[25a - 45 lines; 25b - 13 lines]

1a)[line 1]קטןKATAN- if Chalitzah was performed by a minor

b)[line 1]ואנפיליאANPILYA- (a) (O.F. hoses) the leather boots or moccasins (MEFARESH to Nedarim 55b); (b) (O.F. chalcon) woolen socks or slippers (RASHI; TOSFOS to Nedarim ibid.)

2a)[line 6]האחין שחלקו לקוחות הןHA'ACHIN SHE'CHALKU LEKUCHOS HEN- if two brothers divide an inheritance, they are reckoned as having purchased each his share from the other

b)[line 7]ומחזירין זה לזה ביובלU'MACHZIRIN ZEH LA'ZEH BA'YOVEL (YOVEL)

(a)When a person dies, his estate is divided up among his sons. The Amora'im argue whether the way the estate is ultimately divided can retroactively determine what each brother inherited at the time of the father's death, or not. Rebbi Yochanan is of the opinion that even when the brothers later divide the estate, we cannot determine retroactively that the land each brother now has is the same land he inherited at the time of death. Rather, we say that by dividing up the property, the brothers agree to "trade" their true portions, wherever they are, with each other for portions of equal value elsewhere.

(b)There is a Halachic difference between whether the inheritance is retroactive or not. If the inheritance is retroactive, no purchase or trading has occurred. Therefore, in the year of the Yovel they need not return the land to each other and re-divide the estate. However, if the inheritance is not retroactive and a trade has occurred, when Yovel arrives the brothers must return to each other their portions, after which they re-divide the estate, as if they had purchased their shares from each other.

3)[line 7]וצריכאU'TZERICHA- and both statements of Rebbi Yochanan are necessary

4)[line 10]רחמנאRACHMANA- the All-Merciful One

5)[line 10]ליהדרLEIHADAR- that it is a sale which has to be returned at Yovel Jubilee

6)[line 12]דלחומראD'L'CHUMRA- [if we had only the statement regarding the field, we might have said] that he rules stringently

7)[line 12]כתחילהKI'TECHILAH- he thinks the property should revert to its original state

8)[line 15]תניתוהTENISUHA- we have previously learned…


(a)It is a Mitzvah for all Jews to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as it states in the Torah, "and the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening" (Shemos 12:6). The Pesach is an unblemished male lamb or goat within its first year that is roasted in its entirety.

(b)An adult (who was Tahor and was not far from the Beis ha'Mikdash on the fourteenth of Nisan) who willfully did not offer the Korban Pesach is liable to the Kares punishment.

(c)In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, a person must be "appointed" to the Korban before it is slaughtered. This appointment is called "Minuy." Each Pesach must have appointed to it people who are able to eat at least a k'Zayis of the meat on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan. The Korban is sacrificed in the name of all the people who were appointed for that specific Pesach animal. The people appointed to the Pesach then eat at least a k'Zayis of the Pesach together in a "Chaburah." (Some Tana'im maintain that a single Pesach may be split into many Chaburos eating in different places - Pesachim 86a.) No bones of the Pesach are allowed to be broken (Shemos 12:46).

(d)The verses limit the people who are permitted to eat the Korban Pesach. Nochrim, people who are Tamei and men who are uncircumcised are prohibited from eating the Korban Pesach (Shemos 12:43-44).

(e)A lamb or goat that is slaughtered as a Korban Pesach may only be eaten by individuals who are designated beforehand to eat from it. This is learned from the verse, "If the household is too small for a lamb, then he and a close neighbor can obtain a lamb together, as long as it is for specifically designated individuals. Individuals shall be designated for a lamb according to how much each one will eat" (Shemos 12:4).

(f)People may be designated for or may withdraw their share from a Korban Pesach as long as it has not been slaughtered.

