1) [line 1] V'ANAN KA YAHAVINAN L'CHOHANIM - and we give [Ma'aser Rishon] to Kohanim (as a result of Ezra's decree (see Ezra 8:15), who fined the Leviyim of his time and decreed that Ma'aser Rishon be given to the Kohanim instead of the Leviyim)
2) [line 3] MA'ASER RISHON (TERUMOS AND MA'ASROS)
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b) The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been removed. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.
3) [line 14] ME'A"H (AM HA'ARETZ)
(a) An Am ha'Aretz is an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance (see Berachos 47b) who usually eats food that is Tamei. Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from the produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (which is known as Demai -- "Da Mai?" -- "What is this?") since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. We presume that Terumah Gedolah, however, has been separated because of its stringency.
4) [line 18] HA'MOTZI ME'CHAVERO ALAV HA'RE'AYAH
(a) The general rule in monetary claims is that the burden of proof rests with the one who wishes to extract payment or other items of value from the other person. Hence, when there is a doubt, all money remains with the one who has possession.
(b) In our Gemara, the Levi who receives Ma'aser Rishon or the pauper who receives Ma'aser Ani must prove that the produce was not tithed in order for them to receive these tithes.
5) [line 19] CHAVERIM
A person is called a Chaver if he accepts upon himself four things: 1. never to give Terumah and Ma'asros to an Am ha'Aretz; 2. never to prepare Taharos in the vicinity of an Am ha'Aretz; 3. to always eat Chulin b'Taharah; 4. to take Ma'aser from all produce that one eats, sells and buys (Tosefta Demai 2:2-3). The Gemara in Bechoros 30b explains exactly how one goes about accepting this distinguished status.
6) [line 23] DUCHAN
(a) The Duchan was a platform with three steps that was hewn into the stone floor of the Azarah. Each step was half an Amah high and half an Amah wide. The bottom step rose one Amah above Ezras Yisrael. The highest step was level with the floor of Ezras Kohanim. The distance from the beginning of the lowest step until the Mizbe'ach was 11 Amos, all of which was Ezras Kohanim. The Duchan extended for the entire width of the Azarah (135 Amos).
(b) The main purpose of the Duchan was for the Leviyim to stand upon it facing the Sanctuary (their backs to the people) while singing to HaSh-m, when the Kohanim offered the obligatory public Korbenos Olah (burnt offerings) or the Shelamim (peace offering) of Shavu'os. They also played musical instruments to accompany the singing.
(c) The Duchan was also used for Birkas Kohanim (see Background to Sotah 37:19) when there were too many Kohanim standing on the steps of the Heichal, the usual place for Birkas Kohanim. (They would face the people, with their backs towards the sides of the Azarah, in order that their backs should not be turned towards the Heichal.) (Notes of the TIFERES YISRAEL on the Beis ha'Mikdash Diagram TY #25 and TIFERES YISRAEL to Midos 2:6)
7a) [line 27] NACHAS - quiet, satisfaction
b) [line 27] SHALVAH - peace, tranquility
8) [line 29] MESARTIN - scratch
9) [line 32] HAYU CHOVTIN OSO V'MAKLOS - they would beat the calf with sticks
10) [line 34] SHEMA NIKEV KERUM SHEL MO'ACH - lest the cranial membrane become pierced, rendering the animal a Tereifah. A Tereifah is an animal with one of the 18 signs described in Chulin 42a. There is a Machlokes Tana'im as to whether an animal with one of these defects can live for twelve months or not.
11) [line 34] TABA'OS - TY #46; 24 rings, set into the floor of the Azarah to the north of the Mizbe'ach. They were used during Shechitah; the animal's neck was held firmly by the ring that opened and closed on a hinge.
12) [line 36] "BA'SHIR LO YISHTU YAYIN; YEMAR SHECHAR L'SHOSAV." - "They shall not drink wine with a song; strong drink shall be bitter to those who drink it." (Yeshayah 24:9)
13) [line 37] URIM V'TUMIM
(a) A Kohen who becomes the Kohen Gadol must wear the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol and do the Avodah for seven consecutive days to indicate his consecration, as stated in Shemos 29:30 "Shiv'as Yamim..." (RAMBAM Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 4:13)
(b) The eight vestments are 1. Tzitz (forehead-plate), 2. Efod (apron), 3. Choshen (breastplate), 4. Me'il (robe), 5. Kutones (long shirt), 6. Michnasayim (breeches), 7. Avnet (belt), 8. Mitznefes (turban).
(c) The Choshen contained a parchment that was called the Urim v'Tumim (Shemos 28:30) upon which a Name of HaSh-m was written. It was possible for a king of Yisrael to ask HaSh-m questions regarding the people of Yisrael and receive an answer using the letters engraved upon the gemstones of the Choshen. Letters containing the answer to his question would stick out in their places (in the order of the answer -- MAHARSHA to Yoma 73b) or would come together to form the words and sentences of the answer. The Kohen Gadol would assist the Urim v'Tumim in the process of receiving an answer through his power of Ru'ach ha'Kodesh (Divine inspiration).
(d) The Gemara (Yoma 73b) gives two reason as to why the parchment was called Urim v'Tumim. Either they were Me'irin (similar to "Urim") Es Divreihen, they clarify their words, or they were Mashlimin ("Tumim" means Shalem, complete) Es Divreihen, they fulfill their words.
