BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
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31) [line 36] KIL'AYIM (SHA'ATNEZ)
(a) Sha'atnez is a mixture of wool and linen which is prohibited, as the Torah states in Devarim 22:11. Chazal teach that the word "Sha'atnez" is made up of three smaller words -- "Shu'a" (combed), "Tavi" (spun) and "Noz."
(b) The Rishonim disagree over the translation of the word "Noz":
1. RASHI (Nidah 61b and Horayos 11a DH Noz) and the RASH (Mishnayos Kil'ayim 9:8) learn that Noz means woven together (the wool and linen are woven together in a garment).
2. TOSFOS (Nidah 61b DH Shua Tavi v'Noz) disagrees with Rashi's explanation. We learn that the prohibition of Sha'atnez applies only when the wool and linen are woven together from the word "Yachdav" in the verse. If so, Noz does not mean "woven together." Rather, Noz means that the threads must be twisted or wound.
(c) The Rishonim disagree about how the wool and linen must be joined in order to transgress the Torah prohibition of Kil'ayim:
1. RASHI (ibid.) holds that the wool and linen must be combed, spun, and woven together. That is, the strands of wool must be combed together, spun together, and then woven together with the linen in order to transgress the prohibition of Sha'atnez. If the strands of wool are combed or spun separately from the strands of linen, even though they are later woven into a garment together, the Torah prohibition of Sha'atnez has not been transgressed.
2. TOSFOS (ibid.) learns that one transgresses the Torah prohibition if the wool and linen are combed, spun, and twisted by themselves, and are then joined together by two stitches. The RASH (ibid.) agrees with Tosfos, and rules that if the wool and linen are combed and spun separately and then joined, the prohibition of Sha'atnez has been transgressed. (However he does not require that the threads be twisted, see b:1.)
2) [line 11] AVNETO SHEL KOHEN GADOL ZEH HU AVNETO SHEL KOHEN HEDYOT
(a) The Torah specifies that the belt that the Kohen Gadol wore on Yom ha'Kipurim (for the Avodah that was specific to Yom ha'Kipurim) was made of pure linen (Vayikra 16:4). The belt that he wore during the rest of the year was made of Kil'ayim (a mixture of linen and wool - Shemos 39:29). The Torah does not specify what material was used to make the belt of a Kohen Hedyot (who wore the same type of belt throughout the year).
(b) The Tana'im and Amora'im argue as to what material was used to make the belt of a Kohen Hedyot. One opinion rules that a Kohen Hedyot wore a belt of pure linen, like the Kohen Gadol wore on Yom ha'Kipurim, while others rule that he wore a belt of Kil'ayim, like the Kohen Gadol wore during the rest of the year.
3) [line 6] TEFILIN MIN HA'TZAD SHAPIR DAMI - it is permitted to put Tefilin next to one's self while sleeping
4a) [line 15] LEVISHAH - wearing
b) [line 15] HA'ALA'AH - draping the garment over one's shoulders
c) [line 16] HATZA'AH - spreading the garment under one's body
5) [line 18] SHEMA TIKARECH NIMA ACHAS AL BESARO - perhaps one thread will fold over and cover his skin
6) [line 19] D'MAFSIK LEI MIDI BEINI BEINI - he places something between him and the Kilayim
7) [line 21] MATZA'OS - sheets; bedspreads
8) [line 24] HAI NAMTA GAMDA D'NARASH, SHARYA - the hard felt that is produced in Narash from linen and wool is permitted to sit upon [(O.F. feltre) felt; a cloth made of wool fibers that have been pressed together and not woven]
9) [line 27] HAR GERIZIM - a mountain in the Shomron, in the portion of Menasheh, which was the center of the settlement of the Kusiyim (see next entry)
10) [line 28] KUSIYIM
The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa, a Babylonian town, to Eretz Yisrael. He made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid or not. After the times of the Mishnah, they were found worshipping an image of a dove on Mount Gerizim (directly south of Shechem) and the Chachamim gave them the status of gentiles.
