BERACHOS 27 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the Yahrzeit of her father, Rav Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Rabbi Morton Weiner) Z'L, who passed away on 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Dafyomi study -- which was so important to him -- during the weeks of his Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.

1)

(a)We just proved that Rebbi Yehudah holds 'Ad ve'Lo ad bi'Chelal' from his ruling by Tefilas Minchah. And we now proceed to refute that from his ruling by Musaf ('ad Sheva Sha'os'), based on another Beraisa. On what grounds does the ...

1. ... Tana Kama there rule that if someone has not yet Davened Musaf and Minchah, he should Daven Minchah first?

2. ... Rebbi Yehudah give Musaf precedence?

(b)What is now the problem with Rebbi Yehudah's ruling, if he holds 'Ad ve'Lo ad bi'Chelal'?

(c)This forces us to conclude that he holds 'Ad ve'ad bi'Chelal'. How do we then explain the difference between Rebbi Yehudah and the Tana Kama regarding Minchah? What must Rebbi Yehudah then mean when he says 'ad P'lag ha'Minchah?

(d)But did the Beraisa, citing Rebbi Yehudah, not say 'P'lag ha'Minchah Achronah Amru, ve'Hi Achas-Esrei Sha'os Chaser Revi'a'? What did the Tana really mean to say?

1)

(a)We just proved that Rebbi Yehudah holds 'Ad ve'Lo ad bi'Chelal' from his ruling by Tefilas Minchah. And we now proceed to refute that from his ruling by Musaf ('ad Sheva Sha'os'), based on another Beraisa. The ...

1. ... Tana Kama there rules that if someone has not yet Davened Musaf and Minchah, he should Daven Minchah first - because it is more common ('Tadir Kodem').

2. ... Rebbi Yehudah give Musaf precedence - because its time is due to expire.

(b)The problem with Rebbi Yehudah's ruling, if he holds 'Ad ve'Lo ad bi'Chelal' is - how the two can possibly overlap, since the time for Musaf expired at the beginning of the seventh hour).

(c)This forces us to conclude that he holds 'Ad ve'ad bi'Chelal', and the difference between Rebbi Yehudah and the Tana Kama regarding Minchah is - that the latter gives the final time for Minchah as P'lag ha'Minchah, he is referring, not to P'lag Acharonah, but to P'lag Rishonah ...

(d)... and when the Beraisa, citing Rebbi Yehudah, said 'P'lag ha'Minchah Achronah Amru, ve'Hi Achas-Esrei Sha'os Chaser Revi'a' - it meant to teach us that the final time for Minchah is when the first P'lag ends and the second P'lag begins at ten and three quarter hours.

2)

(a)Rav Nachman supports this conclusion from a Mishnah, which discusses the five testimonies of Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava, the first of which is 'she'Mema'anin es ha'Ketanah'. What does the statement mean literally?

(b)Which case was Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava referring to?

(c)What did he then testify?

(d)The second testimony is that a woman may remarry on the basis of one witness who testifies that her husband died, and the third that they stoned a rooster in Yerushalayim. Why did they stone it?

(e)What was the gist of Rebbi Yochanan's testimony?

2)

(a)Rav Nachman supports this conclusion from a Mishnah, which discusses the five testimonies of Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava, the first of which is 'she'Mema'anin es ha'Ketanah', which means - that a girl under bas-Mitzvah, who was married off by her mother or brothers can perform Miy'un (walk out of the marriage with a declaration, and does not need a Get.

(b)Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava was referring to is where the Ketanah's husband's brother, who is married to her sister, dies leaving behind no children, and her sister falls to her husband to make Yibum.

(c)He testified that - we coax the Ketanah (whose marriage is only de'Rabanan) to perform Miy'un, thereby enabling her husband to perform Yibum with her sister (who is a Yevamah d'Oraysa).

(d)The second testimony is that a woman may remarry on the basis of one witness who testifies that her husband died, and the third, that they stoned a rooster in Yerushalayim - because it pecked a baby to death.

