WHEN IS ANOTHER KORBAN REQUIRED?
(Gemara - Beraisa): Beis Hillel answered "l'Vas" includes a (Korban for a) miscarriage on night 81.
R. Oshaya used to learn from Bar Kapara. He left him and learned from R. Chiya. One day he encountered Bar Kapara. (If a man has two sightings of Zivah (emissions of uncooked semen) within two days, he is Tamei, and he must count seven clean days before he can immerse and become Tahor. If he had three sightings within three days, he must bring a Korban after becoming Tahor, no earlier than eight days from the last emission.)
R. Oshaya: According to Beis Hillel, if a Zav (who was already obligated to bring a Korban) had three more sightings on the (eighth) night after completing seven clean days, what is the law?
If Beis Hillel require a separate Korban for a miscarriage on night 81 due to "l'Vas," this does not apply to a Zav;
Or, perhaps we do not distinguish! (Whenever the old Tum'ah finished, a separate Korban must be brought for another Tum'ah.)
Bar Kapara: What does the Babylonian (Shitah's text - Iya) say about this?
R. Oshaya was silent. (R. Gershom - he was pained that Bar Kapara referred to his Rebbi condescendingly. Aruch la'Ner - really, it was meant as a praise, for there is more Torah in Bavel. R. Chiya called himself Iya, for he could not pronounce "Ches" properly.)
Version #1 (our text) Bar Kapara: We need Iya (he fixed, validated and organized Beraisos, with R. Oshaya). The Beraisa says that they obligate due to "l'Vas."
Version #2 (Shitah) R. Oshaya: We need Iya's teaching. (Bar Kapara had asked R. Oshaya about a different matter.)
Suggestion: Tana'im argue about this (when new Tum'ah obligates another Korban):
(Beraisa #1): If a Zav had three sightings on the eighth night, he brings a Korban.
(Beraisa #2): He does not bring a Korban.
Suggestion: Tana #1 holds that night is not Mechusar Zeman (it is considered time to bring his Korban, therefore a new Tum'ah obligates another Korban). Tana #2 holds that night is Mechusar Zeman.
Rejection (Rav Huna bar Acha): No, both hold that night is Mechusar Zeman;
Beraisa #1 discusses a Zav l'Tum'ah (he had only two previous sightings. He was not obligated to bring a Korban until now), and Beraisa #2 discusses a full Zav (he was already Chayav Korban for three previous sightings. He is exempt from a second Korban).
Question: Obviously, if a Zav l'Tum'ah has three new sightings, he must bring a Korban now! What is the Chidush (of Beraisa #1)?
Answer: The Chidush is the inference. He brings a Korban because he saw at night, but had he seen during the seventh day, he would be exempt;
The Tana holds that a sighting that is Soser (interrupts a count of clean days) does not join to obligate a Korban.
Question (Rava): If a (full) Zav is exempt for more sightings on the eighth night, this should be included in the Mishnah of "five (people who) bring one Korban for many transgressions"!
Answer: It was not included, for it is not always true:
(R. Yochanan): If a (full) Zav had one sighting on night eight and two more on day eight, he brings a (second) Korban;
If he had two sightings on night eight and one more on day eight, he is exempt (for these sightings).
Support (Rav Yosef): It is reasonable to bring when only one of the sightings was on night eight, for the first sighting of Zivah is (always) Metamei like mere Keri (a regular seminal emission. Therefore, even if he was not yet Chayav Korban, it joins with the other two!)
Question (Rav Shisha brei d'Rav Idi): We would not know R. Yochanan's law from reasoning!
Granted, the first sighting is (always) like mere Keri, but (normally) it is at a time when three sightings would obligate a Korban. Therefore, it joins with the other two;
Here, the first sighting came at a time (night eight) when three sightings would not obligate a Korban. Without R. Yochanan's teaching, we would not know that it joins with the other two!
Question: R. Yochanan holds (elsewhere) that night is Mechusar Zeman!
(Chizkiyah): If a Nazir (became Tamei, became Tahor, and again) became Tamei on the eighth day (his first opportunity to bring Korbanos Nazir Tamei), he brings another Korban (i.e. Asham and two birds). If he became Tamei on the eighth night, he does not bring another Korban for this;
(R. Yochanan): Even if he became Tamei on the eighth night, he brings another Korban.
