1)

TOSFOS DH B'YOM ARBA'IM LI'YETZIRAS HA'VELAD

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(Summary: Tosfos ugh describes Shmuel's expertise.)

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(a)

Implied Question: Even though one cannot generally know the exact fortieth day of the baby's formation ...

...

1.

Reason: Seeing as the semen can delay taking root until the third day ...

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(b)

Answer: Nevertheless, Shmuel was an expert ...

( :) ' .'

1. Source: As the Gemara explains in Perek ha'Mapeles (Nidah, Daf 25b) "Shmuel is different, since he was an expert

2)

TOSFOS DH KA MASHMA LAN

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(Summary: Tosfos clarifies the conclusion and cites the She'iltos le'Halachah.)

- ...

(a)

Clarification: It is possible for the womb to open without blood ...

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(b)

Halachah: And this is how the She'iltos of Rav Acha'i Gaon Paskens ...

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1.

Source: Based on the current Sugya - from the fact that one can Shecht and sprinkle the blood for her.

10b----------------------------------------10b

3)

TOSFOS DH MI'CHELAL D'KEVES BEN SHANAH B'SELA

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(Summary: Tosfos reconciles this with two Sugyos which suggest otherwise, and describes the differences between Chatas and Asham.)

, ' ' ( .)?

(a)

Question #1: The Gemara in Perek Eizehu Mekoman (Zevachim, Daf 48a) states that one may bring a Chatas that is worth a Danka (a sixth of a Dinar).

( .) ' ? ?'

(b)

Question #2: Furthermore, the Gemara later (on Daf 27a) Explains that the Torah did not specify a fixed amount for Mechusrei Kaparah - in case the value of lambs drops and they will not be able to obtain a Kaparaha?

", ' ' , , .

(c)

Answer: When the Gemara talks of 'a lamb for a Sela', it was customary to purchase it at that price in order to perform the Mitzvah in an ideal fashion , but one was permitted to spend less.

, ...

(d)

Asham: An Asham on the other hand, had to be worth two Shekalim, since it is d'Oraysa ...

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1.

Chatas: Whereas a Chatas has no Shi'ur min ha'Torah, only mi'de'Rabanan ...

, .

2.

Chatas (cont.): Therefore Lechatchilah, one should spend a Sela, and Bedi'eved, a Danka, but for less than that, one is called 'Avaryana' (a sinner).

, .

3.

Chatas (concl.): Nevertheless, in the event that the price drops, and there are fat sheep that are worth les than a Danka, one attains one's atonement with them.

, ...

(e)

Asham (cont): But Ashamos, even if the rams are fat and good, if they are worth less two Shekalim, due to a drop in price, one does not attain atonement ...

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1.

Reason: Since the Torah writes "Kesef Shekalim".

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