[a - 48 lines; b - 61 lines]
We recommend using the Girsa'os of the Vilna Ga'on printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, and the commentary "Tiklin Chadtin" upon which they are based. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that conform to the commentary of the Tiklin Chadtin which are not noted in the Hagahos ha'Gra, as well as Girsa corrections in the text of the Tiklin Chadtin itself.
 גמרא יג. [שורה 42]
כשירי דור ודור בא למנות עליהן
תיבת עליהן מיותר (הר"א גריידיצר, וכן ליתא בתק"ח וקה"ע)
 גמרא יג. [שורה 47]
על כולן הוא אומר ושם רשעים ירקב, ועל מי
הגר"א ל"ג לזה עד תיבות "על מי"
 גמרא יג: [שורות 36, 37]הנקודות מיותרות
 גמרא תקלין חדתין (בסוף העמוד) ד"ה והוה ידע
צ"ל בן אחי'
1)[line 1]קִיַימְתִּיהָ- I have upheld [the statement of Rebbi Yochanan in such a way that his words do not pose a contradiction]
2)[line 2]ולא דָמֶיהָ- nor may it be redeemed
3)[line 3]ואת אמרת יָאוּת- and you [therefore] correctly said [that it has the status of Kedushas Damim]
4)[line 5]לְפוּם כן צריך מֵימַר (= לפיכך צריך לומר)- therefore one must conclude
5)[line 6]חַבְרַייָא- the group [of students in the Yeshivah]
6)[line 8]טַעְמָא דְהֵין תניא- the reasoning of this Tana. Rebbi Yochanan is explaining a) the opinion of Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah in the name of Rebbi Shimon (12b; TIKLIN CHADTIN; KORBAN HA'EDAH); b) Rebbi Elazar in our Mishnah (PNEI MOSHE)
7)[line 10]טמאה באותו השם- a) if it is unfit for this particular Korban [such as a female animal for an Olah] (TIKLIN CHADTIN; KORBAN HA'EDAH); b) if it is invalidated through a Mum [then it may be consecrated to Bedek ha'Bayis, but if not - such as is the case with wine, oil, and birds - then their value must go toward the purchase of Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach] (PNEI MOSHE).
8)[line 10]בדא כתיב ( = הכא כתיב) והעמיד והעריך?- is regarding this case written, "he should stand it up and evaluate it?" a) Either it is fit as a Korban, or it is not Kadosh at all! (TIKLIN CHADTIN; KORBAN HA'EDAH); b) If the Pasuk is referring to blemished animals, it must even be referring to those which are unable to stand! (PNEI MOSHE; see the Pnei Moshe for how he understands the continuation of this Gemara)
9)[line 11]והעמיד והעריך(KORBAN: PIDYON BA'AL MUM)
(a)if an animal becomes invalidated as a Korban due to a blemish, it must be evaluated by a Kohen and redeemed, as the Torah states, "v'He'emid Es ha'Behemah Lifnei ha'Kohen, v'He'erich ha'Kohen Osah" - "He shall stand the animal before the Kohen, and the Kohen shall appraise it (Vayikra 27: 12)."
(b)Rebbi Shimon is of the opinion that this law applies only to Kodshei Mizbe'ach, while Rebbi Meir maintains that it is applicable to Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis as well (Bechoros 31b).
10)[line 17]הרובע והנרבע(ROVE'A V'NIRVA)
(a)A Rove'a refers to a male animal that had carnal relations with a person; a Nirva refers to a female animal that had carnal relations with a person.
(b)If there are two witnesses who can confirm the status of the animal, then no benefit may be derived from the animal (it is Asur b'Hana'ah), and it must be stoned by Beis Din. If there is only one witness, or if the owner reports the incident to Beis Din, then although the animal remains Mutar b'Hana'ah, it is invalidated as a Korban.