14) [line 37] SHAMIR - the Shamir worm that Shlomo ha'Melech used in the construction of the Beis ha'Mikdash (Gitin 68a)
15) [line 37] NOFES TZUFIM - (the Amora'im argue below (Daf 48b) as to what this is -- see below, entries 69-74)
16) [line 37] ANSHEI AMANAH - people who have full trust in the Creator that He will give them everything they need
17) [line 38] "HOSHI'AH HASH-M KI GAMAR CHASID; [KI FASU EMUNIM MI'BENEI ADAM.]" - "Save [us,] HaSh-m, for the pious man is no more; [for people of faith have vanished from mankind.]" (Tehilim 12:2)
18) [line 40] HA'TAHARAH - [the lack of] ritual purity
19) [line 42] "ZEKENIM MI'SHA'AR SHAVASU; BACHURIM MI'NEGINASAM." - "The elders are gone from the gate; the young men from their music." (Eichah 5:14) - The elders refer to the wise men. The courts of each city were located at its gate (as in Ruth 4:1), and the elders were the judges. They taught the Torah and settled disputes there.
20) [line 42] UDNA D'SHAMA ZIMRA, TE'AKER - the ear that hears song should be uprooted (see Insights)
21) [line 43] ZIMRA B'VEISA, CHURVA BI'SEYAFA - when there is song in a house, destruction is at the doorstep
22) [line 43] "KOL YESHORER BA'CHALON, CHOREV BA'SAF, KI ARZAH ERAH." - "[And flocks shall lie down in her midst, all the beasts of the nations; both the little owl and the great owl shall lodge in its capitals;] their voice shall sing in the window; desolation shall be in the threshold; for he shall destroy the cedar work." (Tzefanyah 2:14)
23) [line 44] ARAZIM - cedars
24) [line 44] (MESUBACH) [MESUCHACH] - that is roofed
25) [line 44] MISRO'E'A - will be destroyed
26) [line 45] "[NISH'AR BA'IR SHAMAH;] U'SH'IYAH YUKAS SHA'AR." - "[In the city is left desolation,] and the gate is struck with destruction." (Yeshayah 24:12)
27) [line 46] L'DIDI CHAZI LI - I saw it (the result of the force of destruction on an abandoned house)
b) [line 46] U'MENA'GE'ACH KI SORA - and it gores like a bull
28) [line 46] NAGADEI - the men who drag ships through canals
b) [line 46] BAKARAREI - cattle-drivers who sing to bulls as they pull the plow
c) [line 47] GARDA'EI - (a) weavers; (b) According to the Girsa GILDA'EI - tanners (ARUCH)
29) [line 47] AVAZEI - geese
30) [line 47] V'LO IBA'I - and it was not sought (there were no purchasers)
31) [line 48] ZALZIL BEI - he treated it lightly [the singing, by not rebuking the singers]
32) [line 48] V'LO MISHTAKE'ACH - there were none to be found
33) [line 48] ZAMREI GAVREI V'ANEI NASHEI - when men sing and the women answer
34) [line 49] K'ESH B'NE'ORES - like fire that consumes thoroughly beaten flax
35) [line 50] "HOY MASHKIMEI VA'BOKER, SHECHAR YIRDOFU; ME'ACHAREI VA'NESHEF, YAYIN YADLIKEM. V'HAYAH CHINOR V'NEVEL TOF V'CHALIL VA'YAYIN MISHTEIHEM; V'ES PO'AL YADAV HASH-M LO YABITU, [U'MA'ASEH YADAV LO RA'U.]" - "Woe to those who rise up early in the morning, that they may go after strong drink; and continue until night, till wine inflames them! And the lyre, and the lute, the tambourine, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts; but they regard not the work of HaSh-m, [neither consider the operation of His hands.]" (Yeshayah 5:11-12)
36) [line 51] "LACHEN GALAH AMI MI'BELI DA'AS; U'CHVODO MESEI RA'AV, VA'HAMONO TZICHE TZAMA." - "Therefore my people are gone to exile, because they have no knowledge; and their honorable men are famished, and their multitude dried up with thirst." (Yeshayah 5:13)
37) [line 53] "VA'YISHACH ADAM, VA'YISHPAL ISH; V'EINEI GEVOHIM TISHPALNAH. VA'YIGBAH HASH-M TZEVAKOS BA'MISHPAT; VEHA'KEL HA'KADOSH NIKDASH BI'TZDAKAH." - "And the wicked man shall be brought down, and the mighty man shall be humbled, and the eyes of the lofty shall be humbled. But HaSh-m Tzevakos shall be exalted in judgment, and G-d Who is holy shall be sanctified in righteousness." (Yeshayah 5:15-16)
38) [last line] MAH KESIV ACHARAV? - (actually, this verse is in between the past two quotes)
39) [last line] "LACHEN HIRCHIVAH SHE'OL NAFSHAH, U'FA'ARAH FI'HA LI'VLI CHOK; V'YARAD HADARAH VA'HAMONAH U'SH'ONAH, V'ALEZ BAH." - "Therefore, the depths (Gehinom) has widened its desire and opened wide its mouth without measure; and into it will descend her (Yerushalayim's) glory and her multitude and her pomp and he who frolics within her." (Yeshayah 5:14)
D.A.F. Home Page
See the Daf
|Sponsorships & Donations
Mailing Lists Archives Ask the Kollel
Dafyomi Weblinks Dafyomi Calendar
Hear the Daf