[31a - 16 lines; 31b - 57 lines]

1a)[line 3]באומדB'OMED- by estimation

b)[line 3]ובמחשבהB'MACHSHAVAH- (a) Terumah takes effect even if it is not separated physically from the rest of the produce (e.g. if he labels as Terumah either a specific part, or a portion that will be clarified later (through Bereirah), but leaves it together with the rest of the produce) (RASHI to Bechoros 59a); (b) Tosfos to Beitzah 13b DH k'Shem adds that Terumah may be pronounced in one's mind (rather than verbally) (see TOSFOS to Bechoros ibid. DH b'Machshavah)

2)[line 7]להיות מפריש עליהן תרומה ומעשרותLIHEYOS MAFRISH ALEIHEN TERUMAH U'MA'ASROS- with the intent that he will separate from this produce Terumos and Ma'asros [for other produce]

3)[line 9]מעשר שניMA'ASER SHENI

(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.

(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been removed, and it is known as Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.

(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.

(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth, and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.

(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.

4)[line 11]מעת לעתME'ES L'ES- for a 24-hour period

5)[line 12]בשלשה פרקיםBI'SHELOSHAH PERAKIM- at three times during the year, as the Mishnah proceeds to enumerate

6a)[line 12]בקידוםB'KIDUM- when the east wind begins to blow (Kedem = east)

b)[line 12]של מוצאי החגSHEL MOTZA'EI HE'CHAG- after the end of the [Sukos] holiday (see entry #15, below)

7)[line 13]ובהוצאת סמדרUV'HOTZA'AS SEMADAR- when the grapevines have flowered and grapes in their budding stage appear

8)[line 13]ובשעת כניסת מים בבוסרUVI'SHE'AS KENISAS MAYIM BA'BOSER- (a) when liquid begins to enter the unripe grapes; (b) when unripe grapes are crushed and water is added to them to produce a vinegar-based dip

9)[line 15]מעת לעת של בדיקהME'ES L'ES SHEL BEDIKAH- for a [retroactive] 24-hour period from the time that the produce was checked [and found to have spoiled]


10)[line 1]מעת לעת של הנחהME'ES L'ES SHEL HANACHAH- for a 24-hour period [onward] from the time that the produce was set aside

11)[line 7]מקוה שנמדד ונמצא חסרMIKVAH SHE'NIMDAD V'NIMTZA CHASER - a Mikvah that was measured and found to be lacking [the required minimum amount of 40 Se'in of non-drawn water] (MIKVA'OS)

(a)Rainwater (Notfin) is Metaher (purifies) if it is collected in a cavity, or "b'Ashboren," a fact that is learned from Vayikra 11:36, where the verse states that a "Mikveh Mayim" (an accumulation of water) purifies. While the rainwater is flowing (down a slope, for example,) it cannot be Metaher.

(b)Drawn water is called Mayim She'uvin. Only water that never entered a vessel (non-drawn water) may be used to fill a Mikvah. Once there are already 40 Se'in of non-drawn water in the Mikvah, drawn water may be added. However, if before there are 40 Se'ah in the Mikvah three Lugim of drawn water fall into it, they render the Mikvah invalid.

12)[line 7]כל טהרות שנעשו על גביוKOL TAHAROS SHE'NA'ASU AL GABAV- all items of Taharah (ritual purity), such as Terumah and the like, that were touched by people or utensils that relied on this Mikvah to become Tehorim

13)[line 8]למפרעL'MAFRE'A- retroactively


(a)When there is a doubt as to whether an object is Tahor or Tamei, if the object is found in Reshus ha'Rabim the object is Tahor. If it is found in a private, concealed place, it is judged to be Tamei.

(b)This is learned from the case of the Sotah woman. In the case of a Sotah, where only two people were present at the time that there arose a question as to her status, she is judged Teme'ah/culpable and is prohibited to her husband. Similarly, whenever there are only two people present (i.e. a Reshus ha'Yachid l'Tum'ah), if a doubt arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tamei. Whenever more than two people frequent a certain area it is a Reshus ha'Rabim l'Tum'ah. If a doubt arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tahor.

15)[line 12]תקופהTEKUFAH- the season of Tishrei (fall) of the solar cycle (i.e. if the day after Sukos falls in the season of Tishrei, and not in the season of Tamuz (summer))

16)[line 13]לפני הזרעLIFNEI HA'ZERA- before the planting season

17)[line 14]ובשעת הזרעUV'SHE'AS HA'ZERA- and at the end of the planting season (TOSFOS)

18)[line 14]ובפרוס הפסחUV'PEROS HA'PESACH- half ("Pras," or half) of the period before Pesach during which the laws of Pesach are discussed, i.e. fifteen days before Pesach

19)[line 16]עצרתATZERES- Shavuos

20)[line 16]החגHA'CHAG- Sukos

21)[line 19]"ויהי כזרח השמש וימן אלקים רוח קדים חרישית ותך השמש על ראש יונה ויתעלף [וישאל את נפשו למות ויאמר טוב מותי מחיי].""VA'YEHI KI'ZERO'ACH HA'SHEMESH, VA'YEMAN ELOKIM RU'ACH KADIM CHARISHIS VA'TACH HA'SHEMESH AL ROSH YONAH VA'YIS'ALAF [VA'YISH'AL ES NAFSHO LA'MUS, VA'YOMER TOV MOSI ME'CHAYAI]" - "And it was when the sun shone that HaSh-m prepared a howling east wind, and when the sun beat down on Yonah's head and he fainted, [he asked that his soul be taken and that he die, and he said, 'My death is better than my life.']" (Yonah 4:8) (YONAH AND THE KIKAYON PLANT)