(e)The gist of Rebbi Yochanan's testimony was - that the Din that sentences an animal that killed a person to stoning extends to a bird.

3)

(a)The fourth thing that he testified concerned wine that is only forty days old. What did he say about it?

(b)And what did he finally say about the Tamid shel Shachar?

(c)How do we prove from there that Rebbi Yehudah holds 'Ad ve'ad bi'Chelal'?

3)

(a)The fourth thing that he testified concerned wine that is only forty days old - and that is poured on the Mizbe'ach (as a Nesech) is Kasher.

(b)And he finally said that the Tamid shel Shachar - may be brought in the fourth hour ...

(c)... 'in the fourth hour', and not 'up to the fourth hour'. This can only go according to Rebbi Yehudah, whom we now see holds 'Ad ve'ad bi'Chelal'.

4)

(a)In which Masechta is this Mishnah located?

(b)Why does the Gemara refer to it as 'Bechirta'?

(c)What does Rav Kahana therefore prove from there?

4)

(a)This Mishnah is located in Maseches - Iduyos.

(b)The Gemara refers to it as 'Bechirta' - (choice) because the testimonials that it comprises are all Halachah.

(c)Rav Kahana therefore proves from there - that the Halachah is like Rebbi Yehudah (that one must Daven Tefilas Shachris before the end of the fourth hour).

5)

(a)According to the Beraisa, what time of day is the Torah referring to when it writes in Beshalach (in connection with Manna) "ve'Cham ha'Shemesh Venamas"?

(b)How do we know that it does not mean six hours? What does the Torah write in connection with Avraham and the angels which precludes this suggestion?

(c)What is the difference between ...

1. ... "ve'Cham ha'Shemesh Venamas" and "ke'Chom ha'Yom"?

2. ... "ve'Cham ha'Shemesh Venamas" and the period before four hours?

5)

(a)According to the Beraisa, when the Torah writes in Beshalach (in connection with theManna) "ve'Cham ha'Shemesh Venamas" it is referring to the fourth.

(b)It cannot mean six hours - since the Torah (in connection with Avraham and the angels) refers to the sixth hour as - "ke'Chom ha'Yom".

(c)The difference between ...

1. ... "ve'Cham ha'Shemesh Venamas" and "ke'Chom ha'Yom" is - that whereas during the former it is hot in the sun but cool in the shade, during the latter, it is hot in both areas.

2. ... "ve'Cham ha'Shemesh Venamas" and the period before four hours is - that before four hours it is cool even in the sun.

6)

(a)What problem do we now have with the Beraisa? Why can the author of the Beraisa therefore not be ...

1. ... Rebbi Yehudah?

2. ... the Rabbanan"?

(b)Bearing in mind that with regard to collecting the Manna, the Torah writes (not "ba'Boker", but) "ba'Boker ba'Boker", how do we establish the Beraisa like ...

1. ... the Rabbanan?

2. ... Rebbi Yehudah?

(c)It is unanimously agreed upon that "ve'Cham ha'Shemesh ve'Namas" refers to the fourth hour. How does Rav Acha bar Ya'akov learn it from the phrase itself?

6)

(a)The problem with the Beraisa is who the author. It seemingly cannot be ...

1. ... Rebbi Yehudah - who considers the fourth hour to be still morning.

2. ... the Rabbanan" - according to whom morning lasts till midday.

(b)Bearing in mind that with regard to collecting the Manna, the Torah writes (not "ba'Boker", but) "ba'Boker ba'Boker", we establish the Beraisa like ...

1. ... the Rabbanan - by explaining the second "ba'Boker" to mean that they divided the morning into two, and collected the Manna during the first half (up until three hours).

2. ... Rebbi Yehudah - by explaining likewise that they collected the Manna up until three hours (one hour before the end of the morning).

(c)It is unanimously agreed upon that "ve'Cham ha'Shemesh ve'Namas" refers to the fourth hour. Rav Acha bar Ya'akov learns it from the phrase itself - in that the fourth hour is when the sun is bot but the shade is cool as we explained.

