1)

PRODUCE IN A STOREHOUSE (Yerushalmi Terumos Perek 4 Halachah 2 Daf 19a)

משנה מי שהיו פירותיו במגורה ונתן סאה לבן לוי וסאה לעני מפריש עוד שמונת סאין ואוכלן דברי ר"מ

(a)

(Mishnah) (R. Meir): One whose produce was in a storehouse and he gave a Se'ah to a Levi (as Maaser Rishon) and a Se'ah to a poor person (as Maaser Ani); he separates another 8 Se'ah and eats them.

וחכ"א אינו מפריש אלא לפי חשבון:

(b)

(Chachamim): (If he is unsure if the Levi's Se'ah and the poor person's Se'ah are still intact) He separates only according to the amount that he is certain still exists.

גמרא ר' לעזר בשם ר' הושעיה עשו אותו כפועל שאינו מאמין לבע"ה

(c)

(Gemara) (R. Elazar citing R. Hoshiya): They treated it like a worker who doesn't trust his employer (to tithe and tithes from his allowance of figs before he takes his allowance from the pile and the Maaseros then take effect retroactively.)

[דף יט עמוד ב] פשיטא הדא מילתא נשרפו הפירות התרומה בטילה נשרפה התרומה לכשיאכלו הפירות קדשה התרומה למפרע:

(d)

The following law is obvious - if the untithed produce became burned, the Terumah is nullified. If the Terumah was burned, then when the produce is eaten, the Terumah is consecrated retroactively.

2)

THE RANGE OF AMOUNTS OF TERUMAH (Yerushalmi Terumos Perek 4 Halachah 3 Daf 19b)

משנה שיעור תרומה עין יפה אחד מארבעים בית שמאי אומרים אחד משלשים והבינונית אחד מחמשים והרעה אחד מששים

(a)

(Mishnah): The amount of Terumah - a generous person gives 1/40th; Beis Shammai says he gives 1/30th. An average person gives 1/50th and a miserly person gives 1/60th.

תרם ועלה בידו אחד מששים תרומה ואינו צריך לתרום

(b)

If one separated Terumah and found it to be 1/60th, it is Terumah and he does not need to separate further.

חזר והוסיף חייב במעשרות

(c)

If he nevertheless separated more, it is obligated in Maaseros.

עלה בידו מששים וא' תרומה ויחזור ויתרום כמות שהוא למוד במידה במשקל ובמניין

(d)

If he found it to be 1/61st, it is Terumah, but he must separate to the amount he usually gives, although (in this instance) it can be done through measure, weight or number.

ר' יהודא אומר אף לא מן המוקף:

(e)

(R. Yehuda): Even if it's not from produce in close proximity.

גמרא כתיב ששית האיפה מחומר החיטים וששיתם את האיפה מחומר השעורים

(f)

(Gemara): It's written (Yechezkel 45:13), "(This is the Terumah that you shall separate); a sixth of an Efah from a Chomer of wheat and two-sixths of an Efah from a Chomer of barley." (If a Chomer is 30 Se'ah and an Efah is 3 Se'ah and the pasuk requires separating 1/6th of an Efah, which is half a Se'ah, for 30 Se'ah - that's 1/60th - which is the miser's amount in our Mishnah.) The pasuk then mentions separating 2/6th, with the words, "and two-sixths of an Efah" - totalling 3/6th of an Efah, which is 11/2 Se'ah per Chomer, which is 1/20th.

יכול תורם חיטים א' (משלשים)[מששים] ושעורים אחד (מששים)[משלשים] ת"ל וכל תרומת שיהיו כל התרומות שוות

(g)

Perhaps I would think that one should separate 1/60th for wheat and 1/30th for barley; but the pasuk states (Yechezkel 44:30), "...and every Terumah" - the Terumos of all species must be equal. (So how is this pasuk explained?)

שמואל אמר תן ששית על ששיתם ונמצא תורם אחד מארבעים

(h)

(Shmuel): Add 1/6th to 2/6th of an Efah, totalling half an Efah (for the two Chomer of the pasuk). He thereby separates 1/40th as Terumah (since two Chomer is 60 Se'ah and half an Efah is 11/2 Se'ah - therefore 1.5/60 is 1/40th).

