[17a - 41 lines; 17b - 53 lines]

1)[line 3] CHALUTZEI KASEF- those who bared their shoulders [in mourning]

2)[line 4] !VA'HALO LI'FNEI ACHAV ASU KEN! - Even the wicked king Achav was honored in such a way! (Melachim I 22:36) (THE DOWNFALL OF THE WICKED KING ACHAV)

(a)Achav, wicked king of the ten tribes of Yisrael, greatly desired the vineyard of his relative Navos ha'Yizre'eli. The wicked queen Izevel devised a sinister plot through which Navos was executed and Achav inherited his vineyard. Hash-m held Achav responsible for the murder, and He notified Achav through Eliyahu ha'Navi that "where the dogs licked the blood of Navos shall the dogs lick your blood" (Melachim I 21:19). The time had arrived for Divine retribution to be meted out upon Achav for this and his many other sins (ibid. Chapter 21).

(b)Achav's advisors advocated going to war with Aram. The king's false prophets, including Tzidkiyah ben Kena'anah, predicted Achav's victory. Concurrently, the true prophet Michaihu beheld a vision in which the spirit of Navos offered to entice Achav into the battle that would lead to his doom. It was this spirit who was responsible for the false prophecies of victory.

(c)Achav took the advice of his false prophets and went to war against Aram, where he alone was slain in battle. Although he was later buried, much of his blood was indeed lapped by dogs in the very place where Navos had been executed.

(d)Although the righteous of the generation rejoiced in the downfall of the wicked king, tens of thousands of Achav's supporters who had gathered with him for the war mourned him in force. Since the verse implies that the way in which Yechizkiyahu was honored was unique, it is unlikely that it was in this way that he was honored.

3)[line 5]MITASO- his bier

4)[line 6] ( ? ) , VEHA'IDNA (NAMI AVDINAN HACHI? AFUKEI) MAFKINAN, ANUCHEI LO MANCHINAN- and (do we not do this) nowadays (as well? [Nowadays]) we take out [the Sefer Torah, but] we do not place it [on the bier]. According to the Girsa of RASHI, this is a statement as opposed to a question and answer.

5)[line 9] ' HAVAH AZILNA BAHADEI D'REBBI YOCHANAN L'MISH'AL SHEMAITA- I was going along with Rav Yochanan in order to ask him questions on what we were learning

6)[line 11] BEIS HA'KISEI- restroom

7)[line 11] V'HAVAH BA'INA MINEI MILSA- and I was asking him something

8)[line 12]PASHIT- answer

9)[line 12] MASHI YADEI- he washed his hands

10)[line 13]MEVARECH- made the blessing [on his Tefilin (before tightening them; see YA'AVETZ)]

11)[line 15] () [] GADOL (LIMUD) [TALMUD] TORAH, SHEHA'LIMUD MEVI LI'YEDEI MA'ASEH- the learning of Torah is great, as learning leads to deed (i.e., the performance of Mitzvos) [and we therefore see that a) Mitzvah performance is greater than Torah learning (RASHI); b) Torah learning is greater than Mitzvah performance, but that one who is praised with having performed Mitzvos must have learned Torah as well (RABEINU TAM cited in TOSFOS DH veha'Amar; see also the variant Girsa of the SHE'ILTOS cited ibid.)]

12a)[line 16] HA L'MIGMAR- this [that even current Talmidei Chachamim are honored with after their death refers] to one's own learning

b)[line 16] HA L'AGMUREI- this [that only Yechizkiyahu ha'Melech was honored with refers] to teaching others

13)[line 18]" --, - .""ASHREICHEM ZOR'EI AL KOL MAYIM, MESHALCHEI REGEL HA'SHOR VEHA'CHAMOR"- "Fortunate are you who are as those who have sown where water is always found, who send the feet of the ox [to thresh the grain] and the donkey [to carry it to the house]" (Yeshayah 32:20). This is part of a prophecy concerning the time of Mashi'ach.