(a)After the people of Ninveh heeded Yonah's warning and did Teshuvah, he was terribly distressed, because he knew that HaSh-m in His mercy would accept their Teshuvah. The commentaries attribute his frustration to a fear that he would now be branded as a false prophet, although, according to Chazal, it was because he knew that Ninveh's Teshuvah did not bode well for Yisrael, who would now be prosecuted for not following in their footsteps. So distressed was he that he asked HaSh-m to take his life. HaSh-m's response, however, was to inform him that his anger was misplaced, and that if His (HaSh-m's) mercy extended towards all of His creatures, including Nochrim, then this was a good thing, not a bad one.

(b)Yonah then left Ninveh and settled in an area of desert east of the city to see what would transpire. There he built himself a hut as protection against the heat. That was not effective, however, so HaSh-m caused a tall, leafy Kikayon plant to grow that provided him with ample shade. Yonah experienced great joy at the appearance of the Kikayon, without which the hot desert sun was unbearable. The next morning, HaSh-m sent a worm to eat at the plant until it withered and died. Once again, one can imagine Yonah's frustration at the death of the life-saving plant, particularly when HaSh-m prepared a howling east wind, whose heat added greatly to his discomfort. When he reacted in the way that the verse describes, HaSh-m pointed out to him that if he had pity on a plant that he neither tended to nor grew, that came and grew in one night and died in one night, why should He (HaSh-m) not feel pity for Ninveh, a large city of 120,000 inhabitants who were never taught the difference between right and wrong.

22)[line 21]בשעה שמנשבתB'SHA'AH SHE'MENASHEVES- at the time that it blows

23)[line 21]תלמיםTELAMIM- (lit. furrows) large waves ("Charishis" is related to the word "Charishah," plowing)

24)[line 23]"... ותך השמש על ראש יונה ויתעלף...""VA'TACH HA'SHEMESH AL ROSH YONAH VA'YIS'ALAF"- see above, entry #21.

25)[line 25]"אשר בגדיך חמים בהשקט ארץ מדרום?""ASHER BEGADECHA CHAMIM B'HASHKIT ERETZ MI'DAROM?"- "Why are your garments warm, when the earth is quieted of the south wind [due to the east wind]?" (Iyov 37:17)

26)[line 30]חליף ואזיל גניבא עלייהוCHALIF V'AZIL GENEIVA ALAIHU- Geneiva was passing before them

27)[line 31]דבר אורייןBAR ORYAN- a Torah scholar

28)[line 32]מקמי פלגאה ניקום?MEKAMEI PALGA'AH NEIKUM?- Should we stand for a divisive person (based on the incident earlier, Daf 7a)?

29)[line 33]אדהכיAD'HACHI- meanwhile

30)[line 39]בן נץBEN NETZ- (lit. the son of a hawk) the name of an Angel (RASHI)

31)[line 40]"המבינתך יאבר נץ יפרש כנפיו לתימן""HAMI'BINASCHA YA'AVER NETZ; YIFROS KENAFAV L'SEIMAN?"- "Does the hawk fly by your wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the south?" (Iyov 39:26)

32)[line 43]בגוהרקא דדהבאB'GUHARKA D'DAHAVA- with a golden carriage used by distinguished people

33)[line 43]ופריס עליה סרבלא דכרתיU'PARIS ALEI SARBELA D'CHARTI- and he was covered with a pressed green cloak

34)[line 45]דבי ריש גלותאBEI REISH GALUSA- the household of the Exilarch, the temporal leader of the Jews in Babylon

35)[line 48]גלי לדרעיהGALI L'DAR'EI- he uncovered his arm

36)[line 48]שדיא נשיבSHADYA NASHIV- (a) the carriage is being blown [by the east wind] (RASHI); (b) the east wind is blowing. "Shadya" is a borrowed term; it usually the name of the southerly wind (ARUCH, cited by TOSFOS)

37)[line 53]"כי הוא בין אחים יפריא יבוא קדים רוח ה' ממדבר עלה ויבוש מקורו [ויחרב מעינו הוא ישסה אוצר כל כלי חמדה]""KI HU BEIN ACHIM YAFRI; YAVO KADIM RU'ACH HASH-M MI'MIDBAR OLEH V'YEIVOSH MEKORO, [V'YECHERAV MA'YANO; HU YISH'SEH OTZAR KOL KLI CHEMDAH.]"- "Though he may flourish like the reed grass, an east wind shall come, the wind of HaSh-m shall come up from the wilderness, and his spring shall become dry, [and his fountain shall be dried up; it shall strip his treasure of all precious articles.]" (Hoshea 13:15)

38)[line 55]מקורה של אשהMEKORAH SHEL ISHAH- the womb of a woman

39)[last line]עדי סוראה הואADI SURA'AH HU- these are [homiletic exegesis of the students of the Yeshiva at] Sura (who were very exacting in their teachings of the verses)