בינונית אחד מחמשים א"ר לוי כתיב וממחצית בני ישראל תקח אחד אחוז מן החמשים כל שאתה אוחז ממקום אחר הרי הוא כזה מה זה אחד מן החמשים אף מה שאתה אוחז ממקום אחר הרי הוא כזה

(i)

(R. Levi): (The Mishnah taught that) the average person gives 1/50th. The pasuk states (Bamidbar 31:30), "And from half of the Bnei Yisrael you shall take 1 part of 50" - whatever you draw from another place should also be like this. Just as this was 1/50th, so elsewhere (i.e. for Terumah) it should be 1/50th.

והרעה אחד מששים דכתיב (וששיתם את האיפה מחומר השעורים)[ששית האיפה מחומר החיטים]

(j)

(The Mishnah taught that) a miserly person gives 1/60th. As the pasuk (quoted earlier in Yechezkel 45:13) states, "(This is the Terumah that you shall separate); a sixth of an Efah from a Chomer of wheat". (The pasuk requires separating 1/6th of an Efah, which is half a Se'ah, for a Chomer, which is 30 Se'ah - that's 1/60th.)

[דף כ עמוד א] בית שמאי אומרים משלשים (וששית)[וששיתם] האיפה מחומר השעורים

(k)

The Mishnah taught that according to Beis Shammai, a generous person gives 1/30th. Their source is the latter part of that pasuk, "and two-sixths of an Efah from a Chomer of barley" (- which is 1/30th).

בינונית מארבעים מן הדא דשמואל והרעה (מששים)[מחמשים] מן הדא דר' לוי

(l)

Beis Shammai say that an average person gives 1/40th; from the calculation of Shmuel earlier. And they say that a miserly person gives 1/50th; from the teaching of R. Levi earlier.

(ד)אמר רבי לוי בר חינא כל המוציא מעשרותיו כתקנן אינו מפסיד כלום

(m)

(R. Levi bar Chinah): Whoever tithes properly, will not lose anything (as Hash-m will return to him whatever he gave).

מה טעמא ועשירית החומר יהיה האיפה (מן)[אל] החומר יהיה מתכונתו

1.

What's his source for this? The pasuk states (Yechezkel 45:11), "...and a tenth of the Chomer is the Efah; to the Chomer shall be its volume" (meaning that the Efah that was removed shall be 'to the Chomer', i.e. returned to it).

לא צורכה דלא כמה דנן אמרין תרם ועלה בידו אחד (מחמשים)[מששים] תרומה ואין צריך לתרום כן ב"ש אומרים תרם ועלה בידו אחד מחמשים תרומה ואין צריך לתרום

(n)

Question: We say that if one separated Terumah and 1/60th came into his hand (which is the amount for a miserly person), it is Terumah and he need not separate any further. Would Beis Shammai therefore say that if one separated Terumah and 1/50th came into his hand, it is Terumah and he need not separate again?

א"ר חנינא בר איסי לא תני בר קפרא אלא תרם ועלה בידו מחמשים ועד ס' תרומה וא"צ לתרום

(o)

Answer (R. Chanina bar Isi): Didn't Bar Kapara teach in a Baraisa that if when he separated, between 1/50th and 1/60th came into his hand, he doesn't need to separate again; meaning 1/50th according to Beis Shammai and 1/60th according to Beis Hillel.

ר' איסי בשם ר' יוחנן במתכווין לפטור את כריו אבל אם אינו מתכווין לפטור את כריו אפי' אחד על א'

(p)

(R. Isi citing R. Yochanan): (The Mishnah taught that if one separated Terumah and found it to be 1/60th, it is Terumah and he does not need to separate further. If he nevertheless separated more, it is obligated in Maaseros.) It's specifically when he intended to exempt the pile from its Tevel status with his first separation; but if he had intended from the beginning to separate again, he may add even until half of the pile.

3)

WHEN IT WAS FOUND TO BE 1/61ST (Yerushalmi Terumos Perek 4 Halachah 3 Daf 20a)

כהנא אמר כמות שהוא למוד

(a)

(Kahana): (When the Mishnah taught that if he found it to be 1/61st, it is Terumah, he must separate to the amount he usually gives) and if he gives more than that, it is obligated in Maaseros.

