(a)Question: "V'Hayah ba'Yom ha'Hu Lo Yihyeh Or Yekaros v'Kipa'on" - what are these?

(b)Answer #1 (R. Elazar): This is light (Aruch - of Torah), which is Yakar (dear, or scarce) in this world, and Kafuy (prevalent) in the world to come.

(c)Answer #2 (R. Yochanan): These are [laws of] Tzara'as and Tum'as Ohel, which are Yakar in this world, and Kafuy in the world to come.

(d)Answer #3 (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): These are [rich] people who are Yekarim (important) in this world, but they are [not righteous, hence they will be] Kefuyim (light, unimportant) in the world to come, like Rav Yosef saw:

1.R. Yehoshua's son Yosef passed out; his spirit left, and returned.

2.Yosef: I saw an upside-down world - [esteemed] people on top here are below there, and vice-versa!

3.R. Yehoshua: You saw reality! How did Chachamim look?

4.Yosef: They are as [important as] they are here;

i.They were saying that happy is the one who remembers his learning when he comes to the world to come.

5.They also said that no one else has a portion like those [who sanctified Hash-m's name when] killed by the king.

(e)Question: To which people did he refer?

1.He did not mean R. Akiva and the other [nine] Chachamim killed by the king - even if they were not killed by the king, no one else would have a portion like them!

(f)Answer: Rather, it referred to those killed in Lud. (Rashi - the king made a false accusation as a pretext to kill all the Yisraelim; two brothers confessed to it to save everyone else; Ran - there was a decree to drink from colored glass Kelim, unlike the practice of Yisrael - Yisraelim refused to change and submitted to be killed.)

(g)Question: "Ba'Yom ha'Hu Yihyeh Al Metzilos ha'Sus Kodesh la'Shem" - what is this?

(h)Answer #1 (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): In the future, Hash-m will increase Yerushalayim as far as a horse can run [from daybreak] until its shade is under it (midday).

(i)Answer #2 (R. Elazar): All ornaments hung between a horse's eyes will be Kodesh (people will Makdish very generously).

(j)Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): All the booty that Yisrael will take [from Nochrim] until a horse's shade is under it (i.e. the entire morning) will be Kodesh.

(k)Question: According to R. Yochanan, we understand why the verse ends "V'Hayah ha'Siros b'Veis Hash-m ka'Mizrakim Lifnei ha'Mizbe'ach" (they will Makdish pots of gold and silver, like the buckets for blood) - but how do the others explain this?

(l)Answer: It is a new matter - Yisrael will become rich, and they will bring such pots to Hekdesh.

(m)Question: According to R. Yochanan, we understand why it says "V'Lo Yihyeh Od Chena'ani Od b'Veis Hash-m Tzevakos ba'Yom ha'Hu" (treasurers of Hekdesh will not need to do business with Hekdesh, for Hekdesh will have abundant wealth) - but how do the others explain this?

(n)Answer (R. Yirmeyah): They expound "Chena'ani" like 'Ein Kan Oni' (there are no poor people here).

(o)Question: What is the source that Kena'ani refers to a merchant?

(p)Answer #1 - Question: "Va'Yar Sham Yehudah Bas Ish Kena'ani" - what does Kena'ani mean?

1.Suggestion: It literally means someone from one of the Kena'ani nations.

2.Rejection: Avraham warned [Eliezer regarding] Yitzchak and Yitzchak warned Yakov not to marry a Kena'anis - surely Yehudah would not do so! (Iyun Yakov - some say that the [other] Shevatim married Kena'aniyos - but surely Yehudah would not, for it was known that kingship will come from him.)

3.Answer #1 (Reish Lakish): It means 'merchant' - "Kena'an b'Yado Moznei Mirmah."

4..Answer #2: Alternatively, we learn from "Asher Sochareha Sarim Kin'aneha Nichbadei Aretz."


(a)Question: It says "V'Hayah Hash-m l'Melech Al Kol ha'Aretz ba'Yom ha'Hu Yihyeh Hash-m Echad u'Shmo Echad" - also now He is one!

(b)Answer (R. Acha bar Chanina): The world to come is unlike this world - in this world, on good tidings one blesses 'Baruch ha'Tov veha'Metiv'; on bad tidings, one blesses 'Baruch Dayan ha'Emes'; in the world to come, one will bless only ha'Tov veha'Metiv (there will not be bad tidings - Hash-m will act solely according to His Midah of mercy).

(c)Question: Why does it say [Ba'Yom ha'Hu...] u'Shmo Echad - also now His name is one!

(d)Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): The world to come is unlike this world - in this world, Hash-m's name is written with Yud-Kei, but it is pronounced as Aleph-Dalet; in the world to come it will be written and pronounced the same way, with Yud-Kei (the name corresponding to His MIdah of mercy).

(e)Rava planned to publicly expound the [meanings of the pronunciation of His] name - an elder remarked, l'Olam is written [without a Vov in Zeh Shemi l'Olam] so we can read it Le'alem (to conceal).

(f)Contradiction (R. Avina): It says "Zeh Shemi l'Olam" (implying that we should conceal it), but this very verse ends "v'Zeh Zichri l'Dor Dor" (implying that we should pronounce it! Alternatively - since this is His name, obviously it is how He is called!)

(g)Answer: Hash-m says 'My name is not pronounced like it is written - it is written Yud-Kei, but it is pronounced Aleph-Dalet'.



