PAST DEDICATION
BAVA KAMA 81 (23 Adar) - The material produced for this Daf has been dedicated in loving memory of Moshe Simcha ben David Rubner, who was killed in action while defending his people as a member of the Israeli armed forces. Sponsored in honor of his 20th Yahrzeit by his parents, David and Zahava Rubner of Petach Tikva, Israel.

[81a - 36 lines; 81b - 51 lines]

1)[line 1]שיהו מרעין בחורשיןSHE'YEHU MAR'IN B'CHORASHIN- that people should be permitted to graze their animals in forests that belong to others. (This applies to small animals such as sheep and goats, in forests where most of the trees have thick branches (RAMBAM Hilchos Nizkei Mamon 5:3).)

2)[line 3]מתלתןTILTAN- (O.F. fenogre) fenugreek, an annual Asian and southern European plant of the pea family, having aromatic, mucilaginous (sticky, gummy, containing or secreting mucilage) seeds that are used in making curry, and for medicinal purposes

3)[line 3]וקוטמים נטיעותKOTMIM NETI'OS- we may snip off branches from someone else's tree in order to plant it

4)[line 4]מגרופיות של זיתMI'GROFIYOS SHEL ZAYIS- the shoots of an olive tree. The owner of the tree leaves two such shoots (the size of a fist) on his tree in order for them to sprout branches and grow new olives (Bava Basra 80a).

5)[line 5]מסתפקיןMISTAPKIN- they may supply their needs [from it]

6)[line 5]ומחכיןMECHAKIN- they may place their fish-hooks

7)[line 5]בימה של טבריאYAMAH SHEL TEVERYA- the Kineret, Sea of Galilee

8)[line 6]שלא יפרוס קלעSHE'LO YIFROS KELA (O.F. gorg)- (a) he may not spread out reeds in an area in the water in order to make a fence there with which to snare fish (since doing so disrupts the movement of other boats; RASHI. For a detailed description of this form of catching fish, see the GA'ON quoted by the Shitah Mekubetzes); (b) he may not spread out his sail there in order to keep the boat from moving so that he may fish for an extended period of time (RA'AVAD, cited by the RASHBA in Shitah Mekubetzes)

9)[line 7]ונפנין לאחורי הגדרV'NIFNIN L'ACHOREI HA'GEDER- they may relieve themselves behind someone's fence (even though he will thereby take a rock from the fence to clean himself)

10)[line 8]כרכוםKARKOM- saffron

11)[line 9]רביעה שניהREVI'AH SHENIYAH- the second rains of the season

12)[line 10]יתידות הדרכיםYESEIDOS HA'DERACHIM- peg-like formations on the road that form during the summer as a result of the drying mud

13)[line 11]מפסיג ועולה מפסיג ויורדMAFSIG V'OLEH, MAFSIG V'YORED- [if a person becomes lost in a vineyard and cannot see the path due to the vines,] he may cut branches and go up, and cut branches and go down, [until he finds his way out]

14)[line 11]ומת מצוה קונה מקומוU'MES MITZVAH KONEH MEKOMO

(a)When a dead Jew is found unattended and an attempt to determine who his relatives are brings about no response, the dead body is called a Mes Mitzvah. The person who found the body is obligated to bury it. (RAMBAM Hilchos Avel 3:8)

(b)The body must be buried where it is found; "Mes Mitzvah Koneh Mekomo" - it "acquires the place where it rests." Even if it is found in the middle of a field that belongs to someone else, it is buried there. (However, if the body is found within 2000 Amos of a Jewish community, it must be buried in the community cemetery (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Mes 8:7).)

15)[line 13]דקה בגסהDAKAH B'GASAH- small animals in a large forest

16)[line 16]בהיומי והיגיHIZMEI V'HIGEI- prickly shrubs or trees, and prickly bushes

17)[line 19]שלא ישרשSHE'LO YESHARESH- [as long as] he does not uproot them (that is, he may cut them, but he may not pull them up from their roots)

18)[line 23]אין מחייבין אותו לעקורEIN MECHAIVIN OSO LA'AKOR - we do not obligate him to uproot it (KIL'AYIM / KIL'EI ZERA'IM)

(a)It is forbidden to plant different types of crops together (Kil'ei Zera'im) as it states in the Torah, "Sadecha Lo Sizra Kil'ayim" - "Do not plant different species (together) in your field" (Vayikra 19:19). The resulting produce is not Asur b'Hana'ah.