14)[line 20] NACHALAS SHNEI SHEVATIM- the inheritance of [the] two tribes of [Yosef, who is compared to an ox (Devarim 23:17), and Yisachar, who is compared to a donkey (Bereishis 49:14)]

15)[line 22]" , - ...""ZIR'U LACHEM LI'TZEDAKAH, KITZRU L'FI CHESED ..."- "Sow righteousness for your own benefit, so as to reap according to [the] kindness [of Hash-m] ..." (Hoshe'a 10:12).

16)[line 23]"! - ...""HOY! KOL TZAMEI LECHU LA'MAYIM ..."- "Ho! Let all who are thirsty go to water ..." (Yeshayah 55:1). "Water" in this verse refers to Torah.

17)[line 25]KILAH- a canopy bed. The MAHARSHA explains that this alludes to the Berachah given to Yosef that his children would be numerous.

18)[line 25]" , [ -;] -.""BEN PORAS YOSEF, [BEN PORAS ALEI AYIN;] BANOS TZA'ADAH ALEI SHUR."- "Yosef is a favorable son, [a son who finds favor in the eyes of those who behold him;] the daughters [of Mitzrayim] peered at him from atop the wall" (Bereishis 49:22). TARGUM ONKELUS translates this verse as, "Yosef is a fruitful son, [a son who is blessed as a vine growing upon a spring of water;] two tribes will issue from his sons, who will receive their portion and dwellings. This is one of the blessings conferred by Yakov Avinu to Yosef before his death.

19)[line 27]" ...""YISACHAR CHAMOR GAREM ..."- "Yisachar is a large-boned donkey ..." (Bereishis 49:14). TARGUM ONKELUS translates this verse as, "Yisachar has a wealth of possessions ..." Such wealth enables Yisachar to learn the Torah without distractions. This is one of the blessings conferred by Yakov Avinu to Yisachar before his death.

20)[line 28]" , ;] - ...""... BAHEM AMIM YENAGACH YACHDAV AFSEI ARETZ ..."- "[The majesty of the ox is given to him, and the horns of the Re'em are his horns;] with them nations shall gore each other until the ends of the earth ..." (Devarim 33:17). This is one of the blessings conferred by Moshe Rabeinu to Shevet Yosef before his death.

21)[line 29]BINAH- understanding

22)[line 30]" , , - ...""UMI'BNEI YISACHAR, YOD'EI VINAH LA'ITIM, LA'DA'AS MAH YA'ASEH YISRAEL ..."- "And of the children of Yisachar, men who had understanding of the times, to know what Yisrael ought to do; [the heads of them were two hundred, and all their brothers were at their command]" (Divrei ha'Yamim I 12:33).


23)[line 33] ? KEITZAD HA'REGEL MU'EDES? L'SHABER B'DERECH HILUCHA- a) for what actions is Regel responsible to pay full damages? To break [that which lies in its path] as it walks normally (RASHI); b) TOSFOS DH ha'Behemah reads this entire phrase as one question: for what actions is Regel responsible to pay full damages when it breaks [that which lies in its path] as it walks normally?

24)[line 35]MEVA'ETES- kicking

25)[line 35]TZEROROS- pebbles

26)[line 36]MENATZIN- spraying

27)[line 37]DARSAH- if it trampled

28)[line 38]NAFAL- [a fragment of the broken vessel] falls

29)[line 40]DELIL- a) that which is caught upon the foot of a chicken; b) alt. DELI - a pitcher

30)[last line]MEHADES- prance


31)[line 1] !HAINU REGEL HAINU BEHEMAH!- "Regel" and "Behemah" [referred to in our Mishnah] refer to the same thing! [Why therefore does our Mishnah a) repeat its answer? (RASHI); b) change its terminology from its question to its answer? (TOSFOS DH ha'Behemah)]

32)[line 2] TANA AVOS UKA'TANI TOLDOS- [when the author of our Mishnah refers to "Regel"] he teaches the main category and [when he refers to "Behemah"] he teaches the subcategories [of Regel (see continuation of Gemara)]

33)[line 4] ?MAI AVOS U'MAI TOLDOS IKA?- what main category and subcategories exist [within the parameters of eating? The only subcategories of Shen are cases in which an animal soils produce or knocks down a wall while rubbing against it (3a)!]