11) [line 33] ANTIPATRAS - Antipatris, a strategic city built by Herod and named for his father, situated at the source of the Yarkon River. It is located near Kefar Saba
12) [line 35] DEMUS DEYUKNO - his likeness, image
13) [line 35] MENATZACHAS LEFANAI B'VEIS MILCHAMTI - always appeared to me (in a dream?) prior to the battles in which I was victorious
14) [line 37] YAT'UCHA - will mislead you
15a) [line 39] KOTZIM - thorns
b) [line 39] BARKANIM - thistles
16) [line 40] KARSHININ - the beans of a species of vine, probably the horse-bean (which is rarely used as human food)
*17*) [line 7] V'AMAR RAV CHISDA, B'EZRAS NASHIM - (Rav Chisda is explaining what the Tana Kama meant by saying the Torah was read "in the Azarah.")
*18*) [line 10] RAV GIDAL AMAR, BARUCH... - that is, Rav Gidal says, Ezra instituted that after a Berachah is recited in the Mikdash, the people should answer "Baruch Hash-m..." instead of Amen. (RASHI- the words "Baruch Hash-m..." in Rashi ought to be the beginning of a new Dibur.)
19) [line 15] HORA'AS SHA'AH HAYESAH - it was only permitted for that specific time
20) [line 17] BAYA BAYA - woe, woe
21) [line 17] D'ACHREVEI L'MIKDESHA - that destroyed the Beis ha'Mikdash
22) [line 17] V'KALEI L'HEICHALEI - and burned HaSh-m's Heichal
23) [line 18] V'AGLINHU L'YISRAEL ME'AR'AHON - and exiled Benei Yisrael from their land
24) [line 18] V'ADAYIN MERAKED BEINAN - and he is still dancing (rejoicing) in our midst
25) [line 19] L'KABULEI BEI AGRA - to receive reward through him (by defeating him)
26) [line 19] PISKA - note
27) [line 20] CHOSAMO - His seal
28a) [line 22] NAFAK ASA - there emerged
b) [line 22] KI GURYA D'NURA - the form of a lion-cub made of fire
29) [line 23] "VA'YOMER, ..." - "And he said, 'This [woman] is wickedness,' ..." (Zecharyah 5:8) - The Gemara interprets this verse as referring to the episode in which the Anshei Kenesses ha'Gedolah killed the Yetzer ha'Ra for Avodah Zarah.
30a) [line 24] ISHTAMIT BINISA MI'MAZYA - one strand of hair came out of his hair
b) [line 24] V'RAMA KALA - he screamed
31) [line 26] SHADYUHU B'DUDA D'AVARA - throw him into a lead pot
32) [line 26] V'CHAFYUHU L'FUMEI B'AVARA - and cover its opening with lead
33) [line 26] D'AVARA MISH'AV SHA'IV KALA - because lead absorbs sound
34) [line 30] KALYA ALMA - the world will terminate (because of lack of propagation)
35) [line 30] BEI'ASA BAS YOMA - a newly-laid egg; an egg that was laid that day
36) [line 32] PALGA B'REKI'A LO YAHAVEI - half of an item (an incomplete item) is not granted from Heaven
37) [line 32] KACHLINHU L'EINEI - they filled its eyes with blue dye, blinding it
38) [line 33] V'AHANEI - and it worked to the extent
39) [line 33] D'LO MIGRI BEI L'INISH B'KEREIVASAH - that it does not entice a person to have relations with his close relatives
40) [line 35] MATYA - approaches, resembles, (aids - see Hagahos ha'Gra)
41) [line 37] MEKARKERIN - cackling, making noises
42) [line 43] SHE'AMITI HU - that He is truthful
43) [line 43] LO KIZVU BO - they did not praise him in a manner which they perceived to be false
44) [line 44] MEDALGIN BA'NAVI - it is permitted to skip from one chapter to another while reading from the Prophets in public
45) [line 45] HA'TURGEMAN - the one who translates into Aramaic each verse of the Torah reading
Index to Background for Maseches Yoma