ADDITIONAL REQUESTS IN PRAYER
(Rav Yehudah): The Halachah is, one may request his needs in 'Shome'a Tefilah.'
(Rav Yehudah brei d'Rav Shmuel bar Shilas): Even though one may request his needs in 'Shome'a Tefilah', he may add requests in each of the (13 middle) blessings at the end.
(R. Chiya bar Ashi): Even though one may request his needs in 'Shome'a Tefilah', if someone in his family was sick, he requests for him in the blessing for sick people. If he needs sustenance, he requests in the blessing of prosperity.
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Even though one may request his needs in 'Shome'a Tefilah', he may request at length after Shemoneh Esreh, even like the confession of Yom Kipur.
(Mishnah - R. Meir): These are the festivals (for which the three preceding days are forbidden): Kalandra, Saturnura, Karteisim, the day of the king's Ginusiya (coronation), the king's birthday, and the day (of the year) that the king's father died;
Chachamim say, the day of death is an idolatrous festival only if they burned his Kelim.
The day that he (Rashi - any Nochri; Ra'avad - the king) shaves his beard, or his Bluris (a growth of hair which was only cut once a year for the sake of idolatry), the day he arrived from a sea voyage or left prison, or (Ra'avad - any Nochri) that makes a feast in honor of his son's wedding, only that day and that Nochri are forbidden.
(Gemara - Rav Chanan bar Rava): Kalandra is an eight-day festival after Tekufas Teves. Saturnura is an eight-day festival before the Tekufah.
A way to remember this is "Achor va'Kedem Tzartani" (the latter festival is listed first).
(Beraisa): Adam ha'Rishon saw that the days were getting shorter. He assumed that this was the death decreed due to his sin, that the days would keep getting shorter, until there would be permanent darkness, and the world would revert to emptiness.
He fasted and prayed for eight days. After the Tekufah, he saw that the days were getting longer, and realized that it is the nature of the world for the days to get shorter and longer. He made an (annual) eight-day festival.
The next year, he also made an annual festival of the eight days he fasted and prayed before the Tekufah.
He fixed the festivals to praise Hash-m. Nochrim made them idolatrous festivals.
Question: This is like the opinion that Adam was created in Tishrei. From the day he was created, the days kept getting shorter;
However, according to the opinion that Adam was created in Nisan, he had seen that the days get longer and shorter!
Answer: Before his sin, he never saw them get as short as they are in winter.
(Beraisa): On the day that Adam was created, when the sun set; he assumed that this was the death decreed on him, that there would be permanent darkness, and the world would revert to emptiness;
He and Chavah fasted and cried that night. When morning came, he realized that such is the nature of the world. He offered an ox that Hash-m had brought up from the ground upright, its horns (Keranos) before its feet (Perasos) - "mi'Shor Par Makrin Mafris";
(Rav Yehudah): The ox that Adam offered had one horn on its forehead. It says "Makrin".
Question: "Makrin" is a plural form!
Answer: It is written missing the 'Yud', which suggests the singular (mi'Keren).
Question (Rav Masnah): If Rome celebrates Kalandra, and the surrounding cities are subservient to Rome, may one do business with them?
Answer #1 (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Kalandra is forbidden to all (Rashi; Rashba - to all who celebrate it);
Answer #2 (R. Yochanan): The Isur applies only to those who celebrate it (Rashba - sincerely, i.e. Rome, but not the cities that celebrate because they fear Rome).
Support #1 (for R. Yochanan - Beraisa): Rome celebrates Kalandra, and the surrounding cities are subservient to Rome. The Isur applies only to those who (Rashba - sincerely) celebrate it. (This clause is the support. The Gemara brings the rest of the Beraisa, anyway.)
We forbid before the following festivals - Saturnura, Karteisim, the day of Ginusiya, the king's birthday, and the day that the king's father died. After them is permitted;
The day a Nochri makes a feast in honor of his son's wedding, we forbid only that day and that Nochri.
Support #2 (Rav Ashi - Mishnah): ... The day he shaves his beard, or his Bluris, the day he arrived from a sea voyage or left prison, only that day and that Nochri are forbidden.
Question: 'That day' excludes the days before and after. What does 'that Nochri' exclude?
Answer: It excludes people who are subservient to him.