11)[line 20]טמאה ממש- a non-Kosher animal
12)[line 20]בדא כתיב ( = הכא כתיב) והעמיד והעריך?- a) is regarding this case written, "he should stand it up and evaluate it?" The Halachah regarding a non-Kosher animal is clearly discussed in a later verse (Vayikra 27:27); this Pasuk must be referring to a Ba'al Mum (TIKLIN CHADTIN); b) The KORBAN HA'EDAH is not Gores the word "וקשיא", and therefore understands that this is the conclusion of Rebbi Ze'ira's answer.
13)[line 22]מְשַעַרִין את הלשכה- the price is set for [the wine, oil and flour that] Hekdesh [will purchase for Korbanos from a given merchant]
14)[line 23]כל המקבל עליו לְסַפֵק סַלְתּוֹת מארבע- any [merchant] who accepts upon himself to supply flour [for the upcoming year - and receives the money in advance --] at the price of four Se'ah [per Sela]
15)[line 26]אם הִתְלִיעָה סולת- if the flour became wormy [even after Hekdesh received it]
16)[line 26]התליעה לו- it became wormy for him; i.e., the merchant bears responsibility
17)[line 26]הֹחְמִיץ- turned into vinegar
18)[line 27]אינו מקבל מעותיו- [for although the merchant has been paid up front, it is as if] he has not received his money; that is, it does not belong to him
19)[line 27]מְרַצֶה- satisfied [with Korbanos]
20)[line 29]והכהנים זריזים הם- [for one can rely upon] the Kohanim to be very meticulous in their performance of the Avodah [and they will therefore take the utmost care to see that it will not become invalidated]
פרק חמישי - אלו הן הממונין
21)[line 31]הַמְמוּנִים- who were appointed to positions
22)[line 32]יוחנן בן פנחס- This was clearly not the name of every person who held this position; the titles of these ministries were taken from someone who had served in the position, similar to Pharaoh king of Egypt (TIKLIN CHADTIN).
23)[line 33]הַחוֹתָמוֹת- the clay vouchers with which one was entitled to receive wine, oil and flour from Hekdesh in order to offer them together with his Korban (Mishnah 14b)
24)[line 34]הַפַּיָיסוֹת- the four lots cast each morning to determine which Kohen would perform certain of the daily Avodos (Mishnayos, second chapter of Yuma)
25)[line 34]הקינין(KINEI ZAVIN; KINEI ZAVOS; KINEI YOLDOS)
(a)A pair of birds is known as a Ken (plural Kinim), which means "nest." There are three individuals who may be required to offer such a pair of birds as Korbanos, one an Olah and the other as a Chat'as. They are a Zav, a Zavah, and a woman who has given birth.
1.A man who emits Zov at least twice, whether this occurs over the course of one day or two or consecutive days, is called a Zav. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg (in contrast to semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white). Zov also may be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid component of barley dough or soft barley batter. A Zav has the status of an Av ha'Tum'ah and may not enter "Machaneh Leviyah" (see Background to Pesachim 67:6).
2.A Zav must count seven "clean" days during which he experiences no discharge in order to start his purification process. On the seventh day or following, he immerses himself in a Mikvah during the daytime. At nightfall he becomes Tahor (assuming that he continue to experience no emissions; Zavim 2:2).
3.If a Zav emits Zov only twice, he need not bring a Korban. If he has discharged Zov three times, however - whether over the course of one day or over two or three consecutive days - he must offer a Korban after completing his seven clean days in order to be able to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Korbanos.
4.The Korban which a Zav must offer consists of a pair of turtle-doves or common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
1.The eleven days which follow the seven days of Nidah (see Background to Pesachim 112:62) are termed days of Zivah. If a woman experiences uterine bleeding during this time for either one day or two consecutive days, she is known as a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah. As long as she does not bleed over the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. She may even immerse the morning immediately following the bleeding, although whether or not she becomes Tehorah is contingent upon whether or not she sees blood later on that day. A woman in such a situation is called a Shomeres Yom Keneged Yom, for she must watch the following day in order to determine whether or not she has continued to bleed.