7)

(a)We cited Rav Kahana earlier, who rules like Rebbi Yehudah regarding the final time to Daven Shachris ('since the Mishnah in Iduyos [Bechirta] conforms with him'). What did Rav Yitzchak answer when Rav Chisda asked him like whom we rule regarding Minchah?

(b)What did Rav Chisda himself try to prove from the fact that Rav would Daven Kabalas Shabbos before nightfall?

(c)We counter this however, by citing Rav Huna and the Rabbanan. What did they used to do (or not used to do)?

(d)What do we therefore conclude?

7)

(a)We cited Rav Kahana earlier, who rules like Rebbi Yehudah regarding the final time to Daven Shachris ('since the Mishnah in Iduyos [Bechirta] conforms with him'). When Rav Chisda asked Rav Yitzchak like whom we rule regarding Minchah - he did not know what to answer.

(b)Rav Chisda himself tried to prove from the fact that Rav would Daven Kabalas Shabbos before nightfall - that the Halachah is like Rebbi Yehudah (i.e. Minchah before P'lag ha'Minchah, and Ma'ariv after P'lag).

(c)We counter this however, by citing Rav Huna and the Rabbanan - who refused to Daven Kabalas Shabbos before night (like the Rabbanan).

(d)We therefore conclude that - de'Avid ke'Mar Avid, u'de'Avid ke'Mar Avid' (one may rule like whoever one pleases, provided one is consistent).

8)

(a)When Rav went to the house of Geniva and Davened Kabalas Shabbos before nightfall, where did Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba stand?

(b)Who was Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba?

(c)What did Rav not do when he finished Davening before Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba?

(d)Besides the fact that one is permitted to Daven Kabalas Shabbos on Erev Shabbos and that one is forbidden to enter the space of a person who is Davening the Amidah, what third Halachah do we learn from the current incident?

8)

(a)When Rav went to the house of Geniva and Davened Kabalas Shabbos before nightfall, Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba stood - behind him during Davening.

(b)Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba was - Rav's Talmid.

(c)When Rav finished Davening before Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba, he - remained in his place (in order not to enter the space where Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba was still Davening).

(d)Besides the fact that one is permitted to Daven Kabalas Shabbos on Erev Shabbos and that one is forbidden to enter the space of a person who is Davening the Amidah, we also learn from the current incident - that a Talmid is permitted to Daven immediately behind his Rebbe.

9)

(a)The above incident with Rav supports Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi. What did Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi say about entering the space of someone who is Davening the Amidah?

(b)We query this ruling from Rebbi Ami and Rebbi Asi who walked in front of someone who was Davening he Amidah. How do we reconcile Rebbi Ami and Rebbi Asi with Rav and Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi?

(c)We also query Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba from a statement of Rav Yehudah. What did Rav Yehudah Amar Rav prohibit besides Davening next to one's Rebbe?

(d)Why does he forbid it?

9)

(a)The above incident with Rav supports Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who said - that one is forbidden to enter the space of someone who is Davening the Amidah.

(b)We query this ruling from Rebbi Ami and Rebbi Asi who walked in front of someone who was Davening he Amidah. And we answer - that Rebbi Ami and Rebbi Asi walked beyond four Amos of the person who was Davening.

(c)We also query Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba from a statement of Rav Yehudah Amar Rav prohibited besides one's Rebbe - or behind him ...

(d)... because it is considered arrogant to do so (See also Tosfos).

10)

(a)What did Rebbi Eliezer also say in a Beraisa about someone who Davens behind his Rebbe?

(b)He incorporated in this statement four other items. The first of them is someone who greets his Rebbe, what is the second?

(c)What is the exact prohibition?

(d)The third of the prohibitions is someone who opens his own Beis-ha'Medrash without his Rebbe's consent ('Cholek al Yeshivaso shel Rebbe'). What is the fourth?

10)

(a)Rebbi Eliezer also said in a Beraisa that someone who Davens behind his Rebbe - causes the Shechinah to depart from Yisrael.

(b)He incorporated in this statement four other items. The first of them is someone who greets his Rebbe, and the second - to return his greeting ...

