[20a - 26 lines; 20b - 41 lines]

1)[line 1]איתא לדשמואלISA D'SHMUEL- the ruling of Shmuel is [correct]

2)[line 2]וחזר ומחלוV'CHAZAR U'MACHLO- and [the original lender] then returns and forgoes the loan [that he has sold to another]

3)[line 3]יורשYORESH- the heir [of the lender]

4)[line 5]בששטר כתובה יוצא מתחת ידהBESHE'SHTAR KESUVAH YOTZEI MI'TACHAS YADAH- [a case] in which the Kesuvah document is in her possession (lit. is going out of her hand) [and she has obviously not sold it]

5)[line 6]חיישינן לשתי כתובותCHAISHINAN LI'SHTEI KESUVOS- we suspect [that perhaps her husband wrote] two Kesuvah documents [and she sold one while retaining the other]

6)[line 7]חדאCHADA- firstly

7)[line 8]שובר בזמנו טריףSHOVER BI'ZEMANO TARIF- [there is no reason to suspect foul play in this case since] a receipt annuls the debt [retroactively] from the date written upon it

8)[line 9]עדיו בחתומיו זכין לוEDAV B'CHASUMAV ZACHIN LO- see Background to 19:24

9)[line 10]איגרות שוםIGROS SHUM- documents that record an evaluation [made by Beis Din of property belonging to a debtor so that the creditor can collect them]

10)[line 10]ואיגרות מזוןV'IGROS MAZON- or documents that record [that one has accepted upon himself to] support [his wife's daughter (or son)]

11)[line 11]שטרי חליצהSHETAREI CHALITZAH- documents that record [that a certain woman received] Chalitzah (see Background to 16:41)

12)[line 11]ומיאוניןU'MI'UNIN - A Young Girl's Refusal of Her Rabbinically Allowed Marriage

(a)Until a girl reaches the age of physical maturity, her father may marry her to a groom of his choosing. This marriage is as valid as one in which a woman who is of age consents to marry a man of her own choosing.

(b)If such a girl is subsequently divorced or widowed before she reaches the age of maturity, or if her father died before marrying her off, then the Chachamim allowed her mother and/or oldest brother to marry her off. Such a marriage, however, is valid only mid'Rabanan. In this case she must understand the concept of marriage, which may not occur until she is ten years old and cannot occur at any younger than six years of age. The RAMBAM and the RA'AVAD maintain that if such a girl gets married on her own, it is constitutes a valid marriage mid'Rabanan.

(c)When a young girl is married mid'Rabanan, she has the option of rejecting the marriage. At any point until she reaches Halachic maturity (i.e., until she becomes a Na'arah), she may declare in front of two witnesses, "I do not want him". This procedure is termed Mi'un (refusal), and through it her marriage is retroactively annulled. A Get (a bill of divorce) is unnecessary in Mi'un. A girl who was married off by her father cannot annul her marriage through Mi'un.

(d)Our Mishnah discusses documents found that record a Mi'un that had occurred in Beis Din.

13)[line 11]ושטרי בירוריןU'SHETAREI BIRURIN- or documents of clarification; the Gemara discusses the exact nature of these documents

14)[line 12]בחפיסה... בדלוסקמאBA'CHAFISA... BI'DELUSKEMA- The Gemara (20b) will define these items.

15)[line 13]תכריך... אגודהTACHRICH... AGUDAH- package... bundle. The Gemara (20b) will explain the difference between these terms.

16)[line 16]אחד הלוה משלשהECHAD HA'LOVEH MI'SHELOSHAH- [if one found three documents which record] loans taken by one [borrower] from three [different lenders]

17)[line 18]שטרSHTAR- a document [recording a debt owed by one third party to another third party]

18)[line 18]מה טיבוMAH TIVO- what the nature [of the document] is. The possibilities are: 1. the lender asked him to keep it safe so that he has proof of the money owed him; 2. the borrower asked him to keep it safe so that he has proof that he has repaid his loan; and 3. part of the loan was repaid and the lender and the borrower asked him to keep it safe along with the knowledge of the current status of the loan.

