The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at http://www.dafyomi.co.il/midos/mids-charts.htm), is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).
[a - 45 lines; b - 31 lines]
1)[line 1]שותפין לא מצו ממיריןSHUTFIN LO MATZU MEMIRIN (TEMURAH: SHUTFIN)
(a)See Background to Zevachim 5:22
(b)Partners who own a Korban cannot affect a Temurah. The verses (Vayikra 27:9-10, 33) are exclusively written in the singular form, from which Chazal learn that the laws of Temurah do not apply to partners (Mishnah Temurah 13a).
2)[line 3]"[לֹא יַחֲלִיפֶנּוּ וְלֹא-יָמִיר אֹתוֹ טוֹב בְּרָע--אוֹ-רַע בְּטוֹב. וְ]אִם-הָמֵר יָמִיר [בְּהֵמָה בִּבְהֵמָה, וְהָיָה-הוּא וּתְמוּרָתוֹ יִהְיֶה-קֹּדֶשׁ]""IM HAMER YAMIR"- ["Do not transfer or exchange it (an animal that has been designated as a Korban) for another animal, neither a good animal for a bad one nor a bad one for a good one.] If you do exchange an animal [of Kodesh] for another animal [that is not], both the original animal and the one given in exchange for it, will be Kodesh.]" (Vayikra 27:10).
3)[line 3]לרבות את היורשL'RABOS ES HA'YORESH (TEMURAH: YORESH)
4)[line 5]נהר פקודNEHAR PEKOD- a town in Bavel on the Pekod River
5)[line 6]מעשרMA'ASER (MA'ASER SHENI)
(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).
(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon, redemption - see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5). Once the Ma'aser Sheni produce enters the walls of Yerushalayim, it may not be redeemed. It is considered "Niklat," "captured" by the walls.
(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.
6)[line 6]"וְאִם-גָּאֹל יִגְאַל [אִישׁ מִמַּעַשְׂרוֹ, חֲמִשִׁיתוֹ יֹסֵף עָלָיו.]""V'IM GA'OL YIG'AL [ISH MI'MA'ASRO, CHAMISHISO YOSEF ALAV.]"- "If [a person] will redeem [from his fruits of Ma'aser [Sheni], he shall add a fifth to it.]" (Vayikra 27:31)
7)[line 8]שאני מעשר, דגבי אבוהון נמי איתיה בשותפותSHA'ANEI MA'ASER, D'GABEI AVUHON NAMI ISEI B'SHUTFUS- Ma'aser is different, since there is no source that excludes partners from redeeming Ma'aser Sheni (lit. since their father also had the ability to redeem Ma'aser together with partners)
8)[line 9]ומינהU'MINAH- (lit. and from it) and from our previous conclusion, that heirs do not own the Korban that they inherited from their father, we may ask the following question:
9)[line 12]המקדיש מוסיף חומשHA'MAKDISH MOSIF CHOMESH (PIDYON HEKDESH)
(a)If a person consecrates (is "Makdish") an object to the Beis ha'Mikdash and that object is of no benefit to the Mikdash "as is," the object may be sold by the appointees of Hekdesh (Gizbarim), who determine its selling price based on the estimate of a group of experts. When a person buys the object from Hekdesh, the object loses its Kedushah and its value becomes Kodesh in its stead. This is called "Pidyon Hekdesh," redeeming from Hekdesh.
(b)If the object that is consecrated to Hekdesh is an object that can acquire intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is," it becomes Kadosh with Kedushas ha'Guf (see Background to Shevuos 22:5:c-e). An animal that has Kedushas ha'Guf cannot be redeemed without a Mum (blemish).
(c)When a person dedicates an item to Hekdesh, if he redeems it himself he has to add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). For example, if the object is worth 50 Sela'im, he has to redeem it for 62.5. If another person redeems it from Hekdesh, he does not have to add a Chomesh.
(d)In the case described by Rebbi Avahu in the name of Rebbi Yochanan, a person, Reuven, separated an animal as a Korban to fulfill the pledge of Shimon. Reuven is the Makdish (or Mafrish) who must add a Chomesh if he subsequently wants to redeem the animal. Shimon is the Miskaper (lit. the one who will achieve atonement, i.e. the fulfillment of his pledge) who does not add a Chomesh were he to redeem the animal.
10)[line 13]מתכפר עושה תמורהMISKAPER OSEH TEMURAH
(a)See Background to Zevachim 5:22.
(b)In the case described by Rebbi Avahu in the name of Rebbi Yochanan, a person, Reuven, separated an animal as a Korban to fulfill the pledge of Shimon. Shimon is the Miskaper (lit. the one who will achieve atonement, i.e. the fulfillment of his pledge), and as such, is considered the owner of the Korban who can affect a Temurah (for which he will receive Malkus). Reuven does not have this ability (Temurah 10a).
11)[line 13]התורם משלו על של חבירו, טובת הנאה שלוHA'TOREM MI'SHELO AL SHEL CHAVEIRO, TOVAS HANA'AH SHE'LO (TOVAS HANA'AH)
(a)For a discussion of the Mitzvah of separating Terumah, see above, entry #5:a-b.