Answer: R. Yochanan exempted two sightings on night eight and one on day eight according to the opinion that night is Mechusar Zeman. (He himself disagrees.)
Question: Obviously, the opinion that night is Mechusar Zeman exempts when two sightings were at night! (What is R. Yochanan's Chidush?)
Answer: He taught this only for (his Chidush,) the case of one sighting on night eight and two during the day;
One might have thought that since the first sighting was at a time when he would be exempt (for three sightings), it does not join. He teaches that this is not so.
DOUBTFUL MECHUSREI KAPARAH
(Mishnah): If a women had five doubtful (obligations to bring Korbanos for) births or five doubtful (Chiyuvim for) Zivos, she brings one Korban (Yoledes) and may eat Kodshim, she is exempt from bringing the rest. (Korban Yoledes is Chatas ha'Of, and Olas Behemah (for an Ashirah) or Olas ha'Of (for a poor woman). Korban Zavah is a Kan (two birds, Chatas and Olah).)
If she had five definite births or five definite Zivos, she brings one Korban and may eat Kodshim, and she must bring the rest.
Once, (due to great demand) a Kan was selling for a gold Dinar (25 silver Dinarim). R. Shimon ben Gamliel (ha'Zaken, swore that he would cause the price to plummet to a silver Dinar that same day;
He entered the Beis Medrash and expounded that a woman with five definite births or Zivos brings one Korban and may eat Kodshim, and she is exempt from the rest. (Tosfos - this is Torah law. Rashi - the Torah obligates her to bring the rest. He uprooted Torah law for the sake of Torah. He was concerned lest women eat Kodshim without bringing even one Korban). Most texts of Toras Kohanim, which cites this episode, say "she must bring the rest." (People had mistakenly thought that she cannot eat Kodshim until bringing all five).)
That day, the price dropped to a quarter of a silver Dinar for a Kan.
(Gemara - Beraisa): If a woman had five Vadai (definite) births and five doubtful Zivos, or five Vadai Zivos and five doubtful births, she brings one Korban for the Vadai and one for the Safek, and may eat Kodshim. (We adopt the text of Shitah Mekubetzes. There are severe difficulties with our text of the Gemara, Rashi and Rambam. Many fix these texts to conform to Shitah's text.)
The (Chatas of the) Vadai Korban is eaten. She must bring the rest of the Vada'os;
The Safek Korban is not eaten. She is exempt from bringing the rest of the Sefekos.
R. Yochanan ben Nuri says, she must say that she brings the Vadai Korban for the last Chiyuv;
If she has a Vadai Chiyuv for the same reason (birth or Zivah) as the Sefekos, she brings for the Vadai and exempts the Sefekos;
If not, she brings the Korban for any of the Sefekos, and exempts the rest.
R. Akiva says, also for the Vadai she brings the Korban for any one and exempts the rest.
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): R. Yochanan ben Nuri considers the Vadai Korbanos like Chata'os:
If one is obligated to bring five Chata'os, he does not get a Kaparah until he brings all of them. Likewise, her Taharah is not complete until she brings the last;
R. Akiva considers them like (Tum'os that require) immersions;
If one became Tamei five times, it suffices to immerse once "for" any of them. The same applies to her Chiyuv to bring Korbanos.
Objection (Rav Papa): If R. Yochanan ben Nuri equates them to Chata'os, why may she bring the Safek for any of them?
If someone was obligated five times to bring Asham Taluy, it does not suffice to bring one!
(Beraisa): The general rule is, whenever one would have to bring separate Chata'os for multiple transgressions, (if he doubtfully transgressed) he must bring Asham Taluy for each.
(Rav Papa): Rather, all consider them like immersions;
R. Yochanan is concerned that (if she brings for one of the earlier ones, lest she think that this exempts all of them, and) she will never bring the rest, therefore he requires her to say that she brings for the last (Rashi. Aruch la'Ner - according to the opinion that it really suffices to bring one, we are concerned that if she brings for the first, she will think that this exempts even future births or Zivos).
R. Akiva is not concerned for this.
(Mishnah): There are four Mechusrei Kaparah (who bring a Korban to complete their Taharah). There are four that bring a Korban for Shogeg like for Mezid.
