BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
[39a - 27 lines; 39b - 19 lines]
1a) [line 1] MOSHE - a) the title given to the greatest sage of each generation, as Moshe Rabeinu was in his (RASHI here, and to Shabbos 101b); b) the title given to a Talmid Chacham (RASHI to Chulin 93a); c) an oath, which translates as "By the honor of Moshe Rabeinu!" (RASHI to Beitzah 38b)
b) [line 1] SHAPIR KA'AMRAT? - is what you are saying correct?
2) [line 1] ASUKEI MILSA HI - [his intention was that] it [should be] the conclusion of what he began to say
3) [line 7] KOFEL BAH DEVARIM - would repeat [the verses of Tehilim 118:25-29 -- from "Ana Hash-m" and onward -- when reciting Halel]
4) [line 8] MOSIF LI'CHFOL ME'ODCHA UL'MATAH - would additionally repeat [the verses of Tehilim 118:21-25] from "Odach [Ki Anisani]" and onward
5) [line 10] LO SHANU - we did not learn [in the Mishnah that some do not recite a Berachah]
6) [line 13] OVER L'ASIYASAN - prior to their fulfillment
7) [line 15] "... VAYARATZ ACHIMA'ATZ DERECH HA'KIKAR, VAYA'AVOR ES HA'KUSHI" (The Swiftness of Achima'atz)
(a) Following the rebellion of Avshalom against his father David ha'Melech, the latter fled from Yerushalayim. He did appoint a number of spies to remain in Yerushalayim, however. Achima'atz, son of Tzadok ha'Kohen, was one of two spies who were to report to David any important matters that might concern him.
(b) Once Avshalom was killed, Achima'atz wished to run and inform the king of the victory. His father Tzadok, however, tried to stop him, knowing full well that Avshalom's death would shake David -- who had specifically requested of his general Yo'av not to harm Avshalom -- to the core. He therefore took the initiative of sending a Kushi (an Ethiopian native) to inform David. Achima'atz insisted, however, and his father finally gave his consent. The Pasuk informs us, "Then Achima'atz ran by way of the plain, and he overtook the Kushi" (Shmuel II 18:23).
(c) Arriving first, Achima'atz informed the king of the victory. When Davis asked after Avshalom, however, Achima'atz avoided the issue. The Kushi delivered the bad news upon his arrival, which indeed caused David ha'Melech extreme anguish.
8) [line 19] SHEVI'IS (SHEMITAH)
(a) The Torah requires farmers to desist from working the land every seventh year (Vayikra 25:1-7). Produce which grows during the seventh (Shevi'is) year is holy, which in this context means: 1. It is considered ownerless; anyone may enter a field and pick that which he wishes to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights here and to Sukah 40:1). 3. Shevi'is produce may be consumed only in the manner considered normal for that type of food, or burned to provide illumination in the case of oil. It may not be wasted, used for medicinal purposes, fed to animals, etc.
9) [line 22] MAVLI'A LEI DEMEI ESROG B'LULAV - he should include the value of the Esrog in [the price that he pays for] the Lulav
10) [line 22] V'LEISEIV LEI B'HEDYA! - let him pay for the Esrog outright!
11) [line 23] DEMEI PEIROS SHEVI'IS - money paid for Shevi'is produce [which has Kedushah similar to that of the produce itself; see Insights here and to Daf 40]
12) [line 24] AM HA'ARETZ - an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance (see Berachos 47b) [and who therefore cannot be relied upon to treat money with the Kedushah of Shevi'is properly]
13) [line 26] V'IM MASAR - and he [mistakenly] gave [more than this amount of Demei Shevi'is to an Am ha'Aretz]
14) [last line] YEHU MECHULALIN - their Kedushah should be transferred
15) [line 2] HA'MUFKAR - that which was left ownerless
16) [line 3] CHATZI ISAR - half of an Isar, a coin of minimal value. One half of an Isar is worth three or four Perutos (based on Kidushin 12a)
17a) [line 4] PIGAM - (O.F. rude) rue; an herb
b) [line 5] YARBUZIN - (O.F. hanfers, oiseles) sorrel, a sour-leafed plant commonly found in meadows; alt. asparagus
c) [line 5] SHITIM - (O.F. esparges) asparagus
d) [line 5] CHALAGLAGOS - (O.F. polpier) purslane; an edible plant
e) [line 5] KUSBAR SHEB'HARIM - (O.F. allendre) wild mountain coriander
f) [line 6] KARPAS SHEB'NEHAROS - (O.F. cresson) wild cress; alt. (O.F. apie) wild celery, found growing in rivers
g) [line 6] GARGIR SHEL AFAR - (O.F. orugue) wild rocket plant (Eruca sativa), an herb with medicinal properties that benefit the eyes, found growing in meadows
18) [line 7] MA'ASER (MA'ASROS)
(a) Once a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify how much to give, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop.
