[13a - 54 lines; 13b - 44 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 13a [line 44]:

The words "Lo Heni'ach Tipah Meluchleches" לא הניח טיפה מלוכלת

should be "she'Lo Heni'ach Tipah Meluchleches" שלא הניח טיפה מלוכלת (Rashash)

[2] Gemara [line 53]:

The words "Tish'ah Mashkin b'Zov" תשעה משקין בזוב

should be "Tish'ah Mashkin b'Zav" תשעה משקין בזב (as it is found in Nidah 55b)

[3] Rashi 13a DH Ela Amar Rava ד"ה אלא אמר רבא:

(a) The words of the Gilyon do not apply here; rather, they apply to the conclusion of the Gemara, at the beginning of 13b (line 6, and the Girsa of the author of the Gilyon there is "Ela Amar Rava," אלא אמר רבא unlike the Bach #2) (Rav Betzalel Rensburg, Maharsham, Rashash)

(b) "Aval Lo Nicha Lei, Tahor" אבל לא ניחא ליה טהור

These words are the beginning of a new Dibur (and also apply to the Sugya on Amud Beis) (Rashash)

[4] Gemara 13b [line 32]:

The words "Nidra Ala Devis'hu" נידרא עלה דביתהו

should be "Nadra Ala Devis'hu" נדרא עלה דביתהו (this is also the Girsa of Rashi)

[5] Gemara [line 42]:

The words "v'Nekam d'Lo Lori" וניקם דלא לורי

should be "v'Nekam v'Lo Lori" וניקם ולא לורי (as is found in Rabeinu Gershom)

[6] Rashi 13b DH Neima Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah Hi ד"ה נימא רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה היא

The words "v'Lo Rabanan" ולא רבנן are a new Dibur

[7] Bach #3 DH Sham Mai she'Lo l'Ratzon "Aval Lo Nicha …" :ד"ה שם מאי שלא לרצון אבל לא ניחא ...

These words do not apply to this Amud; rather, they were accidentally copied from Amud Alef (Hagahos ha'Bach #8)


1)[line 9]אמר רב פפא ... אפילו כל היום כולו ... בכדי אכילת פרסAMAR RAV PAPA ... AFILU KOL HA'YOM KULO ... BI'CHDEI ACHILAS PERAS- Rav Papa means the following: The amount of Tamei food that one must eat in order to become Tamei is a half-Peras, which is equal to two k'Beitzim (RASHI to the Mishnah 12b DH Peras). Shmuel says that to become Tamei, one must eat each k'Zayis (of those two k'Beitzim) within the amount of time of Kedei Achilas Peras. However, he may eat each k'Zayis at a separate time during the day.

2)[line 21]התירו לה לעוברהHITIRU LAH L'UBARAH- the Chachamim permitted a pregnant woman

3a)[line 27]למגע טמאמתL 'MAGA TEMEI MES- for a woman who is Temei'ah because she touched a Temei Mes, an Av ha'Tum'ah such as a person or utensil that came into contact with a corpse (see next entry)


(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)All sources of Tum'ah are called Av ha'Tum'ah, except for a corpse, which can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah."

(c)When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah. (Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a Rishon, even if touched by a Sheni.)

(d)A Sheni L'Tum'ah cannot make Chulin Tamei mid'Oraisa. Even mid'Rabanan, there is no such thing as Shelishi L'Tum'ah with regard to Chulin. Terumah, however, can become a Shelishi L'Tum'ah. (Also, if someone guarded his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi.) However, Rebbi Akiva (Mishnah Sotah 27b) does bring a source from the Torah that a Sheni l'Tum'ah can make Chulin Tamei mid'Oraisa as a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. The Halachah follows the former opinion.

(e)Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah cannot make other Terumah Tamei. However, it may not be eaten. It is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei." Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) that is touched by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i. A Revi'i of Kodesh is also called "Pasul."

(f)All foods become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only after they first become wet. From then on, even after they dry, they can still become Tamei. Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey. The minimum amount of food that can become Tamei is a k'Beitzah. The modern equivalent of a Beitzah is 0.05, 0.0576 or 0.1 liter, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

(g)In order for something edible to receive Tum'as Ochlin, it has to be considered food. A person's intention to eat the item and treat it as a food gives it the status of a food and it can receive Tum'as Ochlin. Once food becomes Tamei, it cannot become Tahor by immersing it in a Mikvah.

4)[line 43]לא איתכשרLO ISKASHER (HECHSHER / KI YUTAN)

(a)Foods may become Temei'im if they touch a source of Tum'ah only if they were wetted at some point in their history. Making foods wet in a manner that enables them to become Temei'im is called "Hechsher." From then on, even after they dry, they can become Temei'im. Wetting food with any of seven liquids, water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey, can enable the food to become Tamei.

