[50a - 50 lines; 50b - 26 lines]

1)[line 1]משום חינאMISHUM CHINA- [we would have thought that the widow could collect the value of her Kesuvah without a Shevu'ah] (a) in order for men to find grace [in the eyes of women so that the women will agree to marry them] (RASHI); (b) so that woman would agree to serve their husbands with all their hearts in order to find favor in the eyes of their husbands (ARUCH); (c) so that the widow will be wealthier and therefore find favor in the eyes of men, so that the men will want to marry her (TOSFOS DH Mishum).

2)[line 1]בשני בצורתB'SHNEI BATZORES- in years of famine

3)[line 14]דאישתרשי לה מקום דינרD'ISHTARSHI LAH MEKOM DINAR- that she profited from the space in the loaf that was taken up by the Dinar [since she used that much less dough - RASHI]

4)[line 16]מאי איריא אלמנהMAI IRYA ALMANAH- why is this Mishnah talking [only] about an Almanah?

5)[line 16]אלמהALAMAH- [if so,] why

6)[line 20]אתיא לאורויי היתראASYA L'OROYEI HEITERA- she may come to rule permissibly [for herself, considering the partial payment of her Kesuvah that she received during the husband's lifetime as remuneration for her efforts in raising her husband's children, and she will swear that she received no payment of her Kesuvah]

7)[line 29]וליאדרה וליגבייהV'LI'ADRAH V'LIGAVYEI?- Why did he (Rav) not have the Yesomim request the Almanah to take a vow (e.g. to prohibit all foods to herself had she received any part of the value of her Kesuvah already), and as such she would have been able to collect the value of her Kesuvah?

8)[line 33]נקיטנא מידי מכתובתיNAKITNA MIDI MI'KESUVASI- I am holding on to (i.e. I have already received) part of the value of my Kesuvah

9)[line 36]בקופצתKOFETZES- a woman who "jumps" and blurts out the Shevu'ah on her own [without being told to do so]

10)[line 40]מזוניMEZONEI - an allowance for sustenance from the husband's estate (TENAI KESUVAH)

(a)There are number of stipulations of marriage which are imposed by Beis Din and some of which are written explicitly in the Kesuvah (the Jewish marriage contract). These are in addition to the basic obligations a man has to his wife according to the Torah. Those stipulations which obligate the husband to his wife are:

1.A husband must redeem his wife if she is a taken captive. If he is not a Kohen, he must take her back into his house; if he is a Kohen he must redeem her and divorce her so that she can remarry. He may not (divorce her and) give her the money of the Kesuvah so that she should redeem herself.

2.As long as they are married, he must provide his wife with all the medical care that she needs.

3.If she dies before her husband, her sons inherit the full value of her Kesuvah when he dies (and not the sons of his other wives), aside from the remainder of the estate (which is split equally between all of the brothers). This is called "Kesuvas Benin Dichrin."

4.After he dies, his daughters must be allowed to live in the house in which he lived, and must be provided for by his household, until they become married.

5.If he dies before his wife, his wife must be allowed to live in the house in which he lived and must be provided for by his household (with Mezonos, sustenance) until she remarries. (This stipulation was only made in Yerushalayim and the Galil. In Yehudah, the heirs reserved for themselves the right to give her the value of her Kesuvah and have her find herself a new home.) (Mishnayos Kesuvos 4:7-12)

(b)A husband is obligated to keep these conditions even if he omitted them from the Kesuvah, or did not give his wife a Kesuvah.

11)[line 42]אפכוה לכורסיה!APCHUHA L'CHURSEI!- Turn over his chair! (a curse)

12)[line 43]הפכוה לכורסיה ותרצוהHAFCHUHA L'CHUSEI V'SARTZUHA- they (the students of Rabah bar Rav Huna) turned over his chair and they set it right side up [in an attempt to have her curse apply literally to his chair]

13)[line 44]לא איפרק מחולשאLO IFRAK ME'CHULSHA- he was not spared from sickness

14)[line 45]וליתי קלא וליפול באודניV'LEISI KALA V'LIPOL B'UDNI- (lit. and let the news come and fall into my ear) and let me hear that the woman received the value of her Kesuvah

15)[last line]גלופקראGELUFKERA- (a) (O.F. cot) a dress (RASHI); (b) a thick woolen cloak (ARUCH)

16)[last line]וממשלותU'MIMSHALOS- and the Book of Proverbs

17)[last line]בלואיםBELU'IM- [that were] worn


18)[line 1]ושמנום בחמשה מנהV'SHAMNUM B'CHAMISHAH MANAH- and we estimated their value at five Manah (1 Manah = 100 Zuz = the value of 480 grams of silver)

19)[line 2]גט יבמיןGET YEVAMIN

(a)For a description of the Mitzvah of Yibum, see Background to Gitin 24:14.

