GITIN 6 (2 Sivan 5783) - This Daf has been dedicated in memory of Harry Bernard Zuckerman, Baruch Hersh ben Yitzchak (and Miryam Toba), by his children and sons-in-law.

[6a - 48 lines; 6b - 45 lines]

1)[line 1]קן קולמוסאKEN KOLMOSA- (a) the making of the feather or reed stylus that is used by scribes in writing scrolls of scriptures or Gitin (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) the scratching sound of the stylus as the scribe is writing letters on the parchment (there are those who have the Girsa KAL or KOL KOLMOSA - see TOSFOS RID) (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

2)[line 1]וקן מגילתאKEN MEGILASA- (a) the making of the parchment that is used by scribes upon which to write scrolls of scriptures or Gitin (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) the rustling sound of the parchment when it is moved as the scribe is writing upon it (there are those who have the Girsa KAL or KOL MEGILASA - see TOSFOS RID) (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

3)[line 12]איניש אחרינא אשכחיה ואמר ליהINISH ACHARINA ASHKECHEI V'AMAR LEI- another man [whose name was exactly like the name of the man in the Get that he was writing] found him [while he was out in the marketplace] and told him [to write a Get for his wife] (either the wives also had the same names or else the scribe had gone out after writing the husband's name but had not begun to write the name of the wife - YT)

4)[line 19]מתיבתאMESIVTA- an established Yeshiva

5a)[line 30]הוא מותיב להHU MOSIV LAH- he asked the question

b)[line 31]והוא מפרק להV'HU MEFAREK LAH- and he himself answered it

6)[line 31]לבר מבבלL'VAR MI'BAVEL- except for Bavel

7)[line 32]כמחלוקת ליוחסיןK'MACHLOKES L'YUCHASIN- just like the argument [as to the borders of the land of Bavel] with regard to unsullied lineage (the Gemara Kidushin 71a states that those people who live in Bavel are at a standard of unsullied lineage that is even higher than that of the people of Eretz Yisrael)

8)[line 34]ארבא תניינא דגישראARBA TINYANA D'GISHRA- the second lake or marsh below the bridge over the Euphrates (the western border of Bavel for Gitin - RASHI to Kidushin 72a)

9)[line 35]מאקטיספוןME'AKTISFON- from Ctesiphon, a city on the Tigris River that is now in ruins, identified with Resen (Bereishis 10:12, Yoma 10a). It was the capital of Parthia (an ancient country of Northeast Iran) and the Parthian Empire, and afterwards of the Sassanid Empire. (According to the TARGUM YERUSHALMI and the MIDRASH, Kalneh, which is mentioned in Bereishis 10:10, is Aktisfon.)

10)[line 36]ומבי ארדשירUMI'BEI ARDESHIR- and from Weh-Ardashir or Ardjir, formerly Seleucia, ancient city of Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq). Seleucia was founded by King Seleucus I, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, sometime after 311 BCE, on the west bank of the Tigris River northeast of Babylon, which was despoiled to supply materials for its construction. Controlling the navigation of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers as well as the commerce of Mesopotamia, the city rapidly rose to wealth and splendor, becoming a famous center of Hellenistic civilization. When in the 2nd century BCE Mesopotamia came under the rule of Parthia, Seleucia continued as a great commercial city and in the 1st century CE had a population of 600,000. The city was partly burned by the Roman emperor Trajan in 116 CE, and in 164 CE it was completely destroyed by the Roman general Avidius Cassius in his campaign against the Parthians. The destruction of Seleucia marked the end of Hellenistic civilization in Mesopotamia. Ardashir I, king of the New Persian Empire (224-241 CE) and founder of the Sassanid Dynasty, built Weh-Ardashir on the ruins of Seleucia.

