after the betrothal but] before [the wedding]

24)[line 36] MI'CHI RAMU SA'AREI B'ASINTA- from when barley kernels are placed in a (a) vat [of water so as to begin the fermentation process for the beer to be served at the wedding (RASHI, first explanation)]; (b) flowerpot [in which they will sprout and be shown at the wedding as if to say, "Just as these seeds have sprouted, so should the young couple be fruitful and multiply" (RASHI, second explanation)]; (c) mortar [in which they will be ground into meal and then used as an ingredient in a dish served at the wedding (ARUCH)]

25)[line 38]I'ASAK- was involved [with finding a bride]

26)[line 38] HAVAH TARI'ACH LEI- he had [already] put forth effort [into preparing the wedding feast]

27)[line 40] KIM LI B'GAVAIHU D'LO HADRI BEHU- I am sure that they will not retract [their consent to the marriage]

28)[line 40] LO ISTAYE'A MILSA- the matter was not helped [from Above]

29)[line 41] BAR MA'ARAVA- from Eretz Yisrael

30)[line 41] SHIS ARICHTA- lit. six long ones; six Berachos, all of which both began and ended with a Berachah

31)[line 42] BEI MEHULA- the festive meal following a Bris Milah

32)[line 43]TERIDEI- they are preoccupied [with worry]

33)[line 43] IS LEI TZARA LI'YENUKA- the baby is in pain

34)[line 44]AVELIM (AVEILUS - The Mourning Period)

(a)One who loses his father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter, or spouse is obligated to bury his dead relative and then observe specific laws of mourning. Until the burial, one has the status of an Onen (see Background to Yoma 13:23). After the burial, his status changes to that of an Avel.

(b)For the following twelve months, an Avel may not buy new clothing nor attend weddings or other celebrations. For the first thirty days, in addition to these restrictions, he may not receive a haircut nor iron his clothing. Additionally, for the first seven days, he must refrain from bathing, washing his clothing, and leaving his house. He must also sit on the ground.

(c)During the first seven days of Aveilus, those who wish to comfort the Avel come to his house. They may not speak until they are first addressed by the Avel, and they then offer words of comfort before leaving.

35)[line 44] ?MASNISA KA RAMIS ALEI D'RAV?- are you posing a Mishnah as a contradiction to Rav?

36)[line 45] RAV TANA HU U'PALIG - Rav May Argue with Tana'im

(a)Mishnayos, Beraisos, and Toseftos were authored by Tana'im. The commentary on the Mishnayos, called the Gemara, was authored by Amora'im. Together, these texts constitute the main body of the Oral Torah. Since the Tana'im (as a group) lived many years before the Amora'im, they were the greater Torah authorities. Therefore, an Amora cannot disagree with a Tana unless his opinion is shared by a different Tana. As such, the Gemara will often attempt to disprove the statement of an Amora from a Mishnah, Beraisa, or Tosefta. If no other Tana is known to share the opinion of the Amora, the Gemara will either explain the statement of either the Tana or Amora in such a way that they are not contradictory, or it will conclude that the Amora is disproved.

(b)Rav was a first-generation Amora. Although he was a contemporary of Rebbi (Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi), who organized the Mishnayos and is quoted extensively within, the opinion of Rav is never found in a Mishnah or Beraisa. The Gemara therefore poses questions on his opinions from these texts. If possible, the Gemara will find a Tana who agrees with Rav or will otherwise explain the contradiction away. However, the Gemara will never conclude that Rav is incorrect. This is because "Rav Tana Hu u'Palig" - "Rav has the status of a Tana and may disagree [with them]." In certain instances, Rav clearly disagrees with Tana'im (see, for example, Bava Basra 175b).

(c)TOSFOS DH Rav maintains that Rebbi Yochanan, at least, did not agree with this classification of Rav, for otherwise he would never have disagreed with him. (The Kovetz Shi'urim to Bava Basra 170b argues that Rav Sherira Ga'on disagrees with Tosfos and understands that Rebbi Yochanan agreed that Rav had the ability to disagree with Tana'im.)

(d)Six times throughout Shas Rav is described as a Tana. The Gemara in Bava Metzia (5a) uses this argument in defense of Rebbi Chiya, and the Gemara in Shabbos (64b) applies it to Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi (whose father was the Tana, Rebbi Yosi). As was true regarding Rav, Rebbi Chiya and Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi were contemporaries of Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi.