(Beraisa - R. Yishmael): Yisraelim in Chutz la'Aretz serve idolatry unknowingly. A Nochri makes a feast in honor of his son's wedding, and invites all the Yisraelim in the city. Even though they eat their own food and drink, and a Yisrael serves them, the Torah considers this an idolatrous feast - "v'Kora Lecha v'Achalta mi'Zivcho."
Suggestion: Perhaps this is only if the Yisrael eats!
Rejection (Rava): "V'Kora Lecha" is extra to teach that from the time he agrees to go, it is as if he ate.
Within 30 days after the wedding one may not go, even if the Nochri did not say that it is due to the wedding;
After 30 days, it is forbidden only if he says that it is due to the wedding;
Question: For how long after the wedding is it forbidden when he says that it is due to the wedding?
Answer (Rav Papa): It is for 12 months.
Question: From when does the Isur begin?
Answer (Rav Papa): It is from when they plant barley in a trough (to pass in front of the bride and groom for an omen to be fruitful; Rashi - or, when they start soaking barley to make beer for the wedding).
Question (against answer (g)): We are concerned even after 12 months!
R. Yitzchak brei d'Rav Mesharshiya went to a Nochri's house after 12 months. He heard them thanking (their idolatry for helping them to get him to come), so he did not eat!
Answer: For a great person, even after 12 months is forbidden.
WHEN ROME SEIZED POWER
(Mishnah): And Karteisim...
(Rav Yehudah): This is the day that Rome seized power.
Question (Beraisa): Karteisim and the day that Rome seized power... .
Answer (Rav Yosef): Rome seized power twice, when they conquered Kleopatra, and when they conquered Yavan.
(Rav Dimi): Rome made 32 battles against Yavan and was unable to conquer them, until they joined with Yisrael.
They stipulated (with Yisrael) 'if we become the kings, we will appoint you to be the mayors. If you become the kings, you will make us the mayors.'
Rome (to Yavan): Until now, we fought. Now, let us judge who should rule!
If there are a pearl and a (more) precious stone, which should be the setting for the other?
Yavan: The pearl is the setting.
Rome sent similar questions, and Yavan answered that a precious stone should be the setting for carbuncle (a more precious stone). Carbuncle should be the setting for a Sefer Torah.
Rome: The Sefer Torah and Yisrael are with us!
Rome overcame Yavan. For 26 years they fulfilled their promise to Yisrael. After that, they subjugated Yisrael.
Question: Why did they first honor it, and later stop?
Answer: At first they expounded "v'Elchah l'Negdecha" (Esav will be even with Yakov). Later, they expounded "Ya'avor Na Adoni Lifnei Avdo" (Esav will be a master over Yakov).
Question: What is the source that they fulfilled their promise for 26 years?
Answer: We learn from the following teaching (which concludes on the next Daf).
(Rav Kahana citing R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi): Rome subjugated Yisrael 180 years before the Churban (of the second Mikdash). Eighty years before the Churban, Chachamim decreed that Chutz la'Aretz is Tamei and that glass Kelim receive Tum'ah;
Forty years before the Churban, the Great Sanhedrin exiled itself to Chanus (a place).
Question: What do we learn from this?
Answer: (Rav Yitzchak bar Avdimi): After they exiled themselves, fines were not enforced.
Objection: Rav Yehudah taught that if not for R. Yehudah ben Bava, fines would have been forgotten from Yisrael;
Objection: Why would they be forgotten? Chachamim should teach them!
Correction: Rather, they would not have been enforced, for Rome decreed to kill anyone who gives Semichah (ordination, which is necessary to collect fines) or receives Semichah, and to destroy the city and its outskirts where Semichah was given;
R. Yehudah ben Bava went between two mountains, between two cities, between their outskirts, and gave Semichah to R. Meir, R. Yehudah, R. Yosi, R. Shimon, and R. Elazar ben Shamu'a (Rav Avya adds, also R. Nechemyah). (They lived long after the Sanhedrin was exiled, and they collected fines!)
When the troops of Rome found out, R. Yehudah ben Bava told them 'flee. I will remain here.' They pierced him with 300 iron spears.
Correction (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Rather, after they exiled themselves, capital punishment was not enforced.
Question: What was the Sanhedrin's reason?
Answer: There were too many murderers, and they could not judge them all. They reasoned that it is better to be in exile, so the murderers will not be liable;
"Min ha'Makom ha'Hu" - capital punishment can be sentenced only if the Great Sanhedrin is in its place (in Lishkas ha'Gazis in the Mikdash).