2.If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her eleven days of Zivah, she attains the status of a Zavah Gedolah. In order to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she experiences no further bleeding. On the morning of the seventh clean day she may immerse in a Mikvah. As long as she experiences no further bleeding over the rest of that day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. She must then offer a Korban Zavah in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or partake of Kodshim. This Korban consists of a pair of turtle-doves or common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. A pair of birds is known as a Ken (plural Kinim), which means "nest."
1.In discussing the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah, the Torah (Vayikra 12:1-8) states that a woman may not enter the Beis ha'Mikdash nor eat Kodshim immediately childbirth. How long she must wait is divided into two terms. 1) During the initial term, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood during the process). If she gave birth to a boy, this term lasts for seven days. If a girl was born, this term lasts for two weeks. At the end of this term, she may go to the Mikvah. 2) During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not cause her to have the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood that she sees during this period is called "Dam Tohar". (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar - see Insights to Nidah 25a.) She still may not eat Kodshim nor enter the Beis ha'Mikdash, however. This term lasts for thirty-three days following the first seven after birth of a boy, and sixty-six days following the first fourteen after the birth of a girl. Thus, the total waiting period following the birth of a boy is forty days, and following the birth of a girl, eighty days.
2.At the end of this period, any blood that the Yoledes sees is no longer considered Tahor, and will cause her to have the status of a Nidah. At this point she must bring a Korban Yoledes, after which she may eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. The Korban consists of a male sheep as a Korban Olah, and a dove or a turtledove as a Korban Chatas. If she can not afford the sheep, she may bring two doves or two turtledoves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. A pair of birds is known as a Ken (plural Kinim), which means "nest."
3.A woman who miscarries her child must follow the above procedure as well.
26)[line 35]פותח דברים ודורשן- (etymologically) explain words and expound upon them
27)[line 36]חוֹלֵי מֵעַיִים- intestinal illnesses
28)[line 37]חוֹפֵר שִׁיחִין- [was] the digger of wells [from which those who come to Yerushalayim for the festivals are supplied with water]
29)[line 37]כָּרוֹז- [was] the crier [who woke the Kohanim in the morning to perform the Avodah]
30)[line 38]הַפַּקִיעַ- a) the crafting of wicks used for the Menorah and the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah; b) the strap used to lash a Levite guard found sleeping (see Bartenura and Tosfos Yom Tov)
31)[line 39]הַצִלְצֵל- the cymbal [which was struck as a signal for the Leviyim to begin singing]
32)[line 24]שיר(SHIRAS HA'LEVIYIM B'VEIS HA'MIKDASH)
(a)Wine libations (Nesachim) accompany many of the Korbanos (Bamidbar 15:1-16). Part of the service performed by the Leviyim in the Beis ha'Mikdash is to sing chapters of Tehilim and accompany this song with musical instrumentation at the time that the wine is poured into the designated pipes which are located atop the Mizbe'ach ha'Olah. When the wine is poured, a signal (see previous entry) is given for the Leviyim to begin the Shirah.
33)[line 41]הַפָּרוֹכֶת- [the weaving of] the curtain [hanging at the entrance to the Heichal]
34)[line 41]המלביש- he who dressed [the Kohen Gadol]
35)[line 43]כשירי דור ודור בא למנות (עליהן)- the names enumerated in our Mishnah are the most exemplary of those who held the position over the generations
36)[line 43]וְחַרְנָה- and the other one
37)[line 47]יִרְקַב- should rot
38a)[last line]בן קטין- the name of an individual who fashioned twelve spouts for the washbasin, as well as a wheel with which to lower the washbasin into a well so that the water should not become Pasul due of Linah (see Background to 11:24) (Yoma 3:10)
b)[last line]חבריו- his "colleagues". The Mishnayos (Yoma 3:9-10) list them: Ben Gamla, who fashioned golden lots with which to choose the Se'irim of Yom Kipur (see Background to 32:10); King Munbaz, who fashioned golden handles for the vessels used on Yom Kipur; his mother, Queen Helene, who fashioned a golden lamp that hung over the opening of the Heichal, as well as a golden tablet upon which the Parshah of Sotah was written; and Nikanor, who commissioned and delivered the brass eastern gates of the Azarah.
