BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[42a - 35 lines; 42b - 32 lines]
1) [line 2] גחלת של מתכת GACHELES SHEL MATECHES - a glowing, red-hot piece of metal (lit. a coal of metal)
2) [line 6] מלאכה שאינה צריכה לגופה MELACHAH SHE'EINAH TZERICHAH L'GUFAH
When a person performs a Melachah (creative act) on Shabbos intentionally, but does not require the usual result of the action, Rebbi Yehudah rules that he is Chayav and Rebbi Shimon rules that he is Patur. For example, if a person digs a hole not because he needs the hole but rather because he needs the sand, this is a Melachah she'Einah Tzerichah l'Gufah. (See .)
3) [line 8] קוץ KOTZ - a thorn
4) [line 13] בין חמין לתוך הצונן BEIN CHAMIN L'SOCH TZONEN - (The Gemara is discussing a case where the amount of hot or cold water were roughly equal, according to Rashi; see Insights.)
5) [line 14] אמבטי AMBATI - a bath
6) [line 17] ספל SEFEL - bowl, basin. See Insights.
7) [line 22] רחיצה בחמין ליכא RECHITZAH B'CHAMIN LEIKAH - That is, water that is heated before Shabbos is too hot to use on Shabbos without mixing in cold water to cool it. If one cannot mix cool water in, how can he even wash himself in preheated water on Shabbos?
8) [line 29] רבא דלא קפיד אמנא RAVA D'LO KAPID A'MANA - Rava did not hesitate to put hot water into cold water or cold water into hot water when he put it into a bowl or basin that was a Kli Sheni. (The "second utensil" is the one into which the food was poured from a Kli Rishon, the utensil in which it was cooked.)
9) [line 30] קיתון KITON - a flask
10) [line 33] מיפסק כלי MIFSAK KELI - the sides of the flask intervene, lessening the cooking process
11) [last line] האילפס HA'ILFAS - a tightly covered pot, stew-pot
12) [last line] הקדרה HA'KEDEIRAH - open pot
13) [last line] מרותחין MERUTACHIN - boiling hot
14) [last line] תבלין TAVLIN - spices
15) [line 1] התמחוי HA'TAMCHUY - a large plate or serving tray
16) [line 3] חומץ CHOMETZ - vinegar
17) [line 3] ציר TZIR - fish brine
18) [line 13] בשרא דתורא BISRA D'SORA - meat of an ox
19) [line 20] אין ניאותין ממנו EIN NE'OSIN MIMENU - it is forbidden to derive benefit from it
20) [line 22] אינו מן המוכן EINO MIN HA'MUCHAN - it is Muktzah (lit. it is not ready to be used)
21) [line 22] אינו מן המוכן EINO MIN HA'MUCHAN (MUKTZAH MACHMAS ISUR)
(a) MUKTZAH - The word Muktzah literally means "set aside at the brink [of one's intentions for use]." The term is used to describe items that are set aside not to be used right now, such as wood stacked in a barn. In a broader sense, the word Muktzah includes anything that a person did not intend to use during Bein ha'Shemashos at the start of Shabbos, for whatever reason it may be.
(b) THE ARGUMENT OF THE TANA'IM - Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon argue as to whether one may move or use on Shabbos items that fit into certain categories of Muktzah. There are at least six different categories of Muktzah over which Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon disagree. (Those categories are: (1) Hiktzehu mi'Da'ato, (2) Nolad, (3) Muktzah Machmas Isur, (4) Muktzah Machmas Mi'us, (5) Kli she'Melachto Eino Ela l'Isur, (6) Muchan la'Adam Eino Muchan l'Behemah.) On Shabbos, objects that fit into one of these categories may not be moved according to Rebbi Yehudah. There are other categories of Muktzah which may not be moved according to both Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon. (Those categories are (1) Muktzah Machmas Gufo, (2) Huktzah l'Mitzvaso, (3) Davar she'Eino Ra'uy v'Decha'o b'Yedayim, (4) Davar he'Asur she'Lo Chashav she'Yavo l'Yedei Heter b'Shabbos.)
(c) The Mishnah is discussing oil that was placed in a lamp before Shabbos, which is Muktzah Machmas Isur. Rebbi Shimon permits using the oil after the lamp goes out, while Rebbi Yehudah prohibits it (category b:3). They agree that after Shabbos it may be used. On Shabbos, however, this oil was set aside during Bein ha'Shemashos for lighting, and removing some of it at that time would have violated the Isur of Mechabeh (extinguishing); therefore, Rebbi Yehudah rules that it becomes Muktzah Machmas Isur for the entire Shabbos.
22) [line 24] נותנין כלי תחת תרנגולת NOSNIN KLI TACHAS TARNEGOLES - To place a bowl under a hen that lays its eggs on a slope, in order to prevent the eggs from rolling away and breaking
23) [line 26] כופה עליה כלי KOFEH ALEHA KELI - To place an upturned bowl over an egg that a hen laid in a garbage heap, to prevent people from stepping on it or shattering it
24) [line 32] טבל TEVEL
(a) After a crop is harvested, and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at approximately one fiftieth.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, which is also given to a Kohen.
(c) The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been removed. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim.
25) [line 33] גולפי חדתי GULFEI CHADTEI - in new barrels
26) [line 34] פקעי PAK'EI - they split open
27) [last line] ניצוצות NITZOTZOS - sparks