(b)The food can become Tamei only if the owner of the food was pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seed and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon it, the seed is Tamei" (Vayikra 11:38). The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, just like the word "Yiten" — "he places." However, according to the Mesorah, it is read "Yutan" — "it was placed." From this we learn that when water or other liquids fall on the food it is considered Hechsher only if their presence is desirable to the owner of the food (i.e. it is as though he himself applied them).

(c)It is necessary only for the owner to desire the liquid; he need not desire that the liquid come into contact with the food. That is, even if the owner desires the liquid for an entirely different purpose, if the liquid later comes into contact with food it will enable the food to become Tamei. On the other hand, if the owner only intended to dispose of the liquid it does not enable the food to become Tamei, since only liquids that are significant can cause Hechsher.

(d)The milk that an infant nurses only becomes Muchshar when a drop is left behind that the infant does not eat. Since that drop is not the infant's food, it is able to be Machshir the milk that was consumed (since that drop was in contact with the milk at one point).

5)[line 43]בטיפה מלוכלכתB'TIPAH MELUCHLECHES- (lit. the moist drop) the drop of milk that is left behind when the infant finishes nursing, which serves as the liquid that was Machshir the milk that was consumed (since that drop was in contact with the milk at one point)

6)[line 46]מקום חלב מעיין הואMAKOM CHALAV MA'AYAN HU- the location of mothers' milk (the mammary glands) is a wellspring. That is, mothers' milk is not considered a food or a liquid; rather, it is comparable to her saliva and urine, the smallest amount of which may become Avos ha'Tum'ah, since they are likened to her limbs. (On Amud Beis, the Gemara will refute Rava's contention.)

7)[last line]ליחה סרוחהLEICHAH SERUCHAH- (O.F. cuiture) pus

8)[last line]דם מגפתוDAM MAGEFASO- the blood of his wound


9)[line 26]גמרינן שכר שכר מנזירGAMRINAN SHECHAR SHECHAR MI'NAZIR- that is, the prohibition only applies to wine, and not to either drinks or foods that are Meshaker (intoxicating), just like the prohibitions of the Nazir


If a person makes a vow and says "Demei Ploni Alai" - "I accept upon myself to give the value of so and so to Hekdesh," he must give the actual worth of the person (i.e. the amount he would be worth if sold on the slave market).

11)[line 37]ערכיןERCHIN (ERECH)

(a)An Erech (endowment valuation) refers to a special form of vow. If a person declares, "Erech Ploni Alai" - "I accept upon myself to give the endowment value of so-and-so [to Hekdesh]," he must give the specific value that the Torah designates for the person's gender and age group as stated in Vayikra 27:1-8. It makes no difference at all whether the person is healthy or sick, strong or weak.

(b)If one wishes to pledge the value of an individual — whether his own or that of someone else:

1.For ages 1 month to 5 years - the Erech for males is 5 Shekalim and for females is 3 Shekalim

2.For ages 5 years to 20 years - the Erech for males is 20 Shekalim and for females is 10 Shekalim

3.For ages 20 yrs. to 60 years - the Erech for males is 50 Shekalim and for females is 30 Shekalim

4.For ages 60 years and older - the Erech for males is 15 Shekalim and for females is 10 Shekalim

12)[line 37]חרמיןCHARAMIN

(a)There are two types of Charamim, a type of vow or pledge in which one pronounces, "This object should be a Cherem." If the person specifies that he is making a Cherem for Bedek ha'Bayis, then it becomes Cherem for Bedek ha'Bayis. If he specifies that it should be a Cherem for Kohanim, then it becomes Cherem for Kohanim.

1.Chermei Kohanim are given to the Kohanim for their personal use. Before this type of Cherem is handed over to the Kohanim, it cannot be redeemed, as the verse teaches, "It may not be sold and it may not be redeemed" (Vayikra 27:28).

2.Chermei Gavo'ah are given to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the Bedek ha'Bayis. This type of Cherem may be redeemed like any other Hekdesh. (b) The Tana'im argue (Erchin 28b) as to whether Stam Charamim (Charamim that are pledged without designating the recipient) are allocated to the Kohanim or to the Beis ha'Mikdash.

(b)The Tana'im argue (Erchin 28b) as to whether Stam Charamim (Charamim that are pledged without designating the recipient) are allocated to the Kohanim or to the Beis ha'Mikdash.

13)[line 39]ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר יכול אף תלמודREBBI YOSI B'REBBI YEHUDAH OMER, YACHOL AF TALMUD- Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah argues with the Tana Kama as far as teaching both Talmud and Midrash after drinking wine (see Rashi DH v'Ha Rav)

14)[line 43]אשם אחדASHAM ECHAD (ASHAM ME'ILOS)

A person who has benefit from Hekdesh b'Shogeg must bring a Korban Asham, besides paying the amount he benefited plus a fine of Chomesh (Vayikra 5:14-16; see Background to Menachos 95:40). This is one of the five cases in which the Torah specifies that the Korban Asham Vadai is brought. The animal offered is a ram that costs at least two Sela'im.

15)[last line]נותרNOSAR

See Background to Kerisus 2:5.