39)[line 1]לָכֵן אֲחַלֶּק -לוֹ בָרַבִּים וְאֶת-עֲצוּמִים יְחַלֵּק שָׁלָל [תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱרָה לַמָּוֶת נַפְשׁוֹ וְאֶת-פּשְׁעִים נִמְנָה וְהוּא חֵטְא-רַבִּים נָשָא וְלַפּשְׁעִים יַפְגִּיעַ]- "I will therefore assign him a portion from the multitudes and he will apportion the mighty as spoils [in return for having poured out his soul for death and being counted among the wicked, for he bore the sin of the masses, and prayed for the wicked.]" (Yeshayah 53:12)
40)[line 2]שהתקין- who established
41)[line 3]אנשי כנסת הגדולה(THE ELDERS OF THE GREAT ASSEMBLY)
(a) An assembly of the greatest Torah leaders and prophets who lived at the beginning of the second Beis ha'Mikdash period was convened at that time. The 120 members were called the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah (Sages of the Great Assembly). This body was responsible for ruling in matters of Halachah and enforcing them, teaching Torah, enacting decrees to strengthen observance of Torah and Mitzvos, and canonizing the prayers. The last of the prophets - Chagai, Zecharyah, and Malachi - were members of this illustrious group, as was Mordechai ha'Tzadik. Shimon ha'Tzadik, who lived at the time of Alexander the Great, was "from the remnants of the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah" (Avos 1:2). The Mishnah in Avos (1:1) crystallizes the message of these sages: "Be patient in judgment; have many students; and make a fence [safeguard] for the Torah."
42)[line 4]כְּלָלוֹת וּפְּרָטוֹת- general [Halachic] rules as well as specific [Halachic] detailed
43)[line 5]וּמִשְׁפְּחוֹת סוֹפְרִים (ישְׁבֵו) [ישְׁבֵי] יַעְבֵּץ [תִּרְעָתִים שִׁמְעָתִים שֹוּכָתִים הֵמָּה הַקִּינִים הַבָּאִים מֵחַמַּת אֲבִי בֵית רֵכָב- "And the families of scribes who lived in Ya'betz [-- Tir'asim, Shim'asim and Shuchasim - these were the descendants of the Keini who descended from Chamas, father of the house of Rechav.]" (Divrei ha'Yamim I 2:55)
44)[line 6]שעשו את התורה פְּרָקִים פרקים- for they categorized the Torah
45)[line 7]תרומה(TERUMAH GEDOLAH)
(a)Once a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify how much to give, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop. Kohanim and their wives, unmarried daughters, and Nochri slaves may eat Terumah, as long as they are Tehorim.
(b)The following five people lack the ability to separate Terumah: a deaf-mute, a deranged individual, a minor, one who does not own the produce, and a Nochri (Terumos 1:1).
(c)The following five people should not separate Terumah l'Chatchilah: one who is mute, drunk, unclothed, blind, or a Ba'al Keri (see Background to Pesachim 67:14) (Terumos 1:6)
(a)With regard to the Mitzvah of Chalah, the verses state, "...b'Vo'achem El ha'Aretz...Reishis Arisoseichem Chalah Tarimu Serumah..." - "[Speak to the people of Yisrael, and say to them,] 'When you come into the land [where I shall bring you, when you eat of the bread of the land, you shall separate a Terumah (tithe) to HaSh-m.] You shall separate the first of your dough for a Terumah; [as you do with the Terumah separated from the grain of the threshing floor, so, too, shall you present this [to the Kohanim.]" (Bamidbar 15:18-20).
(b)When a person makes dough from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion which must be given to the Kohen before he may eat from the dough. This portion is called Chalah. (The requirement to separate Chalah with a Berachah applies to a volume of dough made with at least 43.2 Beitzim of flour [about 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters]. One who makes a dough that is at least approximately half of that size must separate Chalah without a Berachah.) A professional baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while one baking bread for his or her own household must separate 1/24. If one did not separate Chalah from his dough before it was baked, it must be separated after it is baked before the bread may be consumed. Before Chalah is separated, the dough is called "Tavul l'Chalah," and anyone who eats it b'Mezid (intentionally) is liable to receive the punishments of Malkus and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Makos 13a).