(b)With regard to sowing different types of crops in a vineyard, the verse states "Lo Sizra Karmecha Kil'ayim, Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah ha'Zera Asher Tizra u'Sevu'as ha'Karem" - "You shall not sow your vineyard with other species, lest the fruit of the seed which you have sown, and the fruit of the vineyard, be forfeited" (Devarim 22:9). If one sows Kil'ayim in a vineyard, the produce becomes prohibited ("Kidesh," from the word in the verse, "Tikdash").

(c)The Mishnayos in Maseches Kil'ayim specify the distance that one must leave between different crops.

19a)[line 24]לזרעL'ZERA- to use its seeds (for replanting)

b)[line 24]לזיריןL'ZIRIN (O.F. tudels)- young tender shoots (stalks) of the Tiltan (see above, entry #2) that are edible

20)[line 25](מעלי) [מעלו] לה(MA'ALEI) [MA'ALU] LAH- they are beneficial for it

21)[line 29]שאריה משארי לאדםSHA'AREI MESHA'AREI L'ADAM- if they were planted in rows, then it shows that they were planted for human consumption

22)[line 32]בזית כביצהB'ZAYIS K'VEITZAH- with regard to [the shoots that one may not cut off of someone else's] olive tree, [one must leave the shoots with a height of at least] like the size of an egg

23)[line 32]בקניםKANIM- reeds (any type of tree that grows in the form of a cane or reed, such as sugar cane)

24)[line 32]ובגפניםGEFANIM- grapevines

25)[line 33]מן הפקק ולמעלהMIN HA'PEKAK UL'MA'ALAH- from the knot/joint (in the reed or vine)

26a)[line 34]אובו של אילןOVO SHEL ILAN- (a) the place of the tree where the fruit grows (which is soft and thin, and will grow back; first explanation of RASHI); (b) CHOVO SHEL ILAN - the "hidden" part of the tree, i.e. the place of the tree which has a lot of branches, at the midpoint of the tree's height (TESHUVOS HA'GE'ONIM)

b)[line 34]חודו של אילןCHUDO SHEL ILAN- (a) the thick branches of the tree (first explanation of RASHI); (b) the top of the tree, i.e. the middle branch, which is the main branch of the tree (TESHUVOS HA'GE'ONIM)

27)[last line]החמהCHAMAH- the sun

81b----------------------------------------81b

28)[line 2]"וממגד תבואות שמש""UMI'MEGED TEVU'OS SHAMESH"- "And from the bounty of the crops of the sun." (Devarim 33:14)

29a)[line 7]ברשתותRESHASOS- nets

b)[line 7]ובמכמרותMICHMAROS- traps

30)[line 10]בחלקו של נפתליCHELKO SHEL NAFTALI- the portion of land given to the tribe of Naftali

31)[line 11]שנטל מלא חבל חרם בדרומהSHE'NATAL MELO CHEVEL CHEREM BI'DEROMAH- he received an area on its (the sea's) south shore the full size of the rope of a net

32)[line 12]"ים ודרום ירשה""YAM V'DAROM YERASHAH"- "The sea and the south shore he inherited." (Devarim 33:23)

33)[line 12]תלושין שבהריםTELUSHIN SHEBA'HARIM- the uprooted [trees and plants] in the mountains

34a)[line 14]בהרHAR- mountain, mountainous region

b)[line 14]ובשפלהSHEFELAH- plain, low-lying region

c)[line 14]ובנגבNEGEV- desert area

d)[line 14]ובעמקEMEK- valley

35)[line 19]ואפילו בשבתV'AFILU B'SHABBOS- and even on Shabbos. Although taking a rock to clean oneself might involve uprooting the grass that has grown upon the rock, it is nevertheless permissible, since one has no intention to uproot the grass (and it is not a "Pesik Reshei"; it is not definitely going to uproot grass) (SHITAH MEKUBETZES). In addition, even though a rock is Muktzah on Shabbos, it may be handled for the sake of cleaning oneself, as long as it has not been plastered into the fence in a permanent manner (ME'IRI).