37)[line 1] B'VIRKAS HA'MAZON- regarding [counting him toward the three men necessary in order to recite] Birkas ha'Mazon [with a Zimun (introductory blessing)]

38)[line 2]SHURAH

After a burial, the close relatives of the deceased are comforted before they leave the cemetery. Those present line up in rows of at least ten people per row (Shurah), and offer words of comfort to the mourners as they pass by to their left (Rambam Hilchos Avel 13:1-2).


After a burial, the close relatives of the deceased are greeted on their way back home in the street (Rechavah). A meal is prepared for them, and the mourners eat it before entering the house where they are to sit in mourning. During this meal, one of the comforters present recites a series of blessings known as "Birkas Rechavah." One of these blessings praises HaSh-m for the comfort that He affords mourners (Kesuvos 8b).

40)[line 6]RECHAVAH- main street; the town square

41)[line 12] MAKREI BANEI D'REISH LAKISH HAVAH- was the teacher of verses to the sons of Reish Lakish

42)[line 13]MASNEI- the teacher of Mishnayos

43)[line 14] SHACHIV LEI YENUKAH- [Rav Chiya bar Aba's] young son passed away

44)[line 14] YOMA KAMA LO AZAL L'GABEI- the first day [of mourning] he did not go to him

45)[line 15]DABREI- he led him on a walk

46)[line 16]METURGEMANEI- his Meturgeman [whose job was to (a) repeat the lesson of the Rav in a louder voice (RASHI to Berachos 56a); (b) translate the lesson of the Rav from Hebrew into the vernacular (RASHI to Yoma 20b)]

47)[line 16] KUM EIMA MILSA KOL KEVEIL YENUKA- stand and say something that will (a) [comfort Rav Chiya bar Aba] on the [loss of his] child (RASHI); (b) [explain why] the child [died] (MAHARSHA)

48)[line 17]" ' .""VA'YAR HASH-M VA'YIN'ATZ, MI'KA'AS BANAV U'VENOSAV"- "And HaSh-m saw and became angry, provoked by His sons and His daughters." (Devarim 32:19) - The Meturgeman of Reish Lakish interpreted this verse homiletically to mean, "And HaSh-m saw the loathsome acts of His nation and became angry, and He took out His anger upon their young sons and daughters."

49)[line 21]BACHUR- a young unmarried man

50)[line 21]"- - - ', - - ; , - ; - - , .""AL KEN AL BACHURAV LO YISMACH HASH-M..."- "Therefore HaSh-m will not be happy with His young men, nor will He take pity on His orphans and widows; for all are flatterers and evildoers, and every mouth speaks vulgarly. Yet His anger still does not abate, and His hand is still outstretched." (Yeshayah 9:16) - In this verse the Meturgeman of Reish Lakish found a reference to that which HaSh-m sometimes takes the life of an unmarried young man for his father's sin.

51)[line 28]NECHTAM- sealed

52)[line 28] SHIV'IM SHANAH- Seventy years is the average lifespan of a person (Tehilim 90:10). The letter "Ayin" - which has the Gematriya (numerical value) of seventy - in the word "Od" refers to the Derashah taught in our Gemara.

53)[line 29] ; !ASA L'NECHUMEI; TZI'UREI KA'METZA'ER LEI!- he came to comfort him; [instead] he pained him [by implying that his son died due to his sins]!

54)[line 30] CHASHIV AT L'ATFUSEI A'DARA- You are prestigious enough to be punished for [the sins of] the generation. The Gemara (Shabbos 33b) teaches that a punishment meted out to the outstandingly righteous of the generation atones for the sins of the entire nation.

