[17a - 38 lines; 17b - 44 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other* important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 17b [line 21]:
The word "veha'Tenan" והתנן
should be "veha'Tanya" והתניא (Dikdukei Sofrim #90 in the name of the Rishonim, Rashash, Mar'eh Kohen, Yefeh Einayim. This is also the Girsa in the manuscripts.)
1)[line 1]אישתבש כהניISHTABESH KAHANEI- the Kohanim erred
2a)[line 3]משקי בית מטבחיאMASHKEI BEI MATBECHAYA- liquids involved with the Avodah of Shechitah; blood and water
b) משקי בית מטבחיאMASHKEI BEI MADBECHAYA- liquids involved with the offerings on the Mizbe'ach; water, blood, wine and oil
3)[line 12]במה שנגע בכנפוBA'MEH SHE'NAGA BI'CHENAFO- that is, the Sheretz touched an unnamed object which in turn touched the bread
4)[line 12]"אם יגע טמא נפש בכל אלה...""... IM YIGA TEMEI NEFESH B'CHOL EILEH..."- "...If one who touched a Mes (and is therefore an Av ha'Tum'ah similar to a Sheretz) came into contact with all of these [in the same sequence, resulting in what should be in a Revi'i l'Tum'ah]...." This scenario leaves out the extra step of the unnamed object which touched the bread after coming into contact with the source of Tum'ah mentioned in the previous question of Chagai.
5)[line 19]הכא שלישיHACHA SHELISHI- According to Ravina, the "Temei Nefesh" referred to in the verse is not one who touched a Mes; rather, it refers to an actual corpse, which is an Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah.
6)[line 20]"ויען חגי ויאמר כן העם הזה וכן הגוי הזה לפני נאם ה' וכן כל מעשה ידיהם ואשר יקריבו שם טמא הוא""VA'YA'AN CHAGAI VA'YOMER, KEN HA'AM HA'ZEH V'CHEN HA'GOY HA'ZEH LEFANEI, NE'UM HA'SH-M; V'CHEN KOL MA'ASEH YEDEIHEM, VA'ASHER YAKRIVU SHAM TAMEI HU"- "Then Chagai answered and said, 'Such is this people, and such is this nation before me, says HaSh-m; and such is all that they do, and that which they offer there is Tamei.'" (Chagai 2:14)
7)[line 22]והא וכן כל מעשה ידיהם כתיבV'HA V'CHEN KOL MA'ASEH YEDEIHEM KESIV- the wording of "v'Chen" implies that what follows is a continuation of the previous thought, and not a switch mid-topic to a rhetorical question.
8)[line 23]מתוך שקלקלו את מעשיהםMITOCH SHE'KILKELU ES MA'ASEIHEN- This answer explains that Chagai ha'Navi was prophesizing that the Kohanim were going to act improperly in other areas during the period of the second temple.
9)[line 26]משכחת לה דנגעי כולהו בראשוןMISHKCHAS LAH D'NAG'I KULHU B'RISHON- The [question of Chagai in the] verse [which clearly refers to the ability of wine and oil of Kodshim to become Temei] can be understood to be in a case in which each of the objects in question directly came into contact with the first [source of Tum'ah] (as opposed to the way the Gemara understood earlier; namely, that the question of Chagai was in a case in which the same sequence as the previous question was followed, resulting in a Shelishi, Revi'i, or Chamishi l'Tum'ah).
10)[line 28]ולשמואלL'SHMUEL- Shmuel opined that the Kohanim did not err, since they were asked about a Chamishi l'Tum'ah. It is clear from his view, however, that the wine and oil mentioned in the verse could have caused each other to receive any earlier level of Tum'ah, such as a Shelishi or Revi'i l'Tum'ah.
11)[line 1]רבי שמעון אומר בכלים טמאין בקרקע טהוריןREBBI SHIMON OMER B'KELIM TEME'IM B'KARKA TEHORIN- Rebbi Shimon is of the opinion that liquids are themselves Tamei and can cause food to become Tamei mid'Oraisa (16a). Therefore the Rabanan were not able to treat them as Tahor in the Beis ha'Mikdash. The exception to this is more than a Revi'is of water lying on the ground, which is a Kosher Mikvah mid'Oraisa for certain small vessels, as the Gemara explains later. (A Mikvah of forty Se'ah must be used in order to be Metaher even the smallest of vessels mid'Rabanan.)
12)[line 3]הלכתא גמירי להHILCHESA GEMIRI LAH- learns a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai [that they are Tahor in the Beis ha'Mikdash]
13)[line 14]קשיאKASHYA- these questions are valid, and the conjecture of Rav Papa is disproved.
14a)[line 17]מחטיןMACHTIN- needles
b)[line 17]וצינורותTZINOROS- curved hooks
15)[line 21]שיש להן אחורים ותוךSHE'YESH LAHEN ACHORAYIM V'TOCH- of which both the outside and inside can be used; e.g. a pillow case which can be turned inside out (RASH Kelim 25:1)
16a)[line 22]הכריםKARIM- mattress-covers
b)[line 22]והכסתותKESASOS- pillow-cases
c)[line 22]והשקיןSAKIN- cloth bags
d)[line 22]והמרצופיןMARTZUFIN- (a) leather bags (RASHI), (b) large bags used to load goods on ships (RASH Kelim 25:1)
17)[line 38]מחוורתא כדשנין מעיקראMECHAVARTA KED'SHANINAN ME'IKARA- it is clear [that the correct answer is] as we answered originally
18)[line 31]]הבאין מחמת ידיםHABA'IN MACHMAS YADAYIM (TUM'AH: TUM'AS YADAYIM)
)a) According to Torah law, the body of a person can acquire the status of an Av ha'Tum'ah should it come into contact with a Mes, or a Rishon l'Tum'ah should it come into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah. The body of a person cannot acquire the status a Sheni l'Tum'ah or any level of Tum'ah below that.
)b) According to Torah law, there is no difference in the status of one part of a person's body and any other; either all of the body is Tahor, or all of the body is Tamei.
)c) The Chachamim decreed that a person's hands must be considered a Sheni l'Tum'ah unless he has washed them with a proper Netilah and has been careful to keep them Tahor from that point on. They furthermore decreed that should any of the seven liquids touch hands that are considered to be Sheniyim, then that liquid must be considered a Rishon l'Tum'ah.
)d) Another way for a person's hands to be Tamei mid'Rabanan is if they are Yadayim ha'Ba'im Machmas Sefer, hands which have touched one of the 24 books of Tanach (see TOSFOS to Shabbos 14a DH ha'Ochez).
19)[line 43]ששתתה מי חטאתSHE'SHASESA MEI CHATAS- which drank Mei Chatas [and was then slaughtered]
20)[line 43]מי חטאתMEI CHATAS (PARAH ADUMAH)
)a) A Parah Adumah is a red cow; if there are as many as two hairs of any other color it is not a Parah Adumah (see Maseches Parah 2:5). Only a cow which has never had a yoke placed upon it nor performed any other work is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow as it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).
)b) If a person or utensil becomes Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to go to the Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov (hyssop) branches which have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).
)c) The Mei Chatas itself has the level of an Av ha'Tum'ah and causes people and vessels who come into contact with it to become a Rishon l'Tum'ah. (Bamidbar 19:21). This is why the Tana Kama of this Mishnah understands that slaughtered meat of an animal which drank Mei Chatas is Tamei.