(b)Just as Chazal enacted Kidushei Ma'amar for a Yevamah (similar to Kidushin, or betrothal, for all women), so, too, they enacted a Get Yevamim.

(c)If one of the surviving brothers performed Kidushei Ma'amar with the Yevamah and then he decides to release her from the Zikas Yevamim through Chalitzah, he must give her a Get Yevamim besides the Chalitzah.

(d)If the Yavam gives a Get to the Yevamah without first having performed Ma'amar, it becomes prohibited for him mid'Rabanan to perform Yibum with her, and he must perform Chalitzah.

20)[line 6]דמיפר לה בעלD'MEIFER LAH BA'AL (HAFARAS NEDARIM - Annulling vows)

A man has the right to annul certain vows of his wife and his young daughter, as the Torah states in Bamidbar 30:6, 9, 13-14. He accomplishes this by stating, on the day that he hears the vow, "Mufar Lach" ("[the vow] is annulled"). There is an argument among the Tana'im whether the vow must be annulled before nightfall on the day the husband/father heard it, or before 24 hours pass from when he heard it (Nedarim 77a); the former is the Halachic opinion. For a further discussion of this topic, see Background to Nazir 62:10.

21)[line 8]אין הבעל מיפר בקודמיןEIN HA'BA'AL MEIFER B'KODMIN - the husband may not be Mefer vows his wife made prior to their marriage

(a)A father may annul his daughter's vows while she is young, starting from the age at which her vows are valid (11 years old) until she becomes a Bogeres (six months after she becomes a Na'arah by growing two pubic hairs). If the father marries her off before she becomes a Bogeres, during the period of Eirusin both the father and the husband, or "Arus," must annul the vows in order for the annulment to be effective. After the consummation of the marriage through Nisu'in, the husband may annul the vows by himself. The father no longer has rights over her vows after her marriage, even if she is divorced before becoming a Bogeres. (See Background to Nedarim 66:33.)

(b)Vows that a Na'arah made before her Kidushin (betrothal), or that a wife made before her Nisu'in (wedding) are referred to as "Kodmin." If a Na'arah made vows before her Kidushin (but her father was not Mefer or Mekayem them), after her Kidushin her Arus is able to annul these vows in conjunction with the father on the day that they hear the vows. However, if a wife made vows before her Nisu'in (and her father and Arus were not Mefer them or Mekayem them), after her Nisu'in her husband is not able to annul the vows on the day that he hears them. The Gemara (Nedarim 67b) learns this from the words, "v'Im Beis Ishah Nadarah..." - "If she made vows after her marriage..." (ibid. 30:11).

22)[line 9]ושרי להV'SHARI LAH - and the Chacham will annul her vow (HATARAS NEDARIM)

(a)When an adult makes a Neder (or designates Chalah, Terumah, or Kodshim) or Nezirus, and he regrets having made the Neder, he may have it revoked by a Beis Din of three (if they are not outstanding authorities) or a Yachid Mumcheh (an outstanding authority). The general method used is that Beis Din investigates whether the person would not have made the Neder in the first place had he been aware of a particular fact. This investigation provides the person with a "Pesach" (opening) with which the Beis Din can revoke the Neder.

(b)There is a Machlokes Rishonim as to the status of a Yachid Mumcheh. The RAN rules that he must be an outstanding Torah authority well versed in the laws of Nedarim. Others rule that in addition to the previous, the scholar must also have Semichah (RAMBAN, cited by the Ran in Nedarim 23a).

23)[line 9]צריך לפרט את הנדרTZARICH L'FARET ES HA'NEDER- he needs to articulate all of the details of the vow

24)[line 11]דמדרינן לה ברביםD'MADRINAN LAH B'RABIM- they force her to take a vow in the presence of ten Jewish men

25)[line 20]זימנין דגייז ליה לדיבוריהZIMNIN D'GAYIZ LEI L'DIBUREI- sometimes the person making the Neder "cuts off" details from his Neder when relating it to the Chacham, and the Chacham annuls only part of it

26)[line 22]משום מילתא דאיסוראMISHUM MILSA D'ISURA- lest the Neder was made to add an extra prohibition to a prohibited item, and the person would like to perform the prohibition without violating his Neder

27)[line 22]הנושא נשים בעבירה פסול עד שידור הנאהHA'NOSEI NASHIM B'AVEIRAH PASUL AD SHE'YIDOR HANA'AH- A Kohen who marries women who are forbidden to him is disqualified from doing the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash until he takes a vow that he will not derive any benefit from them