ר' יוחנן אמר אפי' א' על א'

(b)

(R. Yochanan disagrees): He may add even until half of the pile (and it is still exempt from Maaseros).

והתנינן כמות שהוא למוד

(c)

Question: The Mishnah taught, "to the amount that he usually gives", (implying that more is obligated in Maaseros)?

שלא לפחות

(d)

Answer: It means that he should not give less than the amount he usually gives.

א"ר לעזר כמות שהוא למוד במדה אם נתכוין להוסיף אפי' במידה

(e)

Answer #2 (R. Elazar): It's teaching that even when he adds according to the amount that he usually gives, on this occasion he may separate by measuring.

ר' יונה אמר ר"ש בן לקיש בעי קומי ר' יוחנן תוספת תרומה מה היא

(f)

(R. Yona): R. Shimon ben Lakish asked R. Yochanan - When a person does take extra because he had first separated only 1/60th, it is obligated in Maaseros?

א"ל משום [דף כ עמוד ב] יחיד אני שונה אותה

(g)

Answer (R. Yochanan to R. Shimon ben Lakish): I answer you with the individual's (i.e. R. Yehuda's) opinion (in the Mishnah). (However, R. Yochanan didn't specify therefore whether or not it would be obligated.)

מה לחיוב או לפטור אין תימר לחיוב ניחא אין תימר לפטור מה אין רבי יהודא דאית ליה שלא מן המוקף פטור רבנן דלית להון שלא מן המוקף לא כל שכן

(h)

Question: Did R. Yochanan mean that it is exempt or obligated (in Maaseros)? If he meant that it is obligated, it's understandable that the Chachamim (of the Mishnah) would disagree and say that it is considered regular Terumah and exempt from Maaseros (since only R. Yehuda there permits taking from produce that is not in close proximity, but the Chachamim do not). But if he meant that it is exempt from Maaseros; if R. Yehuda, who allows separating from produce not in close proximity, exempts it from Maaseros; certainly the Rabbanan (Chachamim) who don't allow it will exempt it from Maaseros?!

אתא ר' יוסי ר' איסי בשם ר"ש בן לקיש תוספת תרומה חייבת במעשרות

(i)

(R. Yosi citing R. Isi in the name of R. Shimon ben Lakish): Extra Terumah is obligated in Maaseros.

א"ר יוסי המשנה [לא] אמרה כן

(j)

Question (R. Yosi): The Mishnah doesn't say this (as it indicates that it would be exempt from Maaseros).

א"ר זעירא לרבי איסי היידא מתני'

(k)

Question (R. Zeira to R. Isi): Which Mishnah is it that indicates this?

ולא אגיביה א"ל ודלמא הדא דתנינן תרם ועלה בידו מששים ואחד תרומה ואינו צריך לתרום ולא תני עלה חזר והוסיף חייב במעשרות

(l)

(R. Zeira): (R. Isi didn't answer as he wanted R. Zeira to answer it himself) Perhaps it's from the end of the Mishnah, where it says, "If he found it to be 1/61st, it is Terumah, but he must separate (again)", but it didn't say that the second Terumah is obligated in Maaseros; this indicates that it is exempt...?

עד כמה אדם פוטר טבלו דבר תורה

(m)

Question: How much must a person separate to exempt his Tevel on a Torah level?

רבי (יוחנן)[יונתן] אמר אחד למאה כתרומת מעשר

(n)

(R. Yonasan): 1/100th, like Terumas Maaser.

א"ל ר' יוחנן מן מאן שמעיתה

(o)

Question (R. Yochanan to R. Yonasan): From where did you hear this?

א"ל מפילפול חברייא שמעית הא

(p)

Answer (R. Yonasan): From discussions with my colleagues.

דרבי ינאי אמר אפילו אחד מאלף

(q)

And R. Yannai said that even 1/1000th removes the prohibition of Tevel.

אמר רבי מנא לית כאן שיעורא דכתיב ראשית דגנך תירושך ויצהרך ואפי' כל שהוא:

(r)

(R. Mana): There is no minimum amount, as the pasuk states (Devarim 18:4), "The first of your grains, you wine and your oil" - even the smallest amount.

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