(b)The words "Tovas Hana'ah" denote the trivial benefit (in terms of pleasure or compensation) that a person receives in return for giving away an object or goods to which he has only very limited rights.
(c)A common example of this is selecting a particular individual to be the recipient of a gift that he is obligated to bestow to others. For example, Terumah must be given to a Kohen, and Ma'aser to a Levi. The Tovas Hana'ah of a Yisrael who separates Terumah or Ma'aser from his produce is the right to give the Terumah or Ma'aser to the Kohen or Levi of his choice.
(d)Another example is selling an object to which one will not have full rights until a later date, or to which one may never gain full rights. For example, a woman only receives a Kesuvah from her husband if the husband dies before her or divorces her. She may sell her rights to collect the Kesuvah for Tovas Hana'ah. Since the possibility exists that she will die before her husband and the purchaser will not receive the Kesuvah, the Tovas Hana'ah of the Kesuvah is worth much less than the Kesuvah itself.
(e)The Gemara (Kidushin 58a) discusses whether Tovas Hana'ah has monetary value or not (see Insights to Kidushin 58:1). Our Gemara quotes Rebbi Yochanan, who rules that a person who separates Terumah from his own produce on behalf of his fellow Jew's obligation has the rights to the Tovas Hana'ah.
12a)[line 15]מקיבעא לא מכפרא, מקופיא מכפראMI'KIV'A LO MECHAPRA, MI'KUFYA MECHAPRA- (lit. it does not have the effect of fixed atonement, but merely that of "floating" atonement) the heirs partially own the Korban of their father, sufficiently to be able to make a Temurah, but not sufficiently to be considered partners
13)[line 22]שלא לשמו מכח לשמו קאתיSHE'LO LISHMO MI'KO'ACH LISHMO KA'ASI- the Korban that was offered she'Lo Lishmo was originally designated to atone for a specific sin (lit. came from [a Korban designated] for its sake)
14)[line 24]אעשה דלאחר הפרשהA'ASEH DEL'ACHAR HAFRASHAH- [Does a Korban Olah (offered correctly) atone for failure to perform] a positive commandment after the animal was designated?
15)[line 33]"וְסָמַךְ [יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הָעֹלָה;] וְנִרְצָה [לוֹ לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו.]""V'SAMACH... V'NIRTZAH..."- "And he shall press his hand [upon the head of the burnt offering;] and it shall be accepted [for him to make atonement for him.]" (Vayikra 1:4)
16)[line 34]"[כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא; וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל-הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל-נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם;] כִּי-הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר.""... KI HA'DAM HU BA'NEFESH YECHAPER."- "[For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls;] for it is the blood that makes an atonement for the soul." (Vayikra 17:11) - This verse refers to the Avodah of Zerikas ha'Dam, in which the blood of Korbanos was either cast onto the sides of the Mizbe'ach or applied to the sides or the Keranos (horns) of the Mizbe'ach. This was the main service that accomplished the atonement for which HaSh-m commanded that the sacrifices be offered.
Semichah refers to the Mitzvah for a person to press his hands with all his might on the head of his animal sacrifice (and not a bird sacrifice) before it is slaughtered, as described in Vayikra (1:4).
b)[linr 36]אם עשאה לסמיכה שירי מצוהIM ASA'AH LI'SEMICHAH SHEYAREI MITZVAH- (lit. if he treated Semichah as the dispensable, inessential remnants of a Mitzvah) if he did not do Semichah
18)[line 1]"וְהַנּוֹתָר מִן-הַשֶּׁמֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל-כַּף הַכֹּהֵן יִתֵּן עַל-רֹאשׁ הַמִּטַּהֵר, לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו לִפְנֵי ה'.""VEHA'NOSAR (BA'SHEMEN) [MIN HA'SHEMEN] ASHER AL KAF HA'KOHEN YITEN AL ROSH HA'MITAHER L'CHAPER ALAV LIFNEI HASH-M."- "And the rest of the oil that is in the Kohen's hand he shall put upon the head of him who is to be purified, to make an atonement for him before HaSh-m." (Vayikra 14:29)
19)[line 4]שירי מצוה הןSHEYAREI MITZVAH HEN- one of the dispensable, inessential "remnants" of a Mitzvah [that does not prevent atonement]
20a)[line 10]מתן בהונות / מתנות הראשMATAN BEHONOS / MATNOS HA'ROSH - placing [blood and/or oil] on the thumb and big toe and the head [of the Metzora] (METZORA: MATAN BEHONOS)
(a)A Metzora is a person who has the skin disease of Tzara'as (see Background to Shevuos 2:4). For a detailed description of the process by which a Metzora becomes Tahor, see Background to Shevuos 8:6.
(b)Along with the animal Korbanos, the Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham (which is a ram) with the Log of oil resting upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of the blood is placed on the body of the Metzora: on the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, on his right thumb and on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (TY #18; the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man who donated the brass doors of the gate; see Yoma 38a). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah had the Kedushah of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor only had the Kedushah of Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that the Metzora could stick his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the archway of the gate.