11)[line 40]לשוקאL'SHUKA- to the marketplace

12a)[line 42]מערסאME'ARSA- from a row of houses

b)[line 43]משכונהMI'SHECHUNAH- from a three-house "neighborhood"

13)[line 46]מחוזאMECHOZA- Mechoza, a large Jewish trading town on the Tigris River

14)[line 46]דניידיD'NAIDEI- that they are mobile; they are constantly away from their homes on business and do not recognize the signatures of their neighbors

15)[line 46]מישתעיMISHTA'I- related [the following incident about Rav Kahana]


16)[line 6]מכפר סיסאיMI'KEFAR SISA'I- from a Nochri town in Eretz Yisrael between Ako and Tzipori

17)[line 8]שלא תיזקק לעדיםSHE'LO SIZAKEK L'EDIM- so that the woman will not need to find witnesses to validate her Get if her ex-husband contests it

18)[line 23]דסלקי ונחתיD'SALKEI V'NACHASEI- (lit. who go up and go down) who travel between Eretz Yisrael and Bavel

19)[line 24]בר סמכאBAR SAMCHA- a reliable person (source)

20)[line 28]שירטוטSHIRTUT/SIRTUT- ruling, marking lines; etching or marking lines into the parchment as a guide for writing straight (a requirement when writing more than three words of the Torah)

21)[line 32]לחייLECHAYEI- it is good, understandable [that you are challenging his authority]

22)[line 32]גמראGEMARA- a tradition that he received from his teacher

23)[line 33]דאסכים מריה על ידיהD'ASKIM MAREI AL YADEI- whose Master (HaSh-m) revealed to him a correct interpretation of an incident in the Scriptures

24)[line 33]"[ויהי בימים ההם ומלך אין בישראל ויהי איש לוי גר בירכתי הר אפרים ויקח לו אשה פילגש מבית לחם יהודה.] ותזנה עליו פילגשו [ותלך מאתו אל בית אביה אל בית לחם יהודה ותהי שם ימים ארבעה חדשים.]""VA'TIZNEH ALAV PILAGSHO..." - "[And it was in those days, when there was no king in Yisrael, it happened that a man from Levi who dwelt in the foothills of Mount Efrayim took himself a concubine from Beit Lechem of Yehudah.] His concubine deserted him [and left him for her father's house in Beit Lechem of Yehudah, where she stayed for four months.]" (Shoftim 19:1) (PILEGESH B'GIV'AH - THE CONCUBINE OF GIV'AH)

(a)As the Gemara explains, the Levi's concubine, whom Tosfos describes as the daughter of an Eshes Yefas To'ar, fled from her husband who had intimidated her, either for allowing a fly to fall into the food, or because he discovered a hair (either in the food or in the Makom Ervah, which the women tended to shave in those days).

(b)After she had been away for four months, her "husband" took his servant and a pair of donkeys and set out to convince her to return. When his concubine saw him outside, she took him into the house. Her father was overjoyed to see him and gave him a royal welcome. He remained for three days. On the fourth day they arose early with the intention of leaving, but each time the Levi said goodbye, his host bade him stay and eat, until the evening of the fifth day, when he lost his patience and, ignoring his host's insistence that he feast and stay one more night, he left with his servant, with the pair of donkeys and with his concubine. Arriving at the gates of Yevus (Yerushalayim) just before nightfall, the servant suggested that they stay overnight in the city, but his master was loathe to stay in a Nochri town, and suggested that they move on to a Jewish town. Arriving in Giv'ah of Binyamin just as night fell, they settled down in the street, as initially nobody invited them into his home. Eventually, however, an old man, originally from Har Efrayim, who had just come in from the fields, invited them to stay with him overnight.

(c)They barely settled in and sat down to eat when the people of the city surrounded the house and began knocking on the door, demanding that the old man hand over his guest, so that they could "have fun" with him. Like the angels who visited Lot in Parshas Vayera, the man went outside and confronted them, pleading with them not to treat his honored guest in this disgusting manner. He even offered them his virgin daughter and the man's concubine instead, but his pleas fell on deaf ears. They continued to demand the Levi, who took hold of his concubine and forced her outside into the hands of the waiting crowd, who raped her and abused her all night.

(d)When, at dawn-break, they let her go, she made her way back to the old man's house and fell dead from exhaustion at the threshold of the house. As soon as it was light, the Levi left the house to return home, and discovered his concubine dead. Placing her corpse over the donkey's back, he rode back home. Taking a sharp knife, he cut her body up into twelve pieces and sent one piece to each tribe. When the people learned what had happened, they were shocked and, after discussing the issue, they decided to gather an army to prepare to fight the tribe of Binyamin. To this end they mobilized 400,000 swordsmen, who gathered in Mitzpah. The people of Binyamin knew of all this, but displayed no remorse for what had transpired. They decided that nine out of every ten soldiers would go to war, while every tenth man would look after the provisions.