19)[line 19]יהא מונחYEHEI MUNACH- it should remain in escrow

20)[line 19]אם יש עמהן סמפונותIM YESH IMAHEN SIMPONOS- (the Mishnah now teaches a new Halachah:) if among [one's documents] there are receipts [for loans that are recorded in other documents still in his possession]

21)[line 21]הכא תרגמוHACHA TIRGEMU- here [in Bavel] they explained it [to mean]

22)[line 21]שטרי טענתאSHETAREI TA'ANASA- documents that record claims [made in court so that one is not able to later retract or change them]

23)[line 22]זה בורר לו אחד וזה בורר לו אחדZEH BORER LO ECHAD V'ZEH BORER LO ECHAD- [documents that record - so that neither can back out of their choice - that] one [litigant] chose one [judge to judge his dispute with another] and that the other [litigant] chose one [judge, after which these two judges will choose a third (see Gitin 14a)]

24)[line 24]ההוא גיטא דאשתכח בי דינא דרב הונאHA'HU GITA D'ISHTACHACH BEI DINA D'RAV HUNA- there was a bill of divorce that was found in the Beis Din of Rav Huna

25)[line 25]בשוירי מתא דעל רכיס נהראBE'SHAVIREI MASA D'AL RACHIS NAHARA- [that a certain man divorced his wife in] the [Babylonian] city of Shavirei located on the Rachis river (or canal). The name of this city may possibly mean a caravan station (related to "Shayara" - a caravan).


26)[line 1]חיישינן לשני שויריCHAISHINAN LI'SHNEI SHAVIREI- we must suspect that there are two places called Shavirei [and even though in the one that is known to us there is only person of this name, there is another by this name in the other city called Shavirei]

27a)[line 2]פוק עיין [בה]PUK AYEIN [BAH]- Go and delve into [this matter]

b)[line 2]דלאורתא בעי לה רב הונא מינךDIL'URSA BA'I MINACH RAV HUNA- for this evening Rav Huna will ask you about it

28)[line 3]נפק, דק, ואשכחNAFAK, DAK, V'ASHKACH- he went out, researched, and found

29)[line 4]היכי פשיט מר איסורא מממונא?HEICHI PASHIT MAR ISURA MI'MAMONA?- how has Mar (a third-person term of respect) resolved a question of matters of prohibition (i.e., a Get) from a Mishnah dealing with monetary matters (i.e., documents recording evaluations and monetary commitments)?

30)[line 5]תרדא!TARDA!- (a) fool! (RASHI here - see end of Sotah 24a and TARGUM YONASON to Devarim 28:28, RASHI to Zevachim 25b, first explanation of RASHI to Kerisus 18b); (b) lazy one! (second explanation of RASHI to Kerisus 18b) (see Insights #5)

31)[line 6]פקע ארזא דבי רבPAKA ARZA D'VEI RAV- the central pillar of the Beis ha'Midrash cracked

32a)[line 7]מר אמר, "משום לתאי דידי פקע"MAR AMAR, "MISHUM LESA'I DIDI PAKA!"- [Rav Amram] claimed, "It was due to my honor that it cracked [since you called me a fool]!"

b)[line 7]ומר אמר, "משום לתאי דידי פקע"U'MAR AMAR, "MISHUM LESA'I DIDI PAKA!"- and [Rabah] claimed, "It was due to my honor that it cracked [since you attempted to embarrass me in the Beis ha'Midrash by claiming that I had made such a basic error]!"

33)[line 10]חמת קטנהCHEMES KETANAH- a small leather wineskin

34)[line 11]טליקא דסביTALIKA D'SAVEI- (a) a sack (RASHI); (b) a chest (RAMBAM in Peirush ha'Mishnayos to Me'ilah 6:1); c) a basket (PEIRUSH KADMON to Me'ilah 21a) [in which] the elderly [keep their possessions]

35)[line 15]קשר סימןKESHER SIMAN- [the manner in which] a knot [is tied] can function as an identifying characteristic [through which to return a lost item]. This is a question that the Gemara never satisfactorily settles (see 23b and 25b).