(c)Chalah has the same status of Terumah; it may be eaten by Kohanim and their households while they are Tehorim. A non-Kohen who eats Chalah b'Mezid is liable to receive Malkus and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 5:14 and Hilchos Terumah 6:6).
47)[line 36]פוטרות צרותיהן(ZIKAH)
(a)If a man dies childless, his wife is bound (Zekukah) to her husband's brothers. She may not marry any other man until one of the brothers either fulfills the Mitzvah of Yibum and marries her, or performs Chalitzah, a manner of dissolving the Zikah between them.
(b)There are certain woman who never fall to Zikah, since they are prohibited to marry one of the brothers. Not only are these woman free to marry whomever they choose, but they permit their Tzaros (co-wives) to do so as well. The fifteen woman who fall into this category are: the brother's daughter, his daughter's daughter, his son's daughter, his wife's daughter, her daughter's daughter, her son's daughter, his mother-in-law, his mother-in-law's mother, his father-in-law's mother, his half-sister from his mother's side, his mother's sister, his wife's sister, the [former] wife of his half-brother from his mother's side, the wife of a brother who died before he was born, and his [former] daughter-in-law.
48)[line 9]כריתות(KARES / MISAH B'YEDEI SHAMAYIM)
(a)Some sins are so severe that they are punished with untimely death. There are two types of untimely death that are used as heavenly punishments: Kares, and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. Kares means "being severed" from the world and dying before one's time. Misah b'Yedei Shamayim means "death at the hands of heaven." These punishments are not administered by the courts, but through divinely administered justice.
(b)One who deliberately transgresses a commandment that is punishable with either Kares or Misah b'Yedei Shamayim is punished even if there are no witnesses to his act, and even if he was not warned at that time of his transgression that his violation will result in his untimely death.
(c)The commentaries list a number of differences between Kares and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (see TOSFOS to YEVAMOS 2a DH Eshes Achiv; RABEINU YONAH in Sha'arei Teshuvah, 3:6; TIFERES YISRAEL to Sanhedrin 9:6):
1.One who is punished with Kares will die before age 60 (according to Moed Katan 28a, or before the age of 50, according to the Yerushalmi Bikurim 2:1). One punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim will die after the age of 60 but before his time has come (according to Moed Katan ibid., or before the age of 60, according to the Yerushalmi ibid.)
2.When one is punished with Kares, even his children (who are minors at the time of his sin) die, and he bears no further children. When one is punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, only he is punished and not his children (Yevamos 55a and RASHI there). (See, however, RIVA in Tosfos to Yevamos 2a DH Eshes, who maintains that Kares only involves the death of one's children in the two cases where the Torah adds the word "Ariri." However, he might be referring to the death of children who are not minors.)
3.Some add that when punished with Kares, the sinner's cattle and possessions slowly expire until he is left destitute - see Insights to Yevamos 73:2.
4.For a number of specific sins, the Torah assigns a form of Kares in which the sinner not only dies before his time but is not granted a portion in the World to Come (Sanhedrin 64b, 90b).
(d)There are thirty-six Aveiros listed in the Torah for which one receives Kares: the sixteen forbidden conjugal relations listed in the Torah (Vayikra 18); one who curses G-d; an idol worshipper; one who worships Molech (see Background to Sanhedrin 53:5); one who practices Ov (see Background to Pesachim 113:62); one who desecrates Shabbos; one who ate Kodshim or entered the Mikdash while in a state of Tum'ah; one who consumed blood, Nosar (see Background to Pesachim 120:9), or Pigul (see Background to 6:60); one who slaughters or offers a sacrifice outside of the Mikdash; one who eats Chametz on Pesach; one who eats or performs Melachah on Yom Kipur; one who compounds Shemen ha'Mishchah (the oil made by Moshe Rabeinu to anoint the Mishkan and its vessels, Kohanim Gedolim, and the kings of the Davidic dynasty) or the Ketores (see Background to 11:25) for his own use; one who anoints himself with Shemen ha'Mishchah; one who does not give himself a Bris Milah; and one who does not offer the Korban Pesach.