(c)... in the way that he greets a friend (without adding the word 'Rebbe').

(d)The third of the prohibitions is someone who opens his own Beis-ha'Medrash without his Rebbe's consent ('Cholek al Yeshivaso shel Rebbe'), and the fourth - citing a Halachah that he did not hear from his Rebbe (without citing the source [Rambam]).

11)

(a)How do we now reconcile Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba (who Davened behind Rav) with Rav Yehudah Amar Rav and Rebbi Eliezer in the Beraisa?

11)

(a)We now reconcile Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba (who Davened behind Rav) with Rav Yehudah Amar Rav and Rebbi Eliezer in the Beraisa - by pointing out that Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba was (not a Talmid but) - a Talmid Chaver of Rav.

27b----------------------------------------27b

12)

(a)We prove that Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba was a Talmid-Chaver of Rav from the fact that, on that same occasion, he asked Rav 'Mi Badalta?' What does 'Mi Badalta' mean?

(b)What ought he to have said had he been merely a Talmid?

(c)What did Rav reply to the question?

12)

(a)We prove that Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba was a Talmid-Chaver of Rav from the fact that, on that same occasion, he asked Rav 'Mi Badalta?' - ('Did you also desist from working?').

(b)Had he been merely a Talmid, he ought he to have said - 'Mi Badil Mar?'.

(c)Rav replied -'In Badilna'.

13)

(a)We query Rav's reply however, from a statement of Rebbi Avin, who related an incident where Rav Davened Kabalas Shabbos on Erev Shabbos. What did Rav do before learning with his Talmidim, all before nightfall?

(b)What is now the Kashya on Rav?

(c)How did Rava answer the Kashya? What did Rav actually do, and why does the Kashya fall away?

13)

(a)We query Rav's reply however, from a statement of Rebbi Avin, who related an incident where Rav Davened Kabalas Shabbos on Erev Shabbos - went to the bathhouse, and learned with his Talmidim, all before nightfall ...

(b)... a Kashya on Rav - since going to the bathhouse is forbidden on Shabbos, implying that he had not separated from work.

(c)Rava answered the Kashya - by establishing Rebbi Avin's testimony with regard to (not taking a bath, but) perspiring, prior to the Chachamim's decree forbidding it.

14)

(a)We ask from Abaye, who permitted Rav Dimi bar Liva'i to smoke baskets after having Davened Kabalas Shabbos on Erev Shabbos. What did he smoke them with?

(b)How do we answer that? In what way was that case different?

(c)What was their mistake?

14)

(a)We ask from Abaye, who permitted Rav Dimi bar Liva'i to smoke baskets - with sulfur, after having Davened Kabalas Shabbos on Erev Shabbos.

(b)We answer that that case was different - in that Rav Dimi brought in Shabbos by mistake ...

(c)... inasmuch as the sky was overcast and they thought that Shabbos had already entered.

15)

(a)This answer too, we query from a statement of Avidan. What did they once do when the sky was overcast and everybody thought that Shabbos had already entered?

(b)What did Rebbi reply when Avidan asked him what they needed to do?

(c)What is now the problem with the previous answer?

(d)How do we resolve it?

15)

(a)This answer too, we query from a statement of Avidan. When the sky was once overcast and everybody thought that Shabbos had already entered - they Davened Kabalas Shabbos on Erev Shabbos.

(b)When Avidan asked Rebbi what they needed to do - he replied that since they had Davened, they did not need to Daven again.

(c)The problem with the previous answer is - that it now seems that even if one Davens Kabalas Shabbos on Erev Shabbos by mistake, one cannot retract.

(d)We resolve it - by answering that a Tzibur is different in that one does not trouble a Tzibur again, but that if a Yachid erred in this way, his Kabalah would not be a Kabalah, and he would have to Daven again (See also Maharsha on Tos DH 'Sha'ni Tzibur).

16)

(a)What did Rebbi Chiya bar Avin add after citing Rav who Davened Kabalas Shabbos on Erev Shabbos with regard to Rebbi Yashiyah? What did the latter do on Shabbos afternoon?

