Question: "V'Hayah ba'Yom ha'Hu Lo Yihyeh Or Yekaros v'Kipa'on" - what are these?
Answer #1 (R. Elazar): This is light (Aruch - of Torah), which is Yakar (dear, or scarce) in this world, and Kafuy (prevalent) in the world to come.
Answer #2 (R. Yochanan): These are [laws of] Tzara'as and Tum'as Ohel, which are Yakar in this world, and Kafuy in the world to come.
Answer #3 (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): These are [rich] people who are Yekarim (important) in this world, but they are [not righteous, hence they will be] Kefuyim (light, unimportant) in the world to come, like Rav Yosef saw:
R. Yehoshua's son Yosef passed out; his spirit left, and returned.
Yosef: I saw an upside-down world - [esteemed] people on top here are below there, and vice-versa!
R. Yehoshua: You saw reality! How did Chachamim look?
Yosef: They are as [important as] they are here;
They were saying that happy is the one who remembers his learning when he comes to the world to come.
They also said that no one else has a portion like those [who sanctified Hash-m's name when] killed by the king.
Question: To which people did he refer?
He did not mean R. Akiva and the other [nine] Chachamim killed by the king - even if they were not killed by the king, no one else would have a portion like them!
Answer: Rather, it referred to those killed in Lud. (Rashi - the king made a false accusation as a pretext to kill all the Yisraelim; two brothers confessed to it to save everyone else; Ran - there was a decree to drink from colored glass Kelim, unlike the practice of Yisrael - Yisraelim refused to change and submitted to be killed.)
Question: "Ba'Yom ha'Hu Yihyeh Al Metzilos ha'Sus Kodesh la'Shem" - what is this?
Answer #1 (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): In the future, Hash-m will increase Yerushalayim as far as a horse can run [from daybreak] until its shade is under it (midday).
Answer #2 (R. Elazar): All ornaments hung between a horse's eyes will be Kodesh (people will Makdish very generously).
Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): All the booty that Yisrael will take [from Nochrim] until a horse's shade is under it (i.e. the entire morning) will be Kodesh.
Question: According to R. Yochanan, we understand why the verse ends "V'Hayah ha'Siros b'Veis Hash-m ka'Mizrakim Lifnei ha'Mizbe'ach" (they will Makdish pots of gold and silver, like the buckets for blood) - but how do the others explain this?
Answer: It is a new matter - Yisrael will become rich, and they will bring such pots to Hekdesh.
Question: According to R. Yochanan, we understand why it says "V'Lo Yihyeh Od Chena'ani Od b'Veis Hash-m Tzevakos ba'Yom ha'Hu" (treasurers of Hekdesh will not need to do business with Hekdesh, for Hekdesh will have abundant wealth) - but how do the others explain this?
Answer (R. Yirmeyah): They expound "Chena'ani" like 'Ein Kan Oni' (there are no poor people here).
Question: What is the source that Kena'ani refers to a merchant?
Answer #1 - Question: "Va'Yar Sham Yehudah Bas Ish Kena'ani" - what does Kena'ani mean?
Suggestion: It literally means someone from one of the Kena'ani nations.
Rejection: Avraham warned [Eliezer regarding] Yitzchak and Yitzchak warned Yakov not to marry a Kena'anis - surely Yehudah would not do so! (Iyun Yakov - some say that the [other] Shevatim married Kena'aniyos - but surely Yehudah would not, for it was known that kingship will come from him.)
Answer #1 (Reish Lakish): It means 'merchant' - "Kena'an b'Yado Moznei Mirmah."
.Answer #2: Alternatively, we learn from "Asher Sochareha Sarim Kin'aneha Nichbadei Aretz."
HASH-M'S NAME IN THE FUTURE
Question: It says "V'Hayah Hash-m l'Melech Al Kol ha'Aretz ba'Yom ha'Hu Yihyeh Hash-m Echad u'Shmo Echad" - also now He is one!
Answer (R. Acha bar Chanina): The world to come is unlike this world - in this world, on good tidings one blesses 'Baruch ha'Tov veha'Metiv'; on bad tidings, one blesses 'Baruch Dayan ha'Emes'; in the world to come, one will bless only ha'Tov veha'Metiv (there will not be bad tidings - Hash-m will act solely according to His Midah of mercy).
Question: Why does it say [Ba'Yom ha'Hu...] u'Shmo Echad - also now His name is one!
Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): The world to come is unlike this world - in this world, Hash-m's name is written with Yud-Kei, but it is pronounced as Aleph-Dalet; in the world to come it will be written and pronounced the same way, with Yud-Kei (the name corresponding to His MIdah of mercy).
Rava planned to publicly expound the [meanings of the pronunciation of His] name - an elder remarked, l'Olam is written [without a Vov in Zeh Shemi l'Olam] so we can read it Le'alem (to conceal).
Contradiction (R. Avina): It says "Zeh Shemi l'Olam" (implying that we should conceal it), but this very verse ends "v'Zeh Zichri l'Dor Dor" (implying that we should pronounce it! Alternatively - since this is His name, obviously it is how He is called!)
Answer: Hash-m says 'My name is not pronounced like it is written - it is written Yud-Kei, but it is pronounced Aleph-Dalet'.