(b) Once Terumah is separated from the produce, the first tithe must be separated. One tenth of the remaining produce is given to a Levi; this is known as Ma'aser Rishon. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon and give it to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:26). This is called Terumas Ma'aser.
(c) Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from the crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor.
(d) During the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity (Devarim 13:22-28). The various laws of Ma'aser Sheni are learned from the verses which begin, "Aser Te'aser Eis Kol Tevu'as Zar'echa..." (Devarim 13:22-28).
(e) One need not separate Ma'asros from that which is Hefker (ownerless). This is because the Torah explains that the reason why the Levi receives Ma'aser is that "he has no portion or inheritance with you" (Devarim 14:29). Since a Levi may seize Hefker as equally as anyone else, one need not give Ma'aser from that which he has acquired from Hefker.
*19*) [line 8] LEFI SHE'EIN KA'YOTZEI BA'HEM NISHMAR - since none of these items are generally guarded [due to their lack of value, leaving them Hefker]. That which had been Hefker is exempt from Ma'aser; see previous entry (e). The implication of this statement is that as long as one - even an Am ha'Aretz - is not guarding his produce, one may pay him any amount of money for it on Shevi'is.
20a) [line 8] HU MOSIV LH - lit. he gave it; Rav Sheshes asked the question
b) [line 9] V'HU MEFAREK LAH - lit. and he took it apart; and Rav Sheshes himself answered it
*21*) [line 9] BI'CHDEI MAN SHANO - [this Mishnah (Shevi'is 9:1)] teaches that one may pay [for produce that is Hefker] with an amount equal to the value of one day's meals. On Erev Shabbos, this is the value of the three meals of Shabbos. Therefore one may always give this amount.
22) [line 12] "VAYEMAN LA'HEM HA'MELECH [DVAR YOM B'YOMO MI'PAS BAG HA'MELECH UMI'YEIN MISHTAV, UL'GADLAM SHANIM SHALOSH, U'MIKTZASAM YA'AMDU LI'FNEI HA'MELECH.]" (Jewish Youths are Chosen to Serve Nevuchadnetzar)
(a) Nevuchadnetzar, king of Bavel, conquered Yerushalayim and captured its king. He destroyed the Beis ha'Mikdash and took some of its beautiful vessels as spoils of war.
(b) Nevuchadnetzar then ordered Ashpenaz, his chief valet, to round up some Jewish youths who were members of the royal family. These young men were to be without physical blemish, handsome, highly intelligent, and wise. They were as well to have the physical stamina necessary to stand in the palace for hours at a time (see Rashi to 1:4) and to study books and the Aramaic language. Nevuchadnetzar explained to Ashpenaz, "And the king (referring to himself in the third person) will prepare for them from the king's food and from his wine daily, and he shall raise them for two or three [years], and during some of this period they shall stand before the king" (Daniel 1:5).
(c) The youths who were chosen from Yehudah were Daniel, Chananyah, Mishael, and Azaryah.
23) [line 13] BAR SHISHIS - is of the sixth year; i.e., it grew to maturity during the year prior to Shevi'is
24) [line 15] BASAR LEKITAH AZLINAN - is Halachically considered to belong to the year in which it is harvested
25) [line 16] CHANATAH - budding; the stage at which it one-third grown and therefore considered to have developed
26) [last line] ORLAH
(a) One may not derive any benefit from the fruit produced by a fruit tree in the first three years following its planting. These fruits are termed "Orlah" (Vayikra 19:23). This status applies not only to the fruit but also to the peel of the fruit (Kelipei Orlah).
(b) If one consumes a k'Zayis of Orlah fruit, he receives Malkus. According to most Rishonim one who derives benefit from Orlah (or any other food that is Asur b'Hana'ah) is punished with Malkus as well (TOSFOS Chulin 120a DH Ela). There are those, however, who maintain that for such a transgression one receives only Makas Mardus (Malkus instituted by the Rabanan; RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 8:16 -- see also Mishneh l'Melech to Yesodei ha'Torah 5:8).
27) [last line] REVA'I (NETA REVA'I)
(a) Fruit that grows in the fourth year, following those of Orlah (see previous entry), is called Reva'i. The Torah refers to these fruits as Kodesh (holy; Vayikra 19:24). They must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity. Alternatively, one may be Podeh (redeem) the fruits, in which case the money equal to their value gains the status of the original fruits of Reva'i. It must be brought to Yerushalayim, and spent there to purchase food products that must be eaten while one is in a state of purity.
(b) The Gemara records a disagreement as to whether the laws of Reva'i apply to all fruits (Neta Reva'i) or only to grapes (Kerem Reva'i).
Index to Background for Maseches Sukah