34)[line 4] HAVAH KAMEHADER LEI BI'VEDICHUSA- [Rava] answered [Ravina] jokingly

35)[line 5] , ANA SHANA'I CHADA, V'AT SHANI CHADA- I answered one, and you answer the other! (even though the first answer was worthless without the second; alt. "Shani" is a play on the word "Shen")

36)[line 7] TANA SHEN D'CHAYAH UKA'TANI SHEN D'VEHEMAH- the author of the Mishnah taught Shen of a non-domesticated animal (e.g. deer and lions) and he taught Shen of domesticated animals

37)[line 8]"[ - -] -, [ , , .]""V'SHILACH ES BE'IRO ..."- "[If a man shall lead his animal to another's field or vineyard] and send in his animal (to trample it), [or it shall graze in the field of another, he shall make restitution with the best of his field or the best of his vineyard]" (Shemos 22:4).

38)[line 10] !HA MIBA'EI LEI L'MISNEI B'REISHA!- this [case referring to a Behemah] should be taught first [since it was is primarily referred to in the verse]!

39)[line 10] HAI D'ASYA LEI MI'DERASHAH CHAVIVA LEI- that which is derived through a derivation is precious to him [since it contains a novel idea]

40)[line 12] ?HACHI HASHTA ?- now [is this] so?

41)[line 13] IDI V'IDI AVOS NINHU- both [Behemah and Chayah] are main categories

42)[line 14] ?SHAVIK AV V'TANI TOLDAH?- shall [the Tana] abandon the main category and teach the subcategory [first]?

43)[line 15] , AIDI D'SALIK ME'REGEL, PASACH B'REGEL- since [the previous Perek] ended with [a discussion of] Regel, [our Perek] begins with Regel (see TOSFOS to 17a DH Keitzad)

44)[line 19]BI'SE'ARAH- [by knocking over vessels] with its hair (such as its tail)

45a)[line 19]UKAF- (O.F. sele) saddle

b)[line 19]SHELIF- a load carried in a saddlebag

c)[line 20]PERUMBEYA- A bit

d)[line 20] ZOG SHEB'TZAV'ARAH- the bell around its neck

46)[line 21] CHAMOR B'MASA'O- a donkey with its burden [which is tied onto it more loosely than those of other animals (TOSFOS DH va'Chamor)]

47)[line 22] CHAZIR SHE'HAYAH NOVER B'ASHPAH- a pig that was rooting with its snout in a pile of garbage

48)[line 24] ?TZEROROS MAN D'CHAR SHEMAIHU?- who mentioned the Halachah of Tzeroros [that the Beraisa should teach us the opinion of Sumchus]?

49)[line 25] CHISUREI MECHSERA V'HACHI KA'TANI- see Background to 16:6

50)[line 26] KI ORCHAIHU- that occur as an animal walks normally

51)[line 30]MAFRICHIN- flying

52)[line 31]B'CHANFEIHEN- with their wings

53)[line 43]ISA- dough

54a)[line 34]TINFU- soiled

b)[line 34]NIKRU- pecked

55)[line 34]HE'ELU- raised [from the ground]

56)[line 37] KOCHO K'GUFO DAMI- one's projected force is similar to his direct action [in terms of liability for damages]

57)[line 40] HILCHESA GEMIRI LAH- was taught as a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai (an oral tradition handed down to Moshe Rabeinu at Har Sinai; see also Insights to 19:1)

58)[line 40] ...KOL SHEB'ZAV TAMEI ...

(a)A man who emits Zov at least twice, whether this occurs over the course of one day or two or consecutive days, is called a Zav. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg (in contrast to semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white). Zov also may be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid component of barley dough or soft barley batter. A Zav has the status of an Av ha'Tum'ah and may not enter "Machaneh Leviyah" (see Background to Pesachim 67:6).