36)[line 15]הא תני רבי חייא, "שלשה כרוכין זה בזה"HA TANI REBBI CHIYA, "SHELOSHAH KERUCHIN ZEH BA'ZEH"- (the Gemara defers this proof:) but Rebbi Chiya taught in a Tosefta [that what the Mishnah means by an Agudah is], "three [documents] bundled together" [which implies that it is the way in which they are packaged that serves as a Siman]

37)[line 17]כל חד וחד בראשה דחבריהKOL CHAD V'CHAD B'ROSHAH D'CHAVREI- each one [is rolled together with] the next beginning at its edge

38)[line 18]דרמו אהדדי וכרוכותD'RAMU A'HADADEI U'CHERUCHOS- they are placed one atop the other and then rolled [together]

39)[line 18]מאי מכריז? מניןMAI MACHRIZ? MINYAN- what does he announce [when attempting to find the owner of the documents]? [Their] number [and the manner in which they are bundled will serve as the Siman]

40)[line 19]מאי אריא תלתא? אפילו תרין נמי!MAI IRYA TELASA? AFILU TREIN NAMI!- why [does the Mishnah] specify three? Even two also [should be returnable with the Siman of how they are bundled together]! If a number is required as a Siman, two are too few. This is because one must announce that he found "documents", and the simple usage of the plural implies two.

41)[line 20]טבעא מכריזTIV'A MACHRIZ- he announces the type [of item found]

42)[line 21]שטרי מכריזSHETAREI MACHRIZ- he announces that he has found documents [and the owner must provide both their number and how they are bundled in order to receive them back]

43)[line 23]מאי בעו גבי הדדי?MAI BA'U GABEI HADADEI?- why are they all together?

44)[line 23]דלמא לקיומינהו אזליDILMA L'KIYUMINHU AZLEI- perhaps [the reason why they are all in the same place is that the three lenders all] went [to Beis Din] to ratify [their documents] (see Background to 16:65)

45)[line 24]דמקיימיD'MEKAIMEI- (the Gemara answers) [the Mishnah is discussing a case in which] they are [already] ratified

46)[line 24]מידא דספרא נפילMI'YADA D'SAFRA NAFIL- they fell from the hand of the scribe [who was commissioned by all three lenders]

47)[line 24]לא משהי איניש קיומיה בידא דספראLO MASH'HI INISH KEYUMEI B'YADA D'SAFRA- (the Gemara answers) people do not leave ratified documents in the possession of a scribe

48)[line 27]למכתבנהו אזליL'MICHTEVINHU AZLEI- [the three borrowers] went to have [these documents] written [by the same scribe, and they have not yet borrowed the money]

49)[line 28]בתלת ידי ספריBE'TELAS YEDEI SAFREI- with the handwriting of three different scribes

50)[line 31]בכתב ידוBI'KSAV YADO- in his own handwriting

51)[line 31]כמשחקK'MISCHAK- like a game

52)[line 32]ספרא אתרמי ליהSAFRA ISRAMI LEI- he happened upon a scribe [and took advantage of the opportunity to have a receipt at the ready]

53)[line 33]ואתי בין השמשותV'ASI BEIN HA'SHEMASHOS- [the borrower] will arrive toward evening [on Friday, just before the onset of Shabbos]

54)[line 33]דאי לא יהיבנא ליהD'IY LO YAHIVNA LEI- for if I do not give him [a receipt]

55)[line 35]שנמצא בין שטרות קרועיןSHE'NIMTZA BEIN SHETAROS KERU'IN- (a) that [the document about which the receipt was written] was found amongst his torn-up documents [even though the document itself was whole, thereby signifying that the document had been paid up and that he had forgotten to tear it up] (first explanation cited by RASHI); (b) that [the receipt] was found amongst his torn-up documents [thereby signifying that it was no longer necessary to have it at the ready, and that he had simply forgotten to give it to the borrower when he repaid the loan] (the second, preferred explanation of RASHI) (see Insights)

56)[line 37]שטרו של יוסף בן שמעון פרועSHETARO SHEL YOSEF BEN SHIMON PARU'A- [a document that states that] the document of Yosef ben Shimon has been repaid [and he holds two bills of debt, from each of two people by this name]

57)[line 39]שבועה "שלא פקדנו אבא"SHEVU'A "SHE'LO PAKADNU ABA"- [orphans who wish to collect a debt owed to their father from other orphans must] swear that "Our father did not instruct us [at the time of his death that this debt had been repaid]"

58)[line 39]ושלא אמר לנו אבאV'SHE'LO AMAR LANU ABA- and that our father did not tell us [at any time prior to his death that this debt had been repaid]

59)[last line]יתקיים בחותמיוYISKAYEM B'CHOSAMAV- (at this point, the Gemara takes this to mean) it should be ratified by those who signed it. Since the lender who has produced the receipt claims that the reason why it is still in his possession is that the borrower has yet to pay his debt, the borrower cannot use it as proof that he has indeed repaid unless the witnesses signed upon it testify as to the validity of their signatures.