(c)After all of the Korbanos were offered, a Kohen pours some of the oil in his left hand and sprinkles it seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. He must dip his right finger in the oil each time. Oil is also put on the body of the Metzora, on the places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed on the Metzora's head. The rest of the Log which was not poured into the Kohen's hand was given to the Kohanim, and must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (it is one of the Kodshei ha'Kodashim). (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusarei Kaparah 4:2-3)
21)[line 11]כבשי עצרתKIVSEI ATZERES - the sheep of Shavu'os
The Torah commands to bring a Minchah offering on Shavu'os called the Shtei ha'Lechem (Vayikra 23:16-17) that consists of two loaves of bread that are Chametz, made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (approximately equal to 4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions). In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim are offered (ibid. 23:18-19). (These sheep were the only Shelamim brought by the Tzibur, and the only Shelamim that were Kodshei Kodashim.)
22)[line 13]שעירי עצרתSE'IREI ATZERES - the goats of Shavu'os
Two goats as Korbenos Chatas are offered on Shavu'os. One was offered in conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem (Vayikra 23:19; see previous entry). The other was included in the Musaf offering of Shavu'os (Bamidbar 28:30).
23)[line 14]טומאת מקדש וקדשיוTUM'AS MIKDASH V'KODASHAV
(a)It is forbidden for a person to enter the Mikdash (see Background to Makos 12:33 for a discussion of the boundaries of the various areas in the Mikdash) if he touched an Av ha'Tumah (Bamidbar 5:2). Regarding a person who becomes Tamei the verse states, "b'Chol Kodesh Lo Siga," - "...she (a woman after childbirth) shall touch no consecrated thing" (Vayikra 12:4), from which the Gemara learns (Yevamos 75a, Makos 14b) that it is forbidden for a person who is Tamei to eat Kodshim. If a person who is Tamei eats the blood of Kodshim, he does not transgress this prohibition. (This is not to be confused with Tum'as Basar (see Background to Shevuos 2:14), which is also called "Tamei." Tum'as Basar means that the Kodshim, as opposed to the person eating it or offering it, became Tamei.)
(b)One who transgresses these prohibitions b'Shogeg (unintentionally) becomes obligated to bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored (see Background to Shevuos 24:14b). If he transgresses them b'Meizid (intentionally) and witnesses saw him and he was warned (Hasra'ah) not to transgress, he is punished with Malkus (lashes). If he was not warned, the punishment for transgressing this Lav b'Mezid is Kares (Vayikra 12:4, 22:3-4, Bamidbar 5:3, 19:20) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #167).
(c)In order to transgress these prohibitions, the sinner has to have known that he was Tamei before and after the transgression ("Yedi'os" - see Mishnah Shevuos 2a), but had forgotten at the time he transgressed.
24)[line 17]חיסך הכתובCHISECH HA'KASUV- the written [verse] spared [Benei Yisrael the expense of bringing Korbanos all the time]
25)[line 23]שאני קרבנות צבורSHANI KORBENOS TZIBUR- offerings of the congregation are different
26)[line 23]לב בית דין קמתנה עליהןLEV BEIS DIN KA'MASNEH ALEIHEN- (lit. the intention of Beis Din is to make a condition about them) the Korbenos Tzibur were consecrated with the stipulation that Beis Din could designate them for whatever it wants. (Even if the two goats were separated at the same time, the second one does not become consecrated until just before it is offered, and as such, it atones for the sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav committed between the offerings of the two goats.)
27)[line 26]סכין מושכתן למה שהןSAKIN MOSHCHASAN L'MAH SHE'HEN- the slaughtering knife "drags them" to (i.e. makes them fit for) what they are supposed to be
28a)[last line]תמידין שלא הוצרכו לצבורTEMIDIN SHE'LO HUTZRECHU LA'TZIBUR- [animals that were allocated as] Tamid offerings (see next entry) but [subsequently] were not needed for the public service. (The Amora'im argue whether or not there is a Machlokes Tana'im concerning whether these animals may be redeemed even though they are unblemished.)
b)[last line]תמידין שלא הוצרכו לצבורTEMIDIN SHE'LO HUTZRECHU L'TZIBOR (KORBAN TAMID)
(a)The Korban Tamid, a communal offering (Korban Tzibur) consists of two male sheep that were less than one year old. One sheep was offered at dawn and the second sheep was offered in the afternoon, ideally 2 1/2 Halachic hours before sunset. One tenth of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of flour was brought with each sheep as a Minchah (meal offering), which was mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approximately 0.9, 1.04 or 1.8 liters) of hand pressed olive oil. One quarter of a Hin of wine for each sheep was brought as a wine libation (Bamidbar 28:5).
(b)To insure that at least two sheep would be available for the Korban Tamid each day, six sheep were kept in the Lishkas ha'Tela'im, the Chamber of Lambs (TY # 43, also known as the Lishkas ha'Korban or Lishkas Tela'ei Korban). The lambs were checked to ensure that they had no Mum (blemish). Normally, on the last day of the month of Adar, four sheep were left over from the previous year's Terumas ha'Lishkah (see Background to Shevuos 10:21).