[87a - 28 lines; 87b - 44 lines]

1)[line 1]חוקק בה ד' על ד' וממלאCHAKAK BAH ARBA'AH AL ARBA'AH U'MEMALEI- carve out a four-by-four Tefach hole [in the middle of the platform] and fill. A four-by-four Amah platform is 24-by-24 Tefachim. When a four-by-four Tefach hole is cut out of the center of such a surface, ten Tefachim remain in each direction. Rebbi Chananya nen Akavya rules that one may view the ten-Tefach sides as if they are bent downwards and then extended to the water below ("Kuf v'Gud"; lit. bend and stretch - see PERUSH CHAI, entries #80 and #81)

2)[line 3]גוד אחית מחיצתאGUD ACHIS MECHITZASA- (lit. stretch and pull the Mechitzah down) Gud Achis is a Halachic device by which Mechitzos that are ten Tefachim high are considered to extend downward to the ground or water.

3)[line 3]כוף וגודKUF V'GUD- see above, entry #1

4)[line 5]בימה של טבריאYAMAH SHEL TEVERYA- the Kineret, Sea of Galilee

5)[line 5]אוגניםOGNAYIM- banks. These rise above the Kineret, and along with the cities and Karpifos surrounding it, form a Mechitzah. This causes the entire Kineret to have the status of a Karpaf she'Lo Hukaf l'Dirah. Although the Chachamim disallowed carrying in such a Karpaf, since mid'Oraisa it is permitted the Chachamim did not forbid carrying when even a slight Tikun is made.

6)[line 5]וקרפיפותKARPIFOS- enclosed areas that are located outside of a settlement, used for storage and other such purposes. Since it is fully enclosed, a Karpaf is a Reshus ha'Yachid even when it is not enclosed for residential purposes.

7)[line 7]היתה סמוכה לכותלHAYESAH SEMUCHAH L'KOSEL (LAVUD)

(a)The Torah requires Mechitzos (partitions) for various Halachos (e.g. defining a Reshus ha'Yachid for the purposes of carrying on Shabbos and creating a Kosher Sukah). A Mechitzah must be ten Tefachim high and enclose an area of four by four Tefachim.

(b)Certain Halachos l'Moshe mi'Sinai allow one to consider certain incomplete Mechitzos as complete for Halachic purposes (Sukah 5b).

(c)One of these cases is Lavud (lit. a branch or connection). This Halachah states that when there is a space less than three full Tefachim between the Mechitzah and the surface (or object) next to, above, or below it, we consider it to be a complete Mechitzah in which the surfaces or objects are connected without any gaps. (The space itself is not ignored, but rather measured along with and as a part of the existing segment of the partition.)

(d)Abaye explains in our Sugya that if the platform is just under three Tefachim away from the wall, it need not be a full four-by-four Amos. While it still must be four Amos wide, in the direction opposite the wall it only needs to be eleven-and-a-bit Tefachim. After that a rectangular shape four Tefachim wide by one-and-a-bit Tefachim must be carved out of the platform on the side closest to the wall. One is then allowed to draw water from within the cut-out rectangle until the wall. This is because when the sides of the rectangle that are one-and-a-bit Tefachim wide are viewed as if they are bent and hanging down towards the water, they are within three Tafachim of the wall and Lavud applies. The end result is that there is an area of four-by-four Tefachim surrounded by Mechitzos that are at least ten Tefachim high (see PERUSH CHAI, entries #84 and #85).

8)[line 8]היתה זקופה...HAYESAH ZEKUFAH...- Abaye further explains that if there is a ten-Tefach high Mechitzah standing parallel to a wall just under three Tefachim away from it, it need be only six-and-two-bits Tefachim in width. This is because we view the sides as if they are bent towards the wall. Four Tefachim in the middle are left as one Mechitzah, one-and-a-bit Tefachim are bent on each side (and are therefore within three Tefachim of the wall and Lavud applies), and the end result is an area of four-by-four Tefachim surrounded by Mechitzos that are at least ten Tefachim high (see PERUSH CHAI, entries #87 and #88).

9)[line 9]היתה עומדת בקרן זוית...HAYESAH OMEDES B'KEREN ZAVIS...- an additional application of these laws is in a case in which a ten-Tefach high Mechitzah stands four Tefachim away from and parallel to one wall, and within three Tefachim of and perpendicular to another wall (which meets the first at a corner). This wall need be only two-and-two-bits Tefachim wide. Exactly half of the Mechitzah is considered to bend toward the wall parallel to it, forming an area of four-by-four Tefachim surrounded by Mechitzos that are at least ten Tefachim high (see PERUSH CHAI, entry #89).

10)[line 12]דעבידא כי אסיתאD'AVIDA KI ASISA- its shape is similar to an upside down mortar (O.F. mortier), i.e. it is supported on posts and no part of it is located within three Tefachim of any wall

11)[line 12]אמת המיםAMAS HA'MAYIM- a channel of water which is ten Tefachim deep and four Tefachim wide

12)[line 13]עשו לה מחיצהASU LAH MECHITZAH- they made a Mechitzah for it [within the banks of the channel (where it is clearly placed in order to act as a Mechitzah for the waterway)]

13)[line 15]אבלAVEL- the name of a place

14)[line 16]כשיעורK'SHI'UR- the minimum size (of a separate Reshus). If an Amas ha'Mayim is less than ten Tefachim deep and four Tefachim wide, it is Batel to the Reshus through which it flows.