The four Mechusrei Kaparah are Zav, Zavah, Yoledes, and Metzora;
R. Eliezer ben Yakov says, a convert is Mechusar Kipurim until Zerikas Dam of his Korban;
A Nazir is Mechusar Kipurim (i.e. forbidden) to wine, shaving and Tum'ah until he brings his Korban.
(Gemara) Question: Presumably, the Tana counts Zav and Zavah like two because their Tum'os are different. Sightings b'Ones can make one a Zavah (but not a Zav); multiple sightings on one day can make one a Zav (but not a Zavah);
(Beraisa): "Mi'Besaro" excludes if something else caused the Zivah;
(Beraisa): The Torah attributes becoming a Zav to the number of sightings. It attributes becoming a Zavah to (the number of consecutive) days (of sightings).
Summation of question: Likewise, male and female Metzora'im should be counted like two, for their Tum'os are different!
A (male) Metzora must do Peri'ah (let his hair grow) and Perimah (tear his clothing) -- "Begadav Yihyu Ferumim v'Rosho Yihyeh Faru'a." Also, relations are forbidden to him;
A Metzora'as does not tear her clothes, and she need not let her hair grow.
(Beraisa) Question: "Ish" (can become a Metzora). What is the source to include a woman?
Answer: "Veha'Tzaru'a" includes a second Metzora, i.e. a woman.
Question: If so, why does it say "Ish"?
Answer: This excludes women from the following Parshah, i.e. Peri'ah and Perimah.
Also, a Metzora'as may have relations -- "v'Yashav mi'Chutz l'Ohalo (masculine)," but not "mi'Chutz l'Ohalah."
Answer: Zav and Zavah (are counted separately because they) become Teme'im in different ways. Metzora and Metzora'as become Teme'im the same way, through Tzara'as the size of a Gris (bean).
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer ben Yakov): A convert is Mechusar Kipurim...
Question: Why didn't the first Tana count a convert?
Answer: He counts only those who bring a Korban (Rashi - just) to eat Kodshim. A convert brings a Korban to permit marrying a Yisrael! (R. Gershom - he holds that a convert may eat Kodshim before bringing the Korban; Rashi - the Korban permits marrying and eating Kodshim.)
Question: Why didn't the first Tana count a Nazir?
Answer: He brings a Korban to permit himself to drink wine, which is Chulin. (He counts only those bring a Korban to permit Kodshim).
Question: R. Eliezer counts Nazir (even though it is to permit Chulin). Why doesn't he also count Nazir Tamei?
Answer: Korban Nazir Tamei is brought solely to cause Nezirus Taharah to begin.
THE KORBAN OF A CONVERT
(Beraisa): A convert cannot eat Kodshim before bringing his Kan;
If he brought one bird, he may eat Kodshim that night.
All others who must bring a Kan, they bring one Chatas and one Olah. A convert brings two Olos;
If he brought (one) Olas Behemah, he was Yotzei;
If he brought Olas Behemah and Shelamim, he was Yotzei (due to the Olah);
If he brought Minchah and Shelamim, he was not Yotzei.
It is a leniency that he may bring a Kan.
Question: Presumably, he is not Yotzei with Minchah and Shelamim because it says "Ka'asher Ta'asu Ken Ya'aseh." Just like Bnei Yisrael offered Olah and Shelamim (when accepting the Torah at Sinai), converts must do similarly;
If so, one Olas Behemah should not suffice!
Answer (Rav Papa): Since we learn that even a bird suffices, all the more so Olas Behemah suffices!
Suggestion: If so, even a Minchah should suffice! (Tosfos - we discuss Minchas Nesachim, which is entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach to Hash-m.)
Rejection: "Ken" excludes this.
Question: What is the source that a Kan suffices?
Answer (Beraisa #1): "Ka'asher Ta'asu Ken Ya'aseh" - just like Bnei Yisrael offered Olos and Shelamim, converts must do the same - "Kachem ka'Ger";
Question: What is the source that birds suffice?
Answer: "Isheh Re'ach Nicho'ach la'Shem" alludes to something entirely for Hash-m, i.e. Olas ha'Of . (Kohanim do not even receive the skin. Radal - once we learn that even Olas ha'Of suffices, all the more so Olas Behemah suffices by itself, without Shelamim.)
Suggestion: Perhaps we include even a Minchah!
Rejection: "Ken" excludes this.