36)[line 19]שקיל ומהדרSHAKIL U'MEHADER- he took it (the rock), and he replaced it

37)[line 20]לשמעיהSHAM'EI- his servant, attendant

38)[line 20]זיל שירקיהZIL SHIRKEI- go plaster [the rock] into the wall in a permanent manner

39)[line 22]הוו שקלי ואזלי באורחאHAVU SHAKLEI V'AZLEI B'URCHA- they were going and walking on the road

40)[line 25]הוה קא מפסיע ואזילHAVA KA MAFSI'A V'AZIL- he was taking large steps (to walk over the mud-pegs) and walking

41)[line 28]גזרתינהו לשקך בגיזרא דפרזלאGEZARTINHU L'SHAKECH B'GIZRA D'FARZELA- I would have cut off your leg with an iron cutting instrument (i.e. I would have excommunicated you)

42)[line 34]נהדריה נהדר בי מיצריNEHADREI NIHADAR BEI MITZREI- he should go around to the edge of the field (in order to the find the road)

43)[line 35]"והשבותו""VA'HASHEVOSO" (HASHAVAS AVEIDAH/HASHAVAS GUFO)- "... and return it to him" (Devarim 22:2). The Gemara reads this phrase as, "and return him" [if he himself is lost]. The Torah (Devarim 22:1-3) commands that a person who finds a lost object must return it to the owner. Our Gemara teaches that, similarly, it is a Mitzvah d'Oraisa for a person who finds a lost person must to help that person find his way.

44)[line 37]מוטל באיסרטיאMUTAL B'ISRATYA- lying in a wide street, or public area

45)[line 37]מפנהוMEFANEHU- he removes it

46a)[line 37]שדה בורSEDEH VUR- an uncultivated filed

b)[line 38]ושדה נירSEDEH NIR- a plowed field

c)[line 38]שדה נירSEDEH ZERA- a planted field of vegetation

47)[line 40]במוטל על המיצרB'MUTAL AL HA'MEITZAR- lying on the path that is between two fields

48)[line 41]אמרי עשרה? הני חד סרי הויין?!AMREI ASARAH? HANEI CHAD SREI HAVYAN?!- you said that there were ten [enactments of Yehoshua]? They [that you listed] are eleven!

49)[line 44]מהיות טוב אל תקרי רעMIHEYOS TOV AL TIKRI RA- when you can be good, do not be called bad

50)[line 45]"אל תמנע טוב מבעליו בהיות לאל ידך לעשות""AL TIMNA TOV MI'BE'A'LAV, BI'HEYOS L'EL YADCHA LA'ASOS"- "Do not withhold good from those who are entitled to it, when it is in the power of your hand to do." (Mishlei 3:27)

51)[line 46]בשעת הוצאת זבליםBI'SHE'AS HOTZA'AS ZEVALIM- at the time of year when people take out fertilizer

52)[line 47]וצוברוV'TZOVRO- piles it up

53)[line 47]נישוףNISHOF- flattened, pressed

54)[line 49]וקוצץ שוכוV'KOTZETZ SOCHO- he may cut the branch [of his neighbor's tree]

55)[line 50]נחילNECHIL- a swarm of bees

56)[line 51]מפרק את עציוMEFAREK ES ETZAV- he should take apart his bundle of wood (and remove it from his donkey)

57)[line 51]וטוען פשתנו של חבירוV'TO'EN PISHTANO SHEL CHAVEIRO- carry the flax of his friend

58)[last line]ביחידאיYECHIDA'EI- opinions or statements of individual Tana'aim (as opposed to anonymously expressed statements)

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