(b)One who emits Zov is not necessarily Tamei. If he is an Ones an external factor contributed to the emission then he remains Tahor. Circumstances that may induce an emission of Zov are: 1. overeating; 2. overdrinking; 3. carrying a heavy load; 4. jumping; 5. sickness; 6. seeing a) a frightening sight (RASHI to Nazir 65b); b) a woman (even if he had no impure thoughts; ROSH ibid.); 7. impure thoughts.

(c)A Zav must count seven "clean" days during which he experiences no discharge in order to start his purification process. On the seventh day or following, he immerses himself in a Mikvah during the daytime. At nightfall he becomes Tahor (assuming that he continue to experience no emissions; Zavim 2:2).

(d)If a Zav emits Zov only twice, he need not bring a Korban. If he has discharged Zov three times, however whether over the course of one day or over two or three consecutive days he must offer a Korban after completing his seven clean days in order to be able to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Korbanos.

(e)The Korban which a Zav must offer consists of a pair of turtle-doves or common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

(f)A Zav causes objects underneath him to become Avos ha'Tum'ah (a source of spiritual impurity; see Background to 2:17), whether or not he come into contact with them. The status of such an object is that of a Tamei Midras (lit. that which is treaded upon), also known as a Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav or the "Tachton" of a Zav. An object beneath a Zav becomes a Midras only if it is designed for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot receive Tum'as Midras.

(g)One who comes into contact with ("Maga") or carries ("Masa") either a Zav or the Midras of a Zav attains the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, along with the clothing that he is wearing and any other vessel (other than earthenware vessels) that he is touching at the time.

(h)A Zav causes a vessel or article of clothing that lies underneath him to become an Av ha'Tum'ah (a source of spiritual impurity; see Background to 2:17), whether or not he come into contact with it. The status of such an object is that of a Tamei Midras (lit. that which is treaded upon), also known as a Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav or the "Tachton" of a Zav. An object beneath a Zav becomes a Midras only if it is designed for lying, sitting, or leaning upon. Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot receive Tum'as Midras.

(i)A Zav causes a vessel or article of clothing that lies above him to become a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether or not he come into contact with it. The status of such an object is that of an "Elyon" of a Zav.

(j)Another way in which Tum'ah is spread by a Zav is termed "Heset". This involves a person or object that is Tahor moved (or outweighed on a balance scale) by a Zav.

(k)Rava refers to that which comes into direct contact with a Zav (Maga). Similarly, he teaches, damage caused through the direct contact of an animal results in an obligation on the part of its owner to pay full damages.

59)[line 42] EGLAH MOSHECHES B'KARON- [a) that which vessels are Tamei if a wagon in which a Zav rides rolls over them (RASHI); b) that which a person is Tamei if he rides in a wagon pulled by a Zav (RA'AVAD cited in the SHITAH MEKUBETZES) similar to that which] a calf [requires its owner to pay full damages if it breaks vessels with] a wagon that it is pulling

60)[line 46] HAYU MECHATETIN B'CHEVEL DELI- that were pecking on a rope to which a pitcher was tied [so that it did not roll away]

61)[line 47]NIFSAK- [the rope] snapped

62a)[line 48] BASAR ME'IKARA AZLINA- do we go view [the damage] as if it occurred at the beginning [of the process, when the animal was in direct contact with the vessel]?

b)[line 49] BASAR TEVAR MANA AZLINA- do we go view [the damage] as if it occurred at the time that the vessel broke [when it was no longer in direct contact with the animal?

63)[line 50]MAKEL- a stick

64)[line 51] MANA TEVIRA TAVAR- he broke a [Halachically] broken vessel

65)[line 51] ; L'RABAH PESHITA LEI; L'RAVA MIBA'I LEI- it is clear to Rabah; Rava is unsure

66)[line 52] "?HIDUS SALKA DAITACH?- is it really possible [that damage that directly results from the] prancing [of a chicken does not require its owner to pay full damages]? [Prancing is perfectly normal behavior for a chicken!]

67)[line 52]() [] (HIDUS) [HIDES] V'HITIZ- [the chicken] pranced and [thereby] rolled [a vessel to another place where it broke]