15)[line 22]בין החלונותBEIN HA'CHALONOS- between the windows (of the houses in the Chatzer or Mavoy through which it flows, which are located on the banks of the Amah)

16)[line 24]במאי עסקינןB'MAI ASKINAN- with what are we dealing (that is the subject of the Machlokes between the Tana Kama and Raban Shimon Ben Gamliel?)

17)[line 26]באגפיהAGAPEHA- its banks (which are raised more than three Tefachim from the ground)

18)[line 26]ולהחליףUL'HACHLIF- and [the Machlokes concerns one who wishes] to transfer [a bucket from his house (a Reshus ha'Yachid) to the channel of water (a Karmelis) and back again]. He does so by resting it on the banks of the channel (which are a Makom Petur, since they are less than three Tefachim wide) in between the transfer from one Reshus to the other, thus avoiding a direct transfer between a Karmelis and a Reshus ha'Yachid.

19a)[last line]רשויות דאורייתאRESHUYOS D'ORAISA- from a Reshus ha'Yachid to a Reshus ha'Rabim or vice versa


b)[line 1]רשויות דרבנןRESHUYOS D'RABANAN- from a Reshus ha'Yachid to a Reshus ha'Yachid

20)[line 3]ורוחב ארבעהROCHAV ARBA'AH- four Tefachim thick. This detail is mentioned only because it affects the case of the Seifah, in which fruit is upon the wall, since it is considered a separate Reshus unto itself. In terms of being considered a Mechitzah, any thickness would suffice.

21)[line 11]מלא נימאMELO NIMA- a hairbreadth

22)[line 15]לכתףL 'KATEF- to rearrange the burden on his shoulder

23)[line 16]ההיאH A'HI- that [statement] (this refers to the statement of Rebbi Yochanan that residents of a Chatzer next to a wall less than four Tefachim thick may even lift fruit onto the top of the wall; this implies that to transfer them to the other Chatzer is forbidden, even if they are placed on top of the wall along the way.)

24)[line 17]מוקים להMOKIM LAH- ascribes [the Machlokes between the Tana Kama and Raban Shimon Ben Gamliel in the earlier Beraisa]

25)[line 18]ורבדימיV 'RAV DIMI- and [that which] Rav Dimi [stated in the name of Rav Yochanan that "Ein Karmelis Pechusah me'Arba'ah"]

26)[line 18]ותיהוי כי חורי כרמליתV'SEHEVEI KI CHOREI KARMELIS- let a channel (even one which is not ten Tefachim high or four Tefachim wide) have the status of a "hole" or protrusion of a Karmelis! Just as a space that is adjacent to Reshus ha'Rabim (such as a hole in a wall that is alongside a Reshus ha'Rabim) has the status of Reshus ha'Rabim, so too a channel flowing into a city which originates from a body of water with the dimensions of a Karmelis should have the status of a Karmelis.

27)[line 22]במופלגתMUFLEGES- The channel in the Chatzer is far from the point where the body of water has the dimensions of a Karmelis. The Chachamim did not decree that it has the Din of a Karmelis in such a case.

28)[line 23]רבינא אמר כגון דעבד לה ניפקי אפומהRAVINA AMAR KEGON D'AVAD LAH NIFKEI A'PUMAH- Ravina offers a third explanation for the subject of the Machlokes between the Tana Kama and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel. The case involves one who left a gap in the Mechitzos placed within the entrance and exit of the channel in order to let the water flow through them easily. The Chachamim and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel argue about the widest distance considered attached through Lavud, as they do in other places in Shas (see Background to 76:7).

29)[line 25]גזוזטראGEZUZTRA- a platform

30)[line 26]עשו לה מחיצהASU LAH MECHITZAH- either around the entire platform or around a hole in it which is at least four-by-four Tefachim

31)[line 39]וטומנין בעצהTOMNIN B'ATZEH- placing fruit or grain for storage or to ripen into Atzeh, the hard, thick parts of the stalk of legume plants (similar to straw). Even if the Atzeh is wet with dew and the dew comes into contact with the food, the dew is not Machshir the food to be Mekabel Tum'ah (unless the person was specifically interested in keeping his fruits moist - see below, entry #34).

32)[line 40]ומסתפגין באלונטיתMISTAPGIN B'ALONTIS- drying oneself with a towel

33)[line 42]פסולתPESOLES- the part of the grain stalk that is left in the ground

34)[line 43]בכי יותןKI YUTAN (HECHSHER OCHLIN)

(a)Food becomes Tamei when it comes into contact with a source of Tum'ah - but only if it first comes into contact with one of the seven liquids which enable food to become Tamei. From then on, even after it dries, it can still become Tamei. The seven liquids which enable food to become Tamei are: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey. Wetting foods in a manner which enables them to become Tamei is called "Hechsher."

(b)Food can become Tamei only if the owner of the food is pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse (Vayikra 11:38), "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seeds and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon them, the seeds are Tamei." The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, like the word "Yiten" - "he places." However, according to the Mesorah, it is read "Yutan" - "it was placed." From this we learn that when water or other liquids fall on the food it is considered Hechsher only if their presence is desirable to the owner of the food, as it is when he himself applies them.

(c)It is necessary only for the owner to desire the liquid; he need not desire that the liquid come into contact with the food. Therefore, even if the owner desired the liquid for an entirely different purpose and only at a later point did it come into contact with food, that liquid will enable the food to become Tamei. If, however, the owner intended to dispose of the liquid, then it will not enable the food to become Tamei, for such a liquid is not considered valuable.