WORKING ON EREV SHABBOS OR EREV YOM TOV
(Mishnah): In a place where the custom is to work on Erev Pesach until midday, one does so; in a place where people do not work [even until midday], one must refrain. (Rashi - they refrain, lest one forget to get rid of Chametz and prepare Matzos; Tosfos - it is forbidden to work the day one brings a Korban, therefore the afternoon is forbidden everywhere.)
If one goes from a place where people work to a place where they do not work, or vice-versa, he must be stringent like both places, and he may not deviate [from the local custom] lest this cause strife.
(In Shemitah, one may eat a species of produce as long as some is found in the field in that region for wild animals.) Similarly, if one takes Shemitah produce from a place where it is finished [in the field] to a place where it is not finished, he must do Bi'ur (get rid of it - see note in Appendix);
R. Yehudah says, he says 'Go yourself and bring!' (this will be explained).
(Gemara) Question: Why does the Mishnah discuss Erev Pesach - the same applies to any every Erev Yom Tov or Erev Shabbos [one should not work in the afternoon]!
(Beraisa): If one works after [nine hours of the day, the time for] Minchah on Erev Shabbos or Erev Yom Tov, his work will not be blessed.
Answer #1: Any other Erev Yom Tov or Erev Shabbos is forbidden only after the time of Minchah - Erev Pesach is forbidden after midday.
Answer #2: Any other Erev Yom Tov or Erev Shabbos his work will not be blessed, but we do not excommunicate him - regarding Erev Pesach we excommunicate him.
(Beraisa): If one works at any of the following times, his work will never be blessed:
After Minchah on Erev Shabbos or Erev Yom Tov; (Tosfos - until prayer is finished on) Motza'ei Shabbos, Yom Tov or Yom Kipur; any time when there is [even] a tinge of a transgression - this comes to include public fast days.
(Beraisa): One can profit for being zealous [regarding work], and one can lose for this; one can profit for being lazy, and one can lose for this:
One who works all week but not Erev Shabbos [after Minchah] will profit on account of his zeal; one who works all week including Erev Shabbos will lose on account of his zeal;
One who does not work all week and not Erev Shabbos will profit on account of his laziness (Rashi - he will be rewarded like for a Mitzvah Lo Lishmah (this was not his intent); Maharsha - he will have time to prepare for Shabbos);
One who did not work all week but works Erev Shabbos will lose on account of his laziness [during the week, for it forced him to work on Erev Shabbos and be unable to prepare for Shabbos].
(Rava): Women of Mechuza (Rava's city) do not work on Erev Shabbos because they are finicky - the proof is, they do not work all week [even though a wife is required to spin thread in exchange for being fed - Kesuvos 64B] - nevertheless, they will profit on account of their laziness.
Contradiction (Rava): It says "Ki Gadol Ad Shomayim Chasdecha" - it also says "Ki Gadol me'Al Shomayim Chasdecha"!
Answer: Hash-m's Chesed is above Shomayim for those who serve Him Lishmah; it is up to Shomayim for those who serve Lo Lishmah.
(Rav Yehudah): A person should always engage in Torah and Mitzvos even Lo Lishmah, for (Nefesh ha'Chayim - with intent that) this will lead him to do them Lishmah.
ENDEAVORS THAT WILL NOT BE BLESSED
(Beraisa): If one seeks to profit through his wife or through a millstone, he will never be blessed [through them]:
These refer to Maskulta (Rashi - sending her to rent out a scale; Tosfos - spinning thread, during which her arms are exposed) and renting out a millstone (it yields a little profit, and these entail disgrace and much exertion);
However, a wife who makes things and sells them is praised - "Sadin Asesah va'Timkor."
(Beraisa): If one seeks to profit through sticks or bottles he will never be blessed through them.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: Since they have a big volume (it looks like the owner has much merchandise), Ayin Ra'ah prevails over them.
(Beraisa): The following will never be blessed [through their livelihood] - merchants who sell in the market, people who raise small animals (flock), those who cut nice trees, and those who seek a nice portion for themselves.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: People are astounded at them [or upset with them, e.g. for grazing in others' fields], so Ayin Ra'ah prevails over them.
There are four earnings that will never be blessed - wages of writers, of translators [who broadcast the words of a Chacham on Shabbos], earnings through orphans (e.g. doing business with their money and splitting the profits) and through overseas ventures.
Question: We understand three of these - wages of translators looks like wages for [work on] Shabbos; orphans (minors) cannot forgive [negligent use of their money]; overseas ventures (bringing merchandise on ships) are dangerous, one cannot expect miracles all the time;
But what is wrong with wages of writers?
Answer (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): The Great Assembly fasted 24 times to request that those who write Seforim, Tefilin and Mezuzos not get rich, for if they did, they would cease to write.
(Beraisa): The following will never be blessed - people who write Seforim, Tefilin and Mezuzos, and their wholesale distributors, and their retail distributors, and all who engage in the work of Shomayim - this includes people who sell Techeiles;
If they do so l'Shem Shamayim, they will be blessed.
FOLLOWING PRACTICES OF ONE'S ANCESTORS
Benei Baishan were stringent not to go from Tzur to Tzidon on Erev Shabbos [the market day, lest they not have time to prepare for Shabbos]. The next generation asked 'Must we must follow this stringency? Our ancestors could be stringent (they were wealthy) - we cannot!'
(R. Yochanan): Since your ancestors accepted this, you must follow it - "Shema Beni Musar Avicha v'Al Titosh Toras Imecha."