10)[line 23]כדי לזרזן במצותKEDEI L'ZARZAN B'MITZVOS- in order to make them eager to perform the Mitzvos

11)[line 26]דאמנינהו מעיקראD'AMNINHU ME'IKARA- that he (the father) appointed them (all of his children) from the start

12)[line 28]ומושכין ידיהן ממנוU'MOSHCHIN YEDEIHEN MI'MENU- and they withdraw their hands from it

13)[line 30]ונמצאו בנות זריזותV'NIMTZE'U BANOS ZERIZOS- and it was found that the daughters were more eager to perform the Mitzvah (than the sons)

14)[line 30]שפליםSHEFALIM- lax

15a)[line 31]קא בעי מיניה תולה בדעת אחריםKA BA'I MINEI TOLEH B'DA'AS ACHERIM- he was asking from him about a case in which one makes his decision dependent on the choice of another person

b)[line 32]וקא פשיט ליה תולה בדעת עצמוV'KA PASHIT MINEI TOLEH B'DA'AS ATZMO- and he answered him with a case of one who makes his decision dependent upon his own choice

16)[line 33]והדר מותיב ליהV'HADAR MOSIV LAH- and then he went back and raised an objection

17)[line 43]ייןYAYIN- [a barrel of] wine [containing 100 Lugin] (see below, entry #19)

18)[line 43]הכותיםKUSIM

(a)The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions (Melachim II 17:24-41). The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos).

(b)After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.) Our Gemara is referring to a case before they lost their status of full-fledged Jews.


(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:12; Devarim 18:4). Although the Torah does not specify an amount that must be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop.

(b)After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi (Bamidbar 18:21). The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:26).

(c)Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from the crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor (Devarim 14:28-29).

(d)During the first, second, fourth, and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity (Devarim 14:22-27).

(e)If it is impractical to bring the actual food to Yerushalayim, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed with money. This money receives the status of Ma'aser Sheni, and is then brought to Yerushalayim. In Yerushalayim the money is used to buy food, which in turn receives the Kedushah of Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah in Yerushalayim.

(f)If the owner of the Ma'aser Sheni redeems his own Ma'aser, he must add a fifth of the total value (equal to a quarter of the original value) onto the money used (Vayikra 27:30-31); if someone else redeems it, he may do so with money equal to the value of the Ma'aser.

(g)Until Terumah and Ma'asros have been properly separated, the produce is termed "Tevel" and may not be eaten. The word "Tevel" means a mixture, and can be used to refer to any produce that one is required to separate part of, such as dough from which one must separate Chalah (see Background to 12:12:b). If one intentionally eats Tevel, then he receives Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (see Background to Sukah 25:25).


20)[line 1]ומיחל ושותה מידU'MEICHAL V'SHOSEH- (a) and he redeems ("Meichal," short for "Mechalel") the Ma'aser Sheni and then he may drink the wine (RASHI); (b) he may begin ("Meichal," short for "Maschil") to drink the wine (TOSFOS DH u'Meichal, first explanation); (c) he may dilute it with water ("Meichal," read as "Mihel") (RABEINU TAM cited by TOSFOS DH u'Meichal)

21)[line 3]מה היא באותן הימיםMAH HI B'OSAN HA'YAMIM?- What is her status during those days? If a person makes a stipulation when he divorces his wife stating, "This is your Get from today if I die from my current illness," if he dies from that illness, his wife is divorced retroactively from the day that he gave her the Get (Mishnah Daf 72a). Rebbi Yehudah rules (Mishnah Daf 73a) that until the husband dies, the woman is considered definitely married and we do not take into consideration the possibility that he will die (since she has a Chezkas Nesu'ah). Only after he dies is she considered to be divorced retroactively. (This follows the explanation of Rashi. Tosfos, however, explains that Rebbi Yehudah is discussing a situation in which the husband stipulated that his wife should be divorced retroactively from the moment before his death, should he die from that illness.)

22)[line 5]ולכי מיית הוי גיטאUL'CHI MAYIS HAVI GITAH- when the husband dies, the Get takes affect

23)[line 9]הא דאמרןHA D'AMARAN- [when he keeps the choice in his own hands it is shown by] this teaching we just quoted

24)[line 10]הריני בועליךHAREINI BO'ALAYICH- if a man says to a woman, "I betroth you by means of this act of relations"

25)[line 11]אבאABA- [your] father

26)[line 11]אף על פי שלא רצה האב מקודשתAF AL PI SHE'LO RATZAH HA'AV MEKUDESHES- even if the father does not consent she is betrothed