MISHNAH: CRUSHING SPICES AND SALT ON YOM TOV
(Beis Shamai): Spices may be crushed in a wooden pestle (not the usual stone), while salt must be crushed in earthenware, using a wooden spoon as the hammer.
(Beis Hillel): There is no change required for crushing spices while salt requires a wooden pestle.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SALT AND SPICES
Question: Why does crushing salt require a Shinuy (according to both opinions)?
Answer (R. Huna and R. Chisda): Either because one should have anticipated the need for salt (which is needed for any dish, unlike other spices) or because the flavor of salt, unlike other spices, does not deteriorate if it were crushed before Yom Tov.
Question: When will the reason make a difference?
Answer: If he knows what dish he will cook on Yom Tov (then the first reason will require him to anticipate that need while the second would not, since the spice would deteriorate).
Answer: The spice Morika which does not deteriorate (like salt) but which he could not anticipate needing.
(R. Yehudah citing Shmuel): Salt and spices (anything which is crushed) may be crushed normally on Yom Tov.
Question: But we learned in our Mishnah that even Beis Hillel agrees that salt requires a Shinuy!?
Answer: Not if we follow R. Meir who learns that the Machlokes only applies when salt is ground separate from the other spices, whereas if they are ground together, all agree that it is done normally.
(Beis Shamai): If ground separately, the salt must be ground in earthenware, and then only a small amount (enough for broiling meat).
(Beis Hillel):: Any grinding is permitted (and even without a Shinuy).
Question: Any utensil, even a Muktzah utensil!?
Answer: We meant any quantity, not any utensil.
(R. Acha Bardela to his son): Even though I hold like Shmuel, please make a small Shinuy (tilt the pestle from its upright position) when hammering.
R. Sheshes was certain that the sound of pounding was not coming from his home since he had instructed the members of his household not to use stone.
Question: Perhaps they tilted the pestle!?
Answer: It would not give off this clear ring.
Question: Perhaps the sound is coming from spices, not salt (and it could still emerge from R. Sheshes' home)?
Answer: Spices make a different sound when ground.
TISNI AND KESISHAH
(Beraisa): One may not prepare Tisni and one may not grind wheat (Kesishah) in a Machteshes.
Question: The implications of the two parts of that statement seem to contradict one another (the first implying that Tisni is a problem owing to the Tircha involved while the second implies that any Kesishah is not permitted)?
Answer: The Beraisa is only adding the reason for prohibiting the preparation of Tisni (Kesishah).
Question: Then the Beraisa should have sufficed with the prohibition on Kesishah in a Machteshes!?
Answer: We need both statements lest we permit preparing Tisni in a small Machteshes.
Question: But a Beraisa permits a small Machteshes!?
Answer (Abaye): Our previous Beraisa also means to prohibit only a large Machteshes (and the Beraisa is prohibiting Tisni even in a small Machteshes, and other spices in a large Machteshes).
Answer (Rava): One Beraisa speaks in Bavel (where Kesishah in a small Machteshes is permitted) and one speaks in Eretz Yisrael (where the presence of Jewish servants necessitated prohibiting all Kesishah).
R. Papi did not eat the wheat dish in the home of Mar Shmuel on Yom Tov (presuming that they used a large Machteshes).
Question: Perhaps they used a small Machteshes?
Answer: It was too finely ground.
Question: Perhaps they ground it before Yom Tov?
Answer: Its color spoke to its being freshly ground.
Alternate Answer: Mar Shmuel's home had unruly servants.
MISHNAH: BORER ON YOM TOV
(Beis Shamai): One must remove the food from the refuse, and consume it right away.
(Beis Hillel): One may separate normally even with the help of a cloth in his lap, a Kinon and a Tamchui (but he may not use a sifting utensil).
(R. Gamliel): He may soak the lentils and discard the debris which floats to the top.
OCHEL FROM PESOLES UNDER ALL CIRCUMSTANCES
(R. Gamliel): Beis Hillel permits taking the refuse out of the food when the food is of greater quantity than the Pesoles, but if the Pesoles is the majority then he must remove the Ochel and leave the Pesoles.
Question: But if the Pesoles is the majority then the whole mixture is Muktzah!?
Answer: R. Gamliel is speaking where there is more Ochel than Pesoles but it is more work to remove the Pesoles than the Ochel (in which case one should remove the Ochel, even though it is the minority).
SOAKING THE LENTILS AND CAUSING SEPARATION
Question: One Beraisa teaches that the Ochel rises to the top of the water and the Pesoles sinks while our Mishnah implies the opposite?
Answer: It depends on the type of Pesoles.
MISHNAH: GIVING GIFTS ON YOM TOV
(Beis Shamai): One may only give ready to eat food gifts on Yom Tov.
(Beis Hillel): One may even send that which requires extensive preparation (such as livestock and raw ingredients).
One may not send grain (given that Tochen is prohibited).
(R. Shimon): Even wheat is permitted (as one may be Koshesh in a small Machteshes and cook the dish).
SENDING GIFTS IN QUANTITY
(R. Yechiel): One may not send a gift in a public manner such as with a line of carriers (which, the Beraisa teaches, is at least three people).
Question (R. Ashi): What if each of the three are carrying a different gift?
R. Shimon permits grain on account of their other potential uses (what, barley, lentils each have uses).
MISHNAH: OTHER TYPES OF GIFTS
Garments, whether stitched or not stitched or even with Shatnez, may be sent, so long as they have a Yom Tov use.
One may not send a nailed sandal (which may not be worn on Yom Tov), nor an unstitched shoe (which cannot yet be worn).
(R. Yehudah): An undied shoe may not be sent given that a craftsman still needs to dye it.
As a rule, that which one may benefit from on Yom Tov may be sent.
Question: Of what use are Shatnez garments?
Answer: They may be folded as a seat cushion.
Question: But the Beraisa teaches that even though this is permitted by the Torah, Chazal forbade it!?
Answer: It is permitted if there is something intervening.
Question: But R. Shimon b. Pazi citing R. Yehoshua b. Levi citing R. Yosi b. Shaul citing Rebbi citing the holy community of Yerushalayim taught that even ten mattresses intervening would not permit one to sleep on Shatnez!?
Answer: We are speaking then of a Shatnez curtain.
Question: But Ula taught (in regards to Tum'ah) that the attendant sometimes warms himself by the curtains!?
Answer: We are speaking of stiff garments which do not warm the person (as taught by R. Huna bar R. Yehoshua that one may sit on stiff garments of Shatnez).