POINT BY POINT OUTLINE OF THE DAF
prepared by Rabbi Pesach Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
1) FUTURE REWARDS
(a) Question: "V'Hayah ba'Yom ha'Hu Lo Yihyeh Or Yekaros v'Kipa'on" - what are these?
(b) Answer #1 (R. Elazar): This is light (Aruch - of Torah), which is Yakar (dear, or scarce) in this world, and Kafuy (prevalent) in the world to come.
(c) Answer #2 (R. Yochanan): These are [laws of] Tzara'as and Tum'as Ohel, which are Yakar in this world, and Kafuy in the world to come.
(d) Answer #3 (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): These are [rich] people who are Yekarim (important) in this world, but they are [not righteous, hence they will be] Kefuyim (light, unimportant) in the world to come, like Rav Yosef the son of R. Yehoshua ben Levi saw:
1. Rav Yosef passed out. His spirit left, and returned.
2. Yosef: I saw an upside-down world. [Esteemed] people who are on top here are below there, and vice-versa!
3. R. Yehoshua: You saw reality! How did Chachamim look?
4. Yosef: They are as [important as] they are here;
i. They were saying that happy is the one who remembers his learning when he comes to the world to come.
5. They also said that no one else has a portion like those [who sanctified Hash-m's name when] killed by the king.
(e) Question: To which people did he refer?
1. He did not mean R. Akiva and the other [nine great] Chachamim killed by the king. Even had they not been killed by the king, no one else would have a portion like them!
(f) Answer: Rather, it referred to those killed in Lud. (Rashi - the king made a false accusation as a pretext to kill all the Yisraelim. Two brothers confessed to it to save everyone else. Ran - there was a decree to drink from colored glass Kelim, unlike the practice of Yisrael. Yisraelim refused to change, and submitted to be killed.)
(g) Question: "Ba'Yom ha'Hu Yihyeh Al Metzilos ha'Sus Kodesh la'Shem" - what is this?
(h) Answer #1 (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): In the future, Hash-m will increase Yerushalayim as far as a horse can run [from daybreak] until its shade is under it (midday).
(i) Answer #2 (R. Elazar): All ornaments hung between a horse's eyes will be Kodesh. (People will Makdish very generously.)
(j) Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): All the booty that Yisrael will take [from Nochrim] until a horse's shade is under it (i.e. the entire morning) will be Kodesh.
(k) Question: According to R. Yochanan, we understand why the verse ends "v'Hayah ha'Siros b'Veis Hash-m ka'Mizrakim Lifnei ha'Mizbe'ach" (they will be Makdish pots of gold and silver, like the buckets for blood). How do the others explain this?
(l) Answer: It is a new matter. Yisrael will become rich, and they will bring such pots to Hekdesh.
(m) Question: According to R. Yochanan, we understand why it says "v'Lo Yihyeh Chena'ani Od b'Veis Hash-m Tzevakos ba'Yom ha'Hu" (treasurers of Hekdesh will not need to do business with Hekdesh, for Hekdesh will have abundant wealth). How do the others explain this?
(n) Answer (R. Yirmeyah): They expound "Chena'ani" like 'Ein Kan Oni.' (There are no poor people here.)
(o) Question: What is the source that Kena'ani refers to a merchant?
(p) Answer #1 - Question: "Va'Yar Sham Yehudah Bas Ish Kena'ani" - what does Kena'ani mean?
1. Suggestion: It is literally someone from one of the Kena'ani nations.
2. Rejection: Avraham warned [Eliezer regarding] Yitzchak and Yitzchak warned Yakov not to marry a Kena'anis. Surely Yehudah would not do so! (Iyun Yakov - some say that the [other] Shevatim married Kena'aniyos, but surely Yehudah would not, for it was known that kingship will come from him.)