(b)What She'eilah do we ask concerning Kidush according to Rav?

(c)In answer to the She'eilah we cite Rav Nachman Amar Shmuel. What did he say?

(d)What is the Halachah?

16)

(a)After citing Rav, who Davened Kabalas Shabbos on Erev Shabbos - he cited Rebbi Yashiyah, who Davened the Tefilah of Motza'ei Shabbos on Shabbos afternoon.

(b)We ask, whether - Rav also recited Kidush on Erev Shabbos ...

(c)... we cite Rav Nachman Amar Shmuel, who specifically permits it ...

(d)... and that is the Halachah.

17)

(a)What similar She'eilah do we ask concerning Havdalah according to Rebbi Yashiyah?

(b)And we answer with a statement of Rav Nachman Amar Shmuel. What did he say about reciting Havdalah before nightfall?

17)

(a)Similarly, we ask - whether Rebbi Yashiyah recited Havdalah after Davening the Motza'eo Shabbos Tefilah on Shabbos afternoon ...

(b)... and we answer with a statement of Rav Nachman Amar Shmuel - who specifically permitted it.

18)

(a)In a strange conclusion to the Sugya, Rebbi Zeira ... Amar Rav recalls how Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi stood by a certain pillar one Erev Shabbos. What did he do there?

(b)According to Ula, it was neither a pillar next to which he stood, not was it Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi, nor was it Kabalas Shabbos that he Davened on Erev Shabbos. In which location did he stand?

(c)Who was it?

(d)What did he Daven?

18)

(a)In a strange conclusion to the Sugya, Rebbi Zeira ... Amar Rav recalls how Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi stood by a certain pillar one Erev Shabbos - and Davened Kabalas Shabbos.

(b)According to Ula, it was neither a pillar next to which he stood, not was it Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi, nor was it Kabalas Shabbos that he Davened on Erev Shabbos. The location was - beside a date-palm ...

(c)... it was Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Yossi ...

(d)... and he Davened the Tefilah of Motza'ei Shabbos on Shabbos.

19)

(a)What objection do we raise to the interpretation of our Mishnah 'Tefilas Arvis Ein lo K'va' - that one may Daven Ma'ariv all night?

(b)Then what does it mean?

(c)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav cites Raban Gamliel who holds Tefilas Arvis Chovah'. Who says that it is R'shus?

(d)Abaye rules like Raban Gamliel. What does Rava say?

19)

(a)We object to the interpretation of our Mishnah 'Tefilas Arvis Ein lo K'va' that one may Daven Ma'ariv all night - in that the Mishnah ought then to have said 'Tefilas ha'Erev Kol ha'Laylah'.

(b)What it therefore means is - that it is R'shus.

(c)Rav Yehudah Amar Rav cites Raban Gamliel who holds Tefilas Arvis Chovah'. The Tana who says that it R'shus, is - Rebbi Yehoshua.

(d)Abaye rules like Raban Gamliel, Rava - like Rebbi Yehoshua.

20)

(a)What did Rebbi Yehoshua reply to a Talmid who asked him whether Tefilas Arvis is R'shus or Chovah?

(b)What did the Talmid tell Raban Gamliel when he subsequently replied 'Chovah' to the same question?

(c)The latter said he would wait until all the 'Ba'alei-T'risin' (people who wield shields) gathered in the Beis-ha'Medrash. To whom was he referring?

(d)Why did he call them 'Ba'alei-T'risin'?

20)

(a)Rebbi Yehoshua replied to the Talmid who asked him whether Tefilas Arvis is R'shus or Chovah - that it is R'shus.

(b)When Raban Gamliel subsequently replied 'Chovah' to the same question - the Talmid quoted Rebbi Yehoshua who had told him that it is R'shus.

(c)Raban Gamliel said he would wait until all the 'Ba'alei-T'risin' (people who wield shields) gathered in the Beis-ha'Medrash. He was he referring - to the Talmidei-Chachamim ...

(d)Why are they called 'Ba'alei-T'risin' - because they would vanquish another in the battle of Torah.