(a)(Mishnah): In a place where the custom is to work on Erev Pesach until midday, one does so; in a place where people do not work [even until midday], one must refrain. (Rashi - they refrain, lest one forget to get rid of Chametz and prepare Matzos; Tosfos - it is forbidden to work the day one brings a Korban, therefore the afternoon is forbidden everywhere.)

(b)If one goes from a place where people work to a place where they do not work, or vice-versa, he must be stringent like both places, and he may not deviate [from the local custom] lest this cause strife.


(c)(In Shemitah, one may eat a species of produce as long as some is found in the field in that region for wild animals.) Similarly, if one takes Shemitah produce from a place where it is finished [in the field] to a place where it is not finished, he must do Bi'ur (get rid of it - see note in Appendix);

(d)R. Yehudah says, he says 'Go yourself and bring!' (this will be explained).

(e)(Gemara) Question: Why does the Mishnah discuss Erev Pesach - the same applies to any every Erev Yom Tov or Erev Shabbos [one should not work in the afternoon]!

1.(Beraisa): If one works after [nine hours of the day, the time for] Minchah on Erev Shabbos or Erev Yom Tov, his work will not be blessed.

(f)Answer #1: Any other Erev Yom Tov or Erev Shabbos is forbidden only after the time of Minchah - Erev Pesach is forbidden after midday.

(g)Answer #2: Any other Erev Yom Tov or Erev Shabbos his work will not be blessed, but we do not excommunicate him - regarding Erev Pesach we excommunicate him.

(h)(Beraisa): If one works at any of the following times, his work will never be blessed:

1.After Minchah on Erev Shabbos or Erev Yom Tov; (Tosfos - until prayer is finished on) Motza'ei Shabbos, Yom Tov or Yom Kipur; any time when there is [even] a tinge of a transgression - this comes to include public fast days.

(i)(Beraisa): One can profit for being zealous [regarding work], and one can lose for this; one can profit for being lazy, and one can lose for this:

1.One who works all week but not Erev Shabbos [after Minchah] will profit on account of his zeal; one who works all week including Erev Shabbos will lose on account of his zeal;

2.One who does not work all week and not Erev Shabbos will profit on account of his laziness (Rashi - he will be rewarded like for a Mitzvah Lo Lishmah (this was not his intent); Maharsha - he will have time to prepare for Shabbos);

3.One who did not work all week but works Erev Shabbos will lose on account of his laziness [during the week, for it forced him to work on Erev Shabbos and be unable to prepare for Shabbos].

(j)(Rava): Women of Mechuza (Rava's city) do not work on Erev Shabbos because they are finicky - the proof is, they do not work all week [even though a wife is required to spin thread in exchange for being fed - Kesuvos 64B] - nevertheless, they will profit on account of their laziness.

(k)Contradiction (Rava): It says "Ki Gadol Ad Shomayim Chasdecha" - it also says "Ki Gadol me'Al Shomayim Chasdecha"!

(l)Answer: Hash-m's Chesed is above Shomayim for those who serve Him Lishmah; it is up to Shomayim for those who serve Lo Lishmah.

1.(Rav Yehudah): A person should always engage in Torah and Mitzvos even Lo Lishmah, for (Nefesh ha'Chayim - with intent that) this will lead him to do them Lishmah.


(a)(Beraisa): If one seeks to profit through his wife or through a millstone, he will never be blessed [through them]:

1.These refer to Maskulta (Rashi - sending her to rent out a scale; Tosfos - spinning thread, during which her arms are exposed) and renting out a millstone (it yields a little profit, and these entail disgrace and much exertion);

2.However, a wife who makes things and sells them is praised - "Sadin Asesah va'Timkor."

(b)(Beraisa): If one seeks to profit through sticks or bottles he will never be blessed through them.

(c)Question: What is the reason?

(d)Answer: Since they have a big volume (it looks like the owner has much merchandise), Ayin Ra'ah prevails over them.

(e)(Beraisa): The following will never be blessed [through their livelihood] - merchants who sell in the market, people who raise small animals (flock), those who cut nice trees, and those who seek a nice portion for themselves.

(f)Question: What is the reason?

(g)Answer: People are astounded at them [or upset with them, e.g. for grazing in others' fields], so Ayin Ra'ah prevails over them.

(h)There are four earnings that will never be blessed - wages of writers, of translators [who broadcast the words of a Chacham on Shabbos], earnings through orphans (e.g. doing business with their money and splitting the profits) and through overseas ventures.

(i)Question: We understand three of these - wages of translators looks like wages for [work on] Shabbos; orphans (minors) cannot forgive [negligent use of their money]; overseas ventures (bringing merchandise on ships) are dangerous, one cannot expect miracles all the time;

1.But what is wrong with wages of writers?

(j)Answer (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): The Great Assembly fasted 24 times to request that those who write Seforim, Tefilin and Mezuzos not get rich, for if they did, they would cease to write.

(k)(Beraisa): The following will never be blessed - people who write Seforim, Tefilin and Mezuzos, and their wholesale distributors, and their retail distributors, and all who engage in the work of Shomayim - this includes people who sell Techeiles;

1.If they do so l'Shem Shamayim, they will be blessed.


(a)Benei Baishan were stringent not to go from Tzur to Tzidon on Erev Shabbos [the market day, lest they not have time to prepare for Shabbos]. The next generation asked 'Must we must follow this stringency? Our ancestors could be stringent (they were wealthy) - we cannot!'

(b)(R. Yochanan): Since your ancestors accepted this, you must follow it - "Shema Beni Musar Avicha v'Al Titosh Toras Imecha."