3. Answer #1 (Reish Lakish): It means 'merchant' - "Kena'an b'Yado Moznei Mirmah."
4. Answer #2: Alternatively, we learn from "Asher Sochareha Sarim Kin'aneha Nichbadei Aretz."
2) HASH-M'S NAME IN THE FUTURE
(a) Question: It says "v'Hayah Hash-m l'Melech Al Kol ha'Aretz ba'Yom ha'Hu Yihyeh Hash-m Echad u'Shmo Echad." Also now He is one!
(b) Answer (R. Acha bar Chanina): The world to come is unlike this world. In this world, on good tidings one blesses 'Baruch ha'Tov veha'Metiv'; and on bad tidings, one blesses 'Baruch Dayan ha'Emes.' In the world to come, one will bless only ha'Tov veha'Metiv. (There will not be bad tidings. Hash-m will act solely according to His Midah of mercy.)
(c) Question: Why does it say [ba'Yom ha'Hu...] u'Shmo Echad? Also now His name is one!
(d) Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): The world to come is unlike this world. In this world, Hash-m's name is written with Yud-Kei, but it is pronounced like Aleph-Dalet. In the world to come it will be written and pronounced the same way, with Yud-Kei (the name corresponding to His Midah of mercy).
(e) Rava planned to publicly expound the [meanings of the pronunciation of His] name. An elder remarked, it is written ["Zeh Shemi] l'Olam" [without a Vov] so we can read it Le'alem (to conceal).
(f) Contradiction (R. Avina): It says "Zeh Shemi l'Olam" (implying that we should conceal it), but this very verse ends "v'Zeh Zichri l'Dor Dor"! (This implies that we should pronounce it! Alternatively - since this is His name, obviously it is how He is called!)
(g) Answer: Hash-m says 'My name is not pronounced like it is written. It is written Yud-Kei, but it is pronounced Aleph-Dalet.'
PEREK MAKOM SHE'NAHAGU
3) WORKING ON EREV SHABBOS OR EREV YOM TOV
(a) (Mishnah): In a place where the custom is to work on Erev Pesach until midday, one does so. In a place where people do not work [even until midday], one must refrain. (Rashi - they refrain, lest one forget to get rid of Chametz and prepare Matzos. Tosfos - one may not work the day one brings a Korban. The afternoon is forbidden everywhere, for it is when we offer Korban Pesach.)
(b) If one goes from a place where people work to a place where they do not work, or vice-versa, he must be stringent like both places, and he may not deviate [from the local custom] lest this cause strife.
(c) (In Shemitah, one may eat a species of produce as long as some is found in the field in that region for wild animals.) Similarly, if one takes Shemitah produce from a place where it is finished [in the field] to a place where it is not finished, he must do Bi'ur (get rid of it. See note in 32 Appendix);
(d) R. Yehudah says, he says 'go yourself and bring!' (This will be explained.)
(e) (Gemara) Question: Why does the Mishnah discuss Erev Pesach? The same applies to any every Erev Yom Tov or Erev Shabbos! [One should not work in the afternoon.]
1. (Beraisa): If one works after [the time for] Minchah on Erev Shabbos or Erev Yom Tov, his work will not be blessed. (Maharshal fixes the text of Rashi to say from six and a half hours of the day, i.e. Minchah Gedolah.)
(f) Answer #1: Any other Erev Yom Tov or Erev Shabbos is forbidden only after the time of Minchah. Erev Pesach is forbidden after midday.
(g) Answer #2: Any other Erev Yom Tov or Erev Shabbos his work will not be blessed, but we do not excommunicate him. regarding Erev Pesach we excommunicate him.
(h) (Beraisa): If one works at any of the following times, his work will never be blessed:
1. After Minchah on Erev Shabbos or Erev Yom Tov; (Tosfos - until prayer is finished on) Motza'ei Shabbos, Yom Tov or Yom Kipur; and any time when there is [even] a tinge of a transgression. This comes to include public fast days.