21)

(a)When the questioner repeated his She'eilah and Raban Gamliel repeated his answer, what did Rebbi Yehoshua reply when Raban Gamliel whether there was anyone present who held that Arvis R'shus?

21)

(a)When the questioner repeated his She'eilah and Raban Gamliel repeated his answer, and asked whether there was anyone present who held that Arvis R'shus, Rebbi Yehoshua replied - that there was not.

(b)And when Raban Gamliel pointed out that he had been informed that Rebbi Yehoshua himself maintained that it was and ordered him to stand, he replied - that if Raban Gamliel had been dead, he could have denied his 'accusation', but now that he was as alive as he was, he had to admit that it was true.

(c)Raban Gamliel then ordered Rebbi Yehoshua (who was the Av Beis-Din) to remain standing whilst he proceeded to Darshen, thereby raising the ire of the entire gathering.

(d)They then ordered Chutzpis - translator (ha'Turgeman) who was presenting Raban Gamliel's D'rashah to the gathering, to stop.

(b)And what did he reply when Raban Gamliel pointed out that he had been informed that Rebbi Yehoshua himself maintained that it was and ordered him to stand?

(c)What happened next that raised the ire of the entire gathering?

(d)They then ordered Chutzpis to stop. Who was Chutzpis? What was he doing?

22)

(a)This was the third time that Raban Gamliel had abused Rebbi Yehoshua in this way. On which other occasion, besides that of the B'chor of Rebbi Tzadok, did he do so?

(b)What did they therefore decide to do?

22)

(a)This was the third time that Raban Gamliel had abused Rebbi Yehoshua in this way. Besides that of the B'chor of Rebbi Tzadok (in Bechoros), he also did so in Rosh ha'Shanah - when he ordered him to appear before him on the day that he (Rebbi Yehoshua) considered to be Yom Kipur, wearing his shoes and with stick in hand.

(b)They therefore decided - to depose him.

23)

(a)Why did they not replace Raban Gamliel with...

1. ... Rebbi Yehoshua?

2. ... Rebbi Akiva?

(b)Whom did they subsequently appoint?

(c)Besides being both wise and wealthy, what great Yichus did he possess?

(d)The advantage of being wise is obvious. What is the advantage of being wealthy?

23)

(a)They did not replace Raban Gamliel with...

1. ... Rebbi Yehoshua - because, seeing as Raban Gamliel was deposed on account of Rebbi Yehoshua, it would be unduly painful for the latter to then replace hum.

2. ... Rebbi Akiva - because he did not have Z'chus Avos (he was descended form Geirim), and would have no defense against Raban Gamliel's punishments.

(b)So they subsequently appointed - Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah, who ...

(c)Besides being both wise and wealthy, was a tenth generation descendent of Ezra.

(d)The advantage of being wise is obvious. The advantage of being wealthy was - that if they sent gifts to the emperor to turn the emperor against him, he could counter this by sending him gifts of his own.

24)

(a)What did Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah initially reply when they offered him the illustrious post of Rosh Yeshivah?

(b)What did he reply when his wife pointed out that perhaps they will depose him too?

(c)How old was Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah at the time?

(d)What other objection did she therefore raise against accepting the appointment?

24)

(a)What they offered Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah the illustrious post of Rosh Yeshivah, he initially replied that he needed to first ask his wife (See Maharatz Chayos).

(b)When his wife pointed out that perhaps they will depose him too, he replied - that if a person has a valuable glass for one day, knowing that tomorrow, it might break, then he should use it for one day.

(c)Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah was - eighteen at the time.

(d)The other objection that she therefore raised against accepting the appointment was - that his youthful appearance was an obstacle against Darshening to such a prestigious crowd.

25)

(a)What happened to override her objection?

(b)What did Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah subsequently declare as a result of that miracle in the Mishnah in the first Perek?

25)

(a)That very same night - a miracle occurred and eighteen rows of white hair sprouted in his beard.

(b)As a result of that miracle, Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah subsequently declared in the Mishnah in the first Perek - that he resembled a man of seventy ... .

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