AVODAH ZARAH 49 (18 Adar) - Dedicated by Harav Shlomo Weinberger of Brooklyn, NY, in memory of his father, Reb Chaim Tzvi ben Reb Shlomo Weinberger, whose Yahrzeit is 18 Adar. Reb Chaim Tzvi, a Holocaust survivor who raised his family in a new country, bequeathed his children a steadfast commitment to Torah and its study.

[49a - 39 lines; 49b - 55 lines]

1)[line 4]שנתפטמהSHE'NISPATMAH- that was fattened

2)[line 5]בכרשיני עבודת כוכביםKARSHINEI AVODAS KOCHAVIM- the beans of a species of vine, probably the horse-bean (which is rarely used as human food), that were used as an offering to Avodah Zarah, or were themselves served as Avodah Zarah

3)[line 6]תבורTAVOR- it shall be laid fallow, unplanted, until the effect of the fertilizer of Avodah Zarah wears off

4)[line 7]תרזהTIRAZEH- it shall be starved until it loses the benefit of the Karshinei Avoidah Zarah

5)[line 8]ר"א [רבי אליעזר]R"E- Rebbi Eliezer

6)[line 9]שאורSE'OR- sourdough, a very heavily fermented dough that is mixed with fresh dough to cause it to rise

7)[line 12]אחר האחרון אני באACHAR HA'ACHARON ANI VA- I rule that the mixture should have the Halachic status of the last ingredient added

8)[line 13](לכתחילה) [בתחלה](L'CHATCHILAH) [BI'TECHILAH]- first

9)[line 22]הסיק בה את התנורHISIK BAH ES HA'TANUR- he used it (kindling wood taken from an Asheirah tree) to fuel an oven

10a)[line 22]חדש, יותץCHADASH, YUTATZ- a new one (i.e. a new oven) shall be destroyed (since it becomes prohibited as Isurei Hana'ah, since it was strengthened by the heat of the Asheirah wood, completing its manufacture through the use of Isurei Hana'ah)

b)[line 23]ישן, יוצןYASHAN, YUTZAN- an old one must be left to cool off before it is used for baking

11)[line 24]נתערבה באחרים, כולן אסורותNIS'ARVAH B'ACHERIM, KULAN ASUROS- if it is becomes mixed in with other loaves of bread, they are all prohibited as Isurei Hana'ah (since they are termed "Davar sheb'Minyan," which cannot be nullified by a majority of permitted objects — Beitzah 3b, see TOSFOS ibid. DH v'Acheros and TOSFOS here DH Nis'arvah)

49b----------------------------------------49b

12)[line 5]יוליך הנאה לים המלךYOLICH HANA'AH L'YAM HA'MELACH- the benefit he receives from [selling] them "should go to Yam ha'Melach," i.e. it must be destroyed

13)[line 6]כרכור / כרכרKARKOR / KARKAR- (O.F. raiol) a wooden tool used by weavers for separating threads on the loom and for other purposes

14)[line 13]קלי לה איסוראKALI LAH ISURA- the items from which it is prohibited to benefit, i.e. the wood from the Asheirah tree, gets burned up

15)[line 21]חביתCHAVIS- a barrel [of wine that is Yayin Nesech]

16)[line 23]דְּיַיִן נסךYAYIN NESECH

(a)Wine that was poured as an idolatrous libation is Asur b'Hana'ah. This is derived from the verse, "אֲשֶׁר חֵלֶב זְבָחֵימוֹ יֹאכֵלוּ, יִשְׁתּוּ יֵין נְסִיכָם" "Asher Chelev Zevacheimo Yochelu, Yishtu Yein Nesicham" - "Those who ate the fat of their sacrifices, and drank the wine of their drink offerings" (Devarim 32:38), which compares the wine of libations to an animal sacrificed for idolatrous purposes.

(b)The Chachamim prohibited the wine of a Nochri that was not poured as a libation (Stam Yeinam) out of fear that drinking wine together would lead to intermarriage. In order to avoid confusion between Yayin Nesech and Stam Yeinam, the Chachamim instituted that Stam Yeinam is also Asur b'Hana'ah. Although this is only an Isur mid'Rabanan, it is a very severe prohibition (see Chochmas Adam 75:1).

17)[line 23]בחמריהB'CHAMREI- with his wine (which was probably in a collection pit)

18a)[line 26]קירסםKIRSEM- he (a Nochri — all the actions of Bitul are performed by a Nochri) took off the dry twigs to use as kindling wood

b)[line 26]וזירדZIRED- he took off moist twigs for his own personal use

19a)[line 26]מקלMAKEL- a stick

b)[line 26]שרביטSHARVIT- a stem

20)[line 27]עלהALEH- a leaf

21)[line 27]שיפהSHIYEFAH- he planed it

22)[line 28]שפאיןSHAFA'IN- the shavings

23)[line 37]קיסםKISEM- wood chip

24a)[line 44]בעבודת כוכבים של חליותAVODAS KOCHAVIM SHEL CHULIYOS- an idol that can be taken apart (lit. that is made of vertebrae)

b)[line 44]ובהדיוט (ש)יכול להחזירהUV'HEDYOT (SHE')YACHOL L'HACHAZIRAH- and [we are dealing] with [a case where] an ordinary person can put it back together

PEREK #4 REBBI YISHMAEL

25)[line 48]מרקוליסMARKULIS- the Roman God Mercury, identified with the Norse god Wodin, worshipped by throwing stones at the Markulis Gadol or removing stones from in front of it (Rambam ibid.). The Markulis Gadol was a structure of three stones, two set next to each other and the third on top of the first two.

26a)[line 49]שנראות עמוSHE'NIR'OS IMO- that are close to it (lit. seen with it). The Gemara discusses this distance on Daf 50a.

b)[line 49]ושאין נראות עמוSHE'EIN NIR'OS IMO- that are not close to it

27)[line 53]שנשרוSHE'NASHRU- that fell from it

28)[last line]דמעיקרא תבורי מיתבריME'IKARA TEVUREI MISBEREI- it originally was made from rocks that were not attached (lit. broken), but rather piled upon each other

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