49)[line 10]נבלת העוף הטהור(NIVLAS HA'OF HA'TAHOR)
(a The carcass of a Kosher bird that died through any means other than Halachically acceptable Shechitah (Neveilah) has a unique status. Generally, items that are Tamei spread Tum'ah through contact (Maga) or being carried (Masa). The only Tamei item that causes Tum'ah mid'Oraisa in any other fashion is a Nivlas Of Tahor, which causes Tum'ah as a k'Zayis of it is swallowed.
(b)A Nivlas Of Tahor also confers Tum'ah upon any clothing or utensils that one is in contact with at the time that that he swallows it, giving them the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah. After one swallows the Neveilah, he himself remains a Rishon l'Tum'ah.
(c)The Mishnah (Taharos 1:1) lists twelve other qualities of a Nivlas Of Tahor: one must have considered it food in order for it to be Metamei; it does not require Hechsher (see Background to 9:23); Nivlas Of Tahor the size of a k'Beitzah receives Tum'as Ochlin (ibid.); one who becomes Tamei through eating it must wait until nightfall after going to the Mikvah to become completely Tahor; one who enters the Mikdash while Tamei from eating Nivlas Of Tahor is Chayav Kares; Terumah which comes into contact with it must be burned; one who eats a limb of such an Of while the animal is still alive (Ever Min ha'Chai) receives 39 lashes; and if it is properly slaughtered outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash, or if Melikah (see Background to Pesachim 59:6) is performed upon it when it is offered as a Korban then it is no longer Metamei.
50)[line 10]אבות נזיקין(AVOS NEZIKIN)
(a)The Mishnah (Bava Kama 2a) lists the four categories of those who damage: an ox; a pit; Mav'eh (Rav explains this to mean a person who damages; Shmuel explains that it is an animal who consumes produce); and fire. All damages fall into one of these categories.
51)[line 11]אבות מלאכות(AVOS MELACHOS)
(a)There are thirty nine acts of labor which are prohibited on Shabbos (Mishnayos Shabbos 7:2) They are:
1.HA'ZORE'A - planting; causing plants to grow
2.HA'CHORESH - plowing; preparing the earth for planting
3.HA'KOTZER - harvesting; detaching a plant from the ground
4.HA'ME'AMER - gathering; collecting natural produce into a bundle
5.HA'DASH - threshing; separating a natural product from its natural receptacle (such as wheat from chaff)
6.HA'ZOREH - winnowing; separating desired from undesired objects thorough use of the wind
7.HA'BORER - selecting; separating desirable items in a mixture from undesirable ones (or vice versa)
8.HA'TOCHEN - grinding; breaking down a substance into smaller, usable pieces
9.HA'MERAKED - sifting; separating mixed objects using a strainer
10.HA'LASH - kneading; combining dry ingredients with liquid to form a dough or paste
11.HA'OFEH - baking; changing the physical state of a substance by heating it
12.HA'GOZEZ ES HA'TZEMER - shearing wool; detaching non-living parts of a person or animal
13.HA'MELABNO - bleaching; freeing material from unwanted dirt, stains, dust, etc.
