1)GIFTS TO NOCHRIM
(a)(Gemara) Question: What is the source (that we may not sell anything attached)?
(b)Answer (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): (It is a decree due to) "v'Lo Sechanem" - do not give to Nochrim Chaniyah (a place to stay) in Eretz Yisrael.
(c)Question: We learn a different law from "v'Lo Sechanem" - do not give to them Chen (praise them)!
(d)Answer: Had it com to teach only that, it would have said 'Lo Sechunam';
1.Rather, it says "v'Lo Sechanem" to teach both.
(e)Question: We must learn another law from "v'Lo Sechanem" - do not give to them Chinam (a free gift)!
(f)Answer: If it only came to teach those two, it should have said 'Lo Sechinam';
1.Rather, it says "v'Lo Sechanem" to teach all three laws.
(g)Support (Beraisa): "V'Lo Sechanem" - do not give to Nochrim Chaniyah;
1.Also, do not give to them Chen (praise). Also, do not give to them Chinam.
(h)Tana'im argue about whether or not we may give a gift to them.
1.(Beraisa - R. Meir): "Do not eat any Neveilah; to a Ger (Toshav, i.e. a Ben Noach who accepted to guard his seven Mitzvos)... Titenenah va'Achalah Oh Machor l'Nochri" - this only permits giving it (for a gift) to a Ger (Toshav), or selling it to a Nochri;
i.Question: What is the source that one may sell it to a Ger?
ii.Answer: "La'Ger... Titenenah va'Achalah Oh Machor."
iii.Question: What is the source that one may give it to a Nochri?
iv.Answer: "Titenenah va'Achalah Oh Machor l'Nochri."
v.Conclusion: One may give or sell it to a Ger or Nochri.
2.R. Yehudah permits only what the Torah explicitly says, i.e. giving it to a Ger or selling it to a Nochri.
(i)Question: Why does R. Yehudah argue with R. Meir?
(j)Answer: Had the Torah meant like R. Meir says, it should not have said "Oh";
1."Oh" teaches that we must do one of the two things said.
2.R. Meir learns from "Oh" that it is better to give it to a Ger than to sell it to a Nochri.
3.R. Yehudah says, we already know this, because we are commanded to help support a Ger Toshav, but not Nochri.
2)LOOKING AT WOMEN
(a)(Beraisa): Also, "v'Lo Sechanem" - do not give to them Chen.
(b)This supports Rav;
1.(Rav): One may not say 'this Nochri is so beautiful.'
(c)Question (Beraisa): Raban Gamliel was in Har ha'Bayis, and he saw a beautiful Nochris. He said "Mah Rabu Ma'asecha Hash-m";
1.When Turnusrufus' wife tried to seduce R. Akiva, he spit, laughed and cried:
i.He spit, because she was formed from a putrid drop (of semen);
ii.He laughed, because he saw (through Ru'ach ha'Kodesh) that she would later convert and marry him;
iii.He cried due to her beauty, which would ultimately go to the grave.
(d)Answer: Rav admits that one may praise Hash-m for creating beautiful things.
1.One who sees beautiful creations should say 'blessed is He who created such things in His world.'
(e)Question: One may not look at women!
1.(Beraisa): "V'Nishmarta mi'Kol Davar Ra" - one may not look at a beautiful woman, even if she is single, or at a married woman, even if she is ugly;
2.One may not look at a woman's colored clothing, nor at animals or birds mating, even if they fill his field of vision, like the angel of death;
i.The angel of death is full of eyes. When a sick person is about to die, the angel of death stands over him, with a drop of poison on his sword;
ii.When the person sees him, he is seized with fear, his mouth opens, and the drop enters;
iii.The drop kills him, makes him decay, and makes his face turn green.
(f)Answer: Raban Gamliel inadvertently saw the woman when he turned a corner. He did not know in advance to close his eyes.
(g)(Beraisa): One may not look at a woman's colored clothing...
