BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[11a - 47 lines; 11b - 42 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon Kodashim, the Vilna Ga'on and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 11a [line 22]:
The words "v'Achar Kach Nis'abdah" ואחר כך נתעבדה
should be "v'Achar Kach Nis'abrah" ואחר כך נתעברה
 Gemara [line 43]:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #16
 Hagahos ha'Gra 11a #1:
The words "v'Ubarin she'Kidshan" ועוברין שקדשן
should be "v'Ubarin she'Kadshu" ועוברין שקדשו
1) [line 1] מקדישין איברין וממירין בהן MAKDISHIN EIVARIM U'MEMIRIN BAHEN - we may be Makdish individual limbs of an animal, and we may make Temurah with them. The Mishnah does not mention "Memirin Bahen" at all, but rather the Gemara infers that this is what the Mishnah means; if the Mishnah meant otherwise, then there would be no reason for the Mishnah to discuss making a Temurah for an Ubar (HAGAHOS HA'GRA #1). This is how the Gemara later knows that this Mishnah maintains that "Pashtah Kedushah b'Chulah" (TOSFOS DH Hachi ka'Amar).
2) [line 11] ומצא בה בן ארבע חי U'MATZA BAH BEN ARBA CHAI - and he found in it (the Korban Chatas) a live, four-month-old fetus (the complete term of pregnancy for sheep and goats is five months). The Gemara suggests that the Tana'im argue whether this fetus has the status of a Korban Chatas, or the status of ordinary Chulin. (RASHI explains that, at this stage, the Gemara is assuming that the case is one in which the owner of the animal intentionally was Makdish the fetus inside of the mother.)
3) [line 16] מאי לאו תנאי היא MAI LAV TANA'EI HI - it must be a Tana'ic disagreement (whether or not one may be Makdish a fetus) See Chart #2.
4) [line 30] אלמא קדיש ולדALMA KADISH VLAD - it must be that one can be Makdish an animal in its mother's womb. We cannot explain that the case of Yotzei Dofen involves an animal born to an animal that is already Kodesh and, "Velados bi'Me'ei Iman Hen Kedoshim," because (a) Rebbi Meir said "b'Makdish Behemah," and (b) Rebbi Meir expressly tries to avoid having the Mishnah discuss Velados, as can be seen from the end of his statement (as cited in the Gemara's Lishna Acharina).
5) [line 36] לישנא אחרינא אבל כלאים LISHNA ACHARINA, AVAL KIL'AYIM - this is the second half of Rebbi Meir's statement (see Daf 17a), as mentioned above (entry #5). The Gemara proves from this that the case of Yotzei Dofen is not discussing Velados Kodshim, as mentioned above.
6a) [line 16] טרפה חיה TEREIFAH CHAYAH / EINAH CHAYAH
A Tereifah is an animal that has acquired or was born with a fatal defect that will result in its death within a year ("Tereifah Einah Chayah"). There are some Tana'im and Amora'im who maintain that a Tereifah can live for more than a year ("Tereifah Chayah"). The signs of the Tereifos do not have logical reasons; rather, they are Halachos l'Moshe mi'Sinai (RASHI to Chulin 42a DH Naflah; see ).
b) [line 19] ניטלה ירך וחלל שלה נבילה NITLAH YARECH V'CHALAL SHELAH NEVEILAH
Any animal from which "the thigh and its cavity" were removed has the status of a Neveilah even while it is alive. The Mefarshim explain that "the thigh and its cavity" means the entire leg, including some of the flesh at the point that it connects to the body, without leaving any stump - see also Chulin 21a and Background to Chulin 21:13).
7) [line 32] זכר ZACHAR - a ram
8) [line 36] אין בידו להקדישו EIN B'YADO L'HAKDISHO - it is not within his ability to sanctify it. Therefore, it cannot become Kadosh even by itself, as the Gemara says in the Lishna Kama.
9) [last line] חולין בעזרה CHULIN BA'AZARAH
(a) According to some Tana'im, it is forbidden by an Isur Aseh to bring a non-sanctified ("Chulin") animal or food into the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash. This is learned from the verse, "If the place chosen by HaSh-m is far [from where you are]... you may slaughter and eat meat to your heart's content..." (Devarim 12:21), which implies that we may slaughter Chulin only outside of the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash (Pesachim 22a). According to these Tana'im, if non-sanctified animals are slaughtered in the Mikdash, it is prohibited with a Lav to eat from them (Pesachim ibid.). Other Tana'im maintain that the prohibition of offering Chulin in the Azarah (and eating from non-sanctified animals that were slaughtered in the Azarah) is not from the Torah but Rabbinic ("Chulin ba'Azarah Lav d'Oraisa").
(b) The Rishonim argue over the breadth of the prohibition of bringing Chulin into the Azarah, according to those Tana'im who prohibit it mid'Oraisa. According to many Rishonim, it is prohibited mid'Oraisa only to bring objects of Chulin into the Azarah if one performs with them acts which resemble those done for Korbanos, such as slaughtering them, waving them or placing them on the Mizbe'ach (TOSFOS to Bava Basra 81b, DH v'Dilma, and to Pesachim 66b, and other Rishonim). Others maintain that even if no such acts are performed, it is prohibited mid'Oraisa to bring foods of Chulin into the Azarah (RAMBAM Hilchos Shechitah 2:3; see ).