14.HA'MENAPTZO - combing; untangling clumps of raw material into separate strands
15.HA'TZOV'O - dyeing; changing or reinforcing color
16.HA'TOVEH - spinning; twisting a strand of fiber into thread
17.HA'MEISACH - threading a loom; reattaching thread from the front to the back roller
18.HA'OSEH SHTEI BATEI NIRIN - threading the harness (of the loom) with two threads; inserting two threads through the rings (one in each harness)
19.HA'OREG SHNEI CHUTIN - weaving two threads; pulling the thick latitudinal thread across the longitudinal threads, adding a row to the material
20.HA'POTZE'A SHNEI CHUTIN - (a) thinning threads (RASHI); (b) untwisting threads (RE'AH cited by the Ran); (c) undoing a weave (RAMBAM Hilchos Shabbos 9:20); (d) cutting or removing the cloth from the loom rollers (RA'AVAD)
21.HA'KOSHER - tying; making a permanent or professional knot
22.HA'MATIR - untying; undoing a permanent or professional knot
23.HA'TOFER SHTEI TEFIROS - sewing two stitches; attaching two pieces of materials to one another
24.HA'KORE'A AL MENAS LITFOR SHTEI TEFIROS - tearing in order to sew two stitches; ripping material for a useful purpose
25.HA'TZAD TZEVI - trapping a deer; restricting the movement of an undomesticated living creature in order to benefit from it
26.HA'SHOCHATO - slaughtering; shortening the life of a living creature in order to benefit from it
27.HA'MAFSHITO - skinning; separating the hide from the flesh of a dead animal
28.HA'MOLCHO - salting hide (see next Melachah)
29.HA'ME'ABED ES ORO - tanning; processing raw material physically or chemically [since this is identical to the previous Melachah, salting, the Gemara substitutes SIRTUT - marking hide; outlining a surface for a useful purpose - in place of one of them.]
30.HA'MEMACHAKO - smoothing; rubbing an object in order to even its surface or to form a shape
31.HA'MECHATCHO - cutting to shape; altering the size or shape of an object for a useful purpose
32.HA'KOSEV SHTEI OSIYOS - writing two letters; creating meaningful images
33.HA'MOCHEK AL MENAS LICHTOV SHTEI OSIYOS - erasing in order to write two letters; preparing a surface for writing
34.HA'BONEH - building; constructing or improving a structure
35.HA'SOSER - demolishing; destroying a structure in order to enable new construction
36.HA'MECHABEH - extinguishing [to produce charcoal]; snuffing out a fire or reducing its intensity
37.HA'MAV'IR - kindling a fire; igniting or prolonging combustion
38.HA'MAKEH B'PATISH - (a) banging a hammer on an anvil to smooth it at after completing one's work (RASHI); (b) delivering the final blow with a hammer; applying the finishing touches to complete an object (TOSFOS 102b DH Makeh b'Patish); (c) striking a stone in a quarry to detach it after it has been nearly hewn (RASHI 102b)
39.HA'MOTZI ME'RESHUS LI'RESHUS - transferring an object from a private domain to a public domain or vice versa
52)[line 12]"[וְזֶה פַּרְשֶגֶן הַנִּשְתְּבָן אַשֶר נָתַן הַמֶלֶך אַרְתַּחְשַסְתְּא] לְעֶזְרָא הַכּהֵן הַסוֹפֵר [סוֹפֵר דִּבְרֵי מִצְוֹת ה' וְחֻקָיו עַל יִשְרָאֵל]"- "[And this is the content of the letter that King Artachshast gave] to Ezra the Kohen the scribe, [the scribe of the commandments of HaSh-m and his laws upon Yisrael]" (Ezra 7:11)
53)[line 12]מה תלמוד לומר סופר?- why is the word "Sofer" written twice?