(e)Before attacking Binyamin, however, the other tribes first gave Binyamin the option of handing over the culprits to be punished. It was only when they refused that the army of Yisrael attacked. Meanwhile, Binyamin mustered 26,000 swordsmen plus 700 highly trained sling-shooters, all of whom were left-handed and all of whom could strike a hair without fail with his sling.

(f)See also Background to Yevamos 60:13.

25)[line 34]זבובZEVUV- a fly

26)[line 34]נימאNIMA- a hair

27)[line 40]אימהEIMAH- fear, dread, terror

28)[last line]עם חשיכהIM CHASHEICHAH- before sunset

29)[last line]עשרתם?ISARTEM? - Did you tithe the produce [that we will eat on Shabbos]? (KOVE'A L'MA'ASER)

(a)Every fruit (or other produce) that must be tithed may not be eaten b'Achilas Keva (as a normal meal) before its Terumos and Ma'asros have been removed or designated. It may, however, be eaten b'Achilas Ara'i (as a "snack," not as a meal) until it becomes "Hukba l'Ma'aser" (designated for tithing) through an action that demonstrates the final preparation of the fruit for eating. After it is Hukba l'Ma'aser, it is forbidden to eat even b'Achilas Ara'i before the tithes are separated.

(b)Seven actions can designate fruits as Hukba l'Ma'aser:

1.Pickling the fruit

2.Dipping the fruit in salt

3.Starting to prepare the fruit to be eaten through heating (cooking, roasting, etc.)

4.Designating the fruit to be eaten on Shabbos

5.Separating Terumah from the fruit

6.Bringing the fruit into the owner's yard

7.Bringing the fruit to the market for sale

(c)The Amora'im question whether these actions designate the fruit as Hukba l'Ma'aser even if they have not reached the stage of "Nigmerah Melachtan" or only if they have reached the stage of "Nigmerah Melachtan." Nigmerah Melachtan means that the fruit has reached the final stage of preparation for which it is normally grown, such as removing the chaff from grain in the field and making it into an evened pile ("Miru'ach") and squeezing wine-grapes for wine. With regard to bringing the fruit into the owner's yard (#6 above, "Chatzer"), all agree that the fruit becomes Hukba l'Ma'aser only after it has reached the stage of Nigmerah Melachtan.

30)[last line]?עשרתםISARTEM? (MA'ASER)

(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.

(b)After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi.

(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.

(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.

(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.

31)[last line]ערבתם?Did you make an Eruv Chatzeiros? (ERUV CHATZEIROS)

(a)THE TORAH LAW - According to Torah law, in a courtyard (Chatzer) that has in it houses owned by different people, all of the neighbors may transfer objects from their houses to the courtyard and into other houses on Shabbos. Even though each house is a separately owned Reshus ha'Yachid and the Chatzer is a jointly owned Reshus ha'Yachid, it is permissible to move objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another.

(b)ERUV CHATZEIROS AND SHITUFEI MAVO'OS - Shlomo ha'Melech decreed that transferring objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another is forbidden unless an Eruv Chatzeiros (lit. a mixing of the courtyard, Rambam Hil. Eruvin 1:6; or fraternization of the courtyard, Eruvin 49a) is created on Friday, before Shabbos begins (Shabbos 14b, Eruvin 21b). The equivalent of an Eruv Chatzeiros for an alley or a city is called a Shituf Mavo'os. This is accomplished by all of the neighbors collectively setting aside a loaf of bread, in one common container, in one of the houses of the courtyard (or, in the case of Shituf, in one of the courtyards of the alleyway). This shows that all neighbors have an equal share in all of the Reshuyos ha'Yachid, just as they all have a share in that bread. Through this act, they can be considered one Reshus again. (RAMBAM ibid. 1:4-9)

32)[last line]הדליקו את הנרHADLIKU ES HA'NER- Please light the candles