(h)(Rav Yehudah): It is forbidden even if it is on the wall.
(i)(Rav Papa): It is forbidden only if he knows whose clothing it is.
(j)Support (Rava): The Beraisa says he may not look at a woman's colored clothing. It does not say 'at (women's) colored clothing.'
(k)(Rav Chisda): It is forbidden only if she already wore the clothing, but not if it is new;
1.If not, it would be forbidden to give new clothing to a professional make alterations, for he will look at it!
(l)Objection: This is no proof. Rav Yehudah taught that an animal breeder may himself insert the male's Ever into the female, even though we said that one may not look at animals mating!
1.You must say that one involved in his profession is not aroused to improper thoughts. This could also explain why we may give clothing to a professional!
(m)(Beraisa): The drop kills him...
(n)Suggestion: This contradicts Shmuel's father!
1.(Shmuel's father): The angel of death told me that he would prefer to uncover the neck (where he slaughters a sick person), like one does to an animal. He refrains due to the honor of others around.
(o)Answer: Perhaps the drop cuts the Simanim of slaughter (the foodpipe and windpipe).
(p)(Beraisa): The drop makes him decay...
(q)This supports R. Chanina bar Kahana.
1.(R. Chanina bar Kahana): To prevent a corpse from decaying, one should move it so the mouth faces down (the drop will drip out).
(r)(Beraisa): "V'Nishmarta mi'Kol Davar Ra" - one may not think (about women) during the day, lest this cause a seminal emission an night.
(s)(Beraisa - R. Pinchas ben Ya'ir): One can climb in levels of serving Hash-m as follows. Torah leads to carefulness; carefulness leads to zealousness, which leads to cleanliness (from sin), then to separation (from what is permitted, to be stringent), then to purity (of deeds), then to Kedushah, then to humility, then to fear of sin, then to Chasidus (going beyond the letter of the law), then to Divine inspiration, and this leads to revival of the dead;
1.Chasidus is the highest level - "Az Dibarta v'Chazon la'Chasidecha."
(t)This is unlike R. Yehoshua ben Levi.
1.(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Humility is the highest level - "Ru'ach Hash-m... Levaser Anavim";
2.Only the humble will receive these tidings, and not Chasidim.
3)SELLING ON CONDITION TO DETACH
(a)(Mishnah): We do not sell to Nochrim...
(b)(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): We may sell to them a tree on condition to cut it, and he must cut it;
(c)R. Meir says, we may sell to them only a cut tree.
(d)(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): We may sell to them fodder or Kamah (attached grain) on condition to cut it, and he must cut it (in the Rif's text, fodder comes after Kamah; the coming Gemara (f:1-2) supports this);
(e)R. Meir says, we may only sell to them what is already cut.
(f)They must argue in all three cases;
1.Had they argued only about a tree, one might have thought that only there R. Meir forbids. We are concerned lest he delay cutting it, for there is no loss;
i.However, R. Meir would permit Kamah. One would not delay cutting it, lest he suffer a loss.
2.Had they argued only about a tree or Kamah, one might have thought that only there R. Yehudah permits. We are not concerned lest he will delay, for there is no visible gain;
i.However, regarding fodder, we suspect lest he delay, for there is a visible gain, and R. Yehudah would forbid.
3.Had they argued only about fodder, one might have thought that only there R. Meir forbids, lest he delay, for there is a visible gain;
i.However, regarding the others, also R. Meir would permit.
(g)Question: May we sell an animal (that is usually bought for work) on condition to slaughter it immediately?
1.Perhaps R. Yehudah permits only what is attached (to the land). Since it is on the Yisrael's land, he can ensure that the Nochri will not delay, but if one sells an animal, the Nochri can delay as long as he wants!
(h)Answer (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): We may sell to them an animal on condition to slaughter it, and he must slaughter it;
(i)R. Meir says, we may sell to them only a slaughtered animal.