54)[line 15]הראשונים- [the Torah learning of] the Tzadikim of earlier generations [can be compared to]
55a)[line 15]חָרְשוּ, etc.- see above, entry #50
b)[line 15]נִיכְשוּ- weeded
c)[line 15]כִּיסְחוּ- cut and cleared from thorns
d)[line 15]עָדרוּ- hoed
e)[line 16]קִיטְפוּ- shaped their loaves
56)[line 17]אין לנו (מה) [פֶּה] לאכול- we have no mouth with which to eat it; i.e., we are unable to learn Torah on the same level
57)[line 18]הַקַדְמָאִין- the Tzadikim of earlier generations
58)[line 18]בְּנֵי אַנָש- human
59)[line 19]בההיא שַעְתָּא אַמְרִין- at that time they said
60)[line 20]כְּחַמַרְתֵּיה- like the donkey
61)[line 21]לא אִידְמִינוּן- we are not comparable to
62)[line 21]גְנַבְתָּהּ לִיסְתָּאֵי בְּלֵילְיָא- thieves stole her at night
63)[line 22]עַבְדַת טְמִירָא גַבּוֹן- it was hidden at their [house]
64)[line 23]טָעֲמָא- tasted
65)[line 23]אִימְלְכוּן מַחְזַרְתָּה- they changed their mind, [and decided] to return her
66)[line 24]אַפְקִינוּן- let us remove her
67)[line 25]אַזְלַת וְקָמַת לה על תַּרְעָא דְמָרָה- she went and stood by the gate of her master
68)[line 25]שַרְיַית מַנְהַקַת- she began to bray
69)[line 26]פַתְחוּן לַהַדָא עַלוּבְתָּא- open up for that unfortunate [creature]
70)[line 27]וְעָלַת לה- and she came in (lit. went up)
71)[line 28]כלום- something
72)[line 29]בָּעִית- desire
73)[line 30]מְתַקְנִין אִינוּן- (lit. are they prepared?) has all of the waste been removed from the barley?
74)[line 31]וְאַרִימְתּוּן דַמְיָין- did you separate the tithes that must be removed from Demai (produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz; see Background to Pesachim 114:20)?
75)[line 31]לא כן אַלְפוּן רבי- did you, our teacher, not teach us [the following]?
76)[line 32]לְעוֹרוֹת- to [tan] hides
77)[line 34]דהיא מַחְמְרָה על גַרְמַה סַגִין- for she is very stringent with herself
78)[line 34]וַאַרִימָן דַמְיָין- and they took off the tithes that must be taken from Demai
79)[line 35]וְאַכְלַת- and she ate
80)[line 37]סַנְהֶדְרִין- a 23-member court that may rule in matters of life and death
81a)[line 38]שיכולין לדבר- who are able to speak [seventy languages]
b)[line 38]לשמוע- to understand [seventy languages]
82)[line 42]העומר(KORBAN: THE OMER OFFERING)
(a) It is a Mitzvah to offer the Korban ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall following the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.2, 2.5 or 4.3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is then baked and offered as a Korban Minchah on the 16th of Nisan. (This Korban is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim - Vayikra 2:14-16).
(b)A lamb is offered as an Olah along with the Minchah (Vayikra 23:12).
(c)Chadash refers to grain that begins to take root after the Korban ha'Omer is offered on the second day of Pesach. This grain may not be eaten until the following year's Korban ha'Omer is offered (Vayikra 23:14). When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, Chadash may not be eaten until after the second day of Pesach, which is when the Korban Ha'Omer would have been offered.
(d)Many Rishonim rule that the prohibition of Chadash applies mid'Oraisa even in Chutz la'Aretz.
83)[line 43]אִלֵם- a mute
84)[line 44]צְרִיפִים- teepee-shaped huts made of reeds (and the like)
85)[line 44]אַייתוּנֵיה- they brought him
86)[line 45]אִית אַתַר דְמִתְקַריָא- is there a place called ...?
87)[line 46]ואשכחן- and they found [there barley for the Korban Omer]
88)[line 47]נִשְדַף- blighted (a disease affecting grains)
89)[line 49]סוכרא- the hole in the door post into which a bolt slides
90a)[line 52]לְעֵינָתִי- for my fountain
b)[line 53]לְיַמָּתִי- for my ocean
c)[line 53]לְזִיבָתִי- for my flow of Zivus (see above, entry 24c)
91)[line 54]סַבְרִין מֵימַר- they thought that [she meant]
92)[line 54]בְּעֵיינָא סַכַּנתְּ- [she pledged a Korban Olah when] she contracted a dangerous eye disease
93)[line 58]יַחֵפִים- barefoot
94a)[line 60]הַאי דֵין חַמַר טַב לְמֵעַיָיא- what type of wine is beneficial for intestinal distress
b)[last line]סַמַם למעייא- is harmful for intestinal distress