BAVA METZIA 90 (3 Av) - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Reb Aharon Dovid ben Elimelech Shmuel Kornfeld (Muncasz/Israel/New York), who passed away on 3 Av 5761, by his daughter Diane Koenigsberg and her husband Dr. Andy Koenigsberg. May his love for Torah and for Eretz Yisrael persevere in all of his descendants.


THE WAY HE WORKS (Yerushalmi Halachah 2 Daf 28a)

היה עושה בידיו אבל לא ברגליו.


The Mishnah taught: If he is working with his hands but not his feet...

תני בידיו או ברגליו מקמץ אפילו על כתיפו טוען


Beraisa: (When does the Torah allow him to eat? When he is working) with his hands or squashing with his feet, or even if he carries on his shoulder.

ר' יוסי בי ר' יודה אומר שיעשה בידיו ורגליו וגופו יצא עושה בידיו אבל לא ברגליו ברגליו אבל לא בגופו


R. Yosi bei R. Yehudah: He must be using his hands, his feet and his body. This excludes if he only uses his hands but not his feet or his feet but not his body.

רבי יוסי בי רבי יודן אומר דייש מה דייש מיוחד דבר שגידולי קרקע יצא החולב המגבן המחבץ שאין גידולי קרקע


The Gemara explains: R. Yosi bei R. Yehudah says that we learn from the word "dayish" - "threshing" (in Devarim 25, 4 - "Do not muzzle an ox in its threshing" - threshing) involves food that grows in the ground; this excludes one who milks, makes cheese or curdles, as they do not grow in the ground.

מה דייש מיוחד דבר שלא נגמרה מלאכתו יצא היין משיקפה משירד לעוקה


Threshing (also) involves produce whose processing is unfinished; this excludes wine when it is in the pit, having had its impurities removed. Since its production was completed, the worker cannot eat from it because it has become obligated in Maaser.

הבודל בתמרים והמפרד בגרוגרות דבר שנגמרה מלאכתו


If one separates pressed dates or splits up pressed figs, their production was already completed when the fig/date cakes were made (and the worker cannot eat from them because they have already become obligated in Maaser).

מה דייש שלא בא לזיקת המעשרות יצא הלש והמקטף והאופה שבא לזיקת מעשרות:


Threshing (also) does not obligate produce in tithing; this excludes one who kneads, shapes and bakes dough, as through these actions, it is brought to an obligation to tithe.


EATING FROM A DIFFERENT PRODUCT (Yerushalmi Halachah 3 Daf 28a)

משנה היה עושה בתאנים לא יאכל בענבים בענבים לא יאכל בתאנים אבל מונע הוא את עצמו עד שהוא מגיע למקום היפות ואוכל


(Mishnah): If he was working with figs, he may not eat grapes and vice-versa. However, he may delay eating until he reaches an area with better produce.

וכולן לא אמרו אלא בשעת גמר מלאכה אבל מפני השב אבידה לבעלים אמרו הפועלין אוכלין בהליכתן מאומן לאומן ובחזירתן מן הגת


In all cases, workers should only eat at the time of the completion his work (that he may now sit down and eat the fruits). However, in order not to waste the time (and money) of the employer, the Chachamim permitted them to eat whilst walking from one row to the next and whilst returning from the winepress.

וחמור כשתהא פורקת:


A donkey may eat while be unloaded.

גמרא א"ר לא כתיב כי תבא בכרם רעך ואכלת ענבים כנפשך שבעך


(Gemara) - R. Ila: The pasuk states (Devarim 23, 25), "When you shall come to the vineyard of your friend you may eat grapes as you desire, until you are satiated".

וכי מה יש בכרם לוכל אלא ענבים ללמדך היה עושה בענבים לא יאכל בתאנים:


What else could one eat in a vineyard? Rather, the word "grapes" is to teach you that if he works with grapes, he cannot eat figs (that are growing nearby).