55)[line 32]ADIR- mighty

56)[line 32]NORA'OS- awe-inspiring actions

57)[line 32] AD EIN CHEKER- that are unfathomable

58a)[line 34]HA'MEYUGA'IM- who are weary

b)[line 34]HA'MEDUKA'IN- who are depressed

59)[line 35]LA'CHKOR- to delve into

60)[line 35]NESIV- a path

61)[line 36] RABIM SHASU, RABIM YISHTU- (a) many have drunk [the cup of misfortune] (i.e., they have died); many will drink [the cup of misfortune] (MAHARSHA, 1st explanation); (b) many have drunk [cups of wine to numb their sorrow over losing a relative] (see below); many will drink [cups of wine to numb their sorrow over losing a relative] (MAHARSHA, 2nd explanation)

62)[line 37] K'MISHTEH RISHONIM- as the meal [served to mourners] of the first (i.e., current) [mourners]

63)[line 40]" ' ,] , .""... KI'SEDOM HAYINU, LA'AMORAH DAMINU."- "[If not for that which HaSh-m, Master of Legions, left us a tiny remnant,] we were like Sedom, comparable to Amorah." (Yeshayah 1:9) - Sedom and Amorah were destroyed utterly (Bereishis 19).

64)[line 41]" -', ; [ , .]""SHIM'U DEVAR HASH-M, KETZINEI SEDOM; [HA'AZINU TORAS ELOKEINU, AM AMORA.]"- "Hear the word of HaSh-m, leaders of Sedom; [listen to the law of our G-d, nation of Amorah.]" (Yeshayah. 1:10)

65)[line 42] GOMLEI CHASADIM- those who bestow acts of kindness upon others

66)[line 43](" - - ', ...)"("KI YEDATIV LEMA'AN ASHER YETZAVEH...")- ("For I hold him dear due to that which he commands his children and his household to follow in his path and to safeguard the way of HaSh-m, to perform acts of charity and justice...") (Bereishis 18:19) - Most manuscripts include this verse, although RASHI apparently may not have had it in his text; see also MAHARSHAL and MAHARSHA.

67)[line 43] BA'AL HA'GEMUL- the Master of reward

68a)[line 45]PADEH- redeem

a)[line 45]HATZEL- rescue

c)[line 45]MALET- deliver

d)[line 45]HOSHA- save

69a)[line 46]DEVER- plague

b)[line 46]BIZAH- looting

c)[line 46]SHIDAFON- (a) blight (a disease that affects crops); (b) crops damaged by searing eastern winds

d)[line 46]YERAKON- (a) disease [that affects people] (RASHI to Ta'anis 19a); (b) mildew [affecting the crops] (RASHI to Devarim 28:22)

70)[line 46] PUR'ANUYOS HA'MISRAGSHOS U'VA'OS LA'OLAM- calamities that gather and come upon the world

71)[line 47] , TEREM NIKRA, V'ATAH TA'ANEH- before we call, may you answer (cf. Yeshayah 65:24)

72)[line 47] OTZER HA'MAGEFAH- He who stops the plague

73)[line 48]KOSOS- cups [of wine, which serve to numb the sorrow of a mourner (see Mishlei 31:6)]

74)[line 49] LI'FTO'ACH ES BNEI ME'AV- lit. to open his innards; to [aid in digestion by properly] preparing his intestines

75)[line 49]LI'SHROS- to soak [and aid in the digestion of]

76)[line 50]... ... ... HA'ZAN... BIRKAS HA'ARETZ... BONEI YERUSHALAYIM... HA'TOV VEHA'METIV- These refer to the four Berachos of Birkas ha'Mazon, after each of which the mourner would drink a cup of wine. The GRA deletes this line, suggesting that perhaps the mourner would drink a cup after each of the four Berachos of the Birchas Rechavah.

77)[line 51] CHAZANEI HA'IR- those in charge of burying the dead of the city (the Chevrah Kadishah)

78)[line 51] PARNESEI HA'IR- the patrons of the city [who funded funerals for those whose relatives could not afford to pay the expenses]

79)[line 52] BEIS HA'MIKDASH- [that which we mourn the destruction of] the Beis ha'Mikdash [as one mourns a close relative]

80)[line 52]MISHTAKRIN- to get drunk

81)[line 52]L'YOSHNAH- to its original form [of ten cups] (see Insights)

82)[line 53] HOTZA'AS HA'MES- the monetary outlay [required to bury] a corpse [in silken or otherwise expensive shrouds, as was then the custom]

83)[line 54]BORCHIN- they would flee

84)[line 54]KALUS- that which was not befitting his stature

85)[line 54] KLEI PISHTAN- linen shrouds

86)[last line]HA'IDNA- nowadays

87)[last line] NAHUG ALMA- the general custom is

88)[last line] TZERADA BAR ZUZA- [shrouds made from] hemp worth [only] one Zuz