(i) (Beraisa): One can profit for being zealous [regarding work], and one can lose for this. One can profit for being lazy, and one can lose for this:
1. One who works all week but not Erev Shabbos [after Minchah] will profit due to his zeal. One who works all week including Erev Shabbos will lose due to his zeal;
2. One who does not work all week and not Erev Shabbos will profit due to his laziness. (Rashi - he will be rewarded like for a Mitzvah Lo Lishmah, for this was not his intent. Maharsha - he will have time to prepare for Shabbos);
3. One who did not work all week but works Erev Shabbos will lose due to his laziness [during the week, for it forced him to work on Erev Shabbos and be unable to prepare for Shabbos].
(j) (Rava): Women of Mechuza (Rava's city) do not work on Erev Shabbos because they are finicky. A proof is that they do not work all week [even though a wife is obligated to spin thread in exchange for being fed - Kesuvos 64b]. Eeven so, they will profit due to their laziness.
(k) Contradiction (Rava): It says "Ki Gadol Ad Shamayim Chasdecha", and it says "Ki Gadol me'Al Shamayim Chasdecha"!
(l) Answer: Hash-m's Chesed is above Shamayim for those who serve Him Lishmah. It is up to Shamayim for those who serve Lo Lishmah.
1. (Rav Yehudah): A person should always engage in Torah and Mitzvos even Lo Lishmah, for (Nefesh ha'Chayim - with intent that) this will lead him to do them Lishmah.
4) ENDEAVORS THAT WILL NOT BE BLESSED
(a) (Beraisa): If one seeks to profit through his wife or through a millstone, he will never be blessed [through them]:
1. These refer to Maskulta (Rashi - sending her to rent out a scale; Tosfos - spinning thread, during which her arms are exposed) and renting out a millstone. (These entail disgrace and much exertion for a small profit);
2. However, a wife who makes things and sells them is praised - "Sadin Asesah va'Timkor."
(b) (Beraisa): If one seeks to profit through sticks or bottles he will never be blessed through them.
(c) Question: What is the reason?
(d) Answer: Since they have a big volume (it looks like the owner has much merchandise), Ayin Ra'ah prevails over them.
(e) (Beraisa): The following will never be blessed [through their livelihood] - merchants who sell in the market, people who raise small animals (flock), those who cut nice trees, and those who seek a nice portion for themselves.
(f) Question: What is the reason?
(g) Answer: People are astounded at them [or upset with them, e.g. for grazing in others' fields], so Ayin Ra'ah prevails over them.
(h) There are four earnings that will never be blessed - wages of writers, of translators [who broadcast the words of a Chacham on Shabbos], earnings through orphans (e.g. doing business with their money and splitting the profits) and through overseas ventures.
(i) Question: We understand three of these. Wages of translators look like wages for [work on] Shabbos. Orphans (minors) cannot forgive [negligent use of their money]. Overseas ventures (bringing merchandise on ships) are dangerous, and one cannot expect miracles all the time;
1. However, what is wrong with wages of writers?
(j) Answer (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): The Great Assembly fasted 24 times to request that those who write Seforim, Tefilin and Mezuzos not get rich, for if they did, they would cease to write.
(k) (Beraisa): The following will never be blessed - people who write Seforim, Tefilin and Mezuzos, and their wholesale distributors, and their retail distributors, and all who engage in the work of Shamayim. This includes people who sell Techeiles;
1. If they do so l'Shem Shamayim, they will be blessed. (They will continue to write even if they become rich - PF.)
5) FOLLOWING PRACTICES OF ONE'S ANCESTORS
(a) Bnei Baishan were stringent not to go from Tzur to Tzidon on Erev Shabbos [the market day, lest they not have time to prepare for Shabbos]. The next generation asked 'must we must follow this stringency? Our ancestors could be stringent (they were wealthy). We cannot!'
(b) (R. Yochanan): Since your ancestors accepted this, you must follow it - "Shema Beni Musar Avicha v'Al Titosh Toras Imecha."