[2a - 16 lines; 2b - 35 lines]

1)[line 2]כל הנשים דיין שעתןKOL HA'NASHIM DAYAN SHAITAN (NIDAH / ZAVAH)

[I] NIDAH

By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she immerses in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. (The current practice is to consider all women who experience bleeding to be Zavos and therefore they must have seven clean days before they go to the Mikvah.)

[II] ZAVAH

(a)The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, whether the bleeding is b'Ones (due to an external cause, see Background to Kerisus 8:4:b) or not, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.

(b)If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she experiences bleeding afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she experiences bleeding.

(c)If a woman experiences bleeding for three consecutive days during her eleven days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count "Shiv'ah Neki'im," seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she experiences no other bleeding. On the morning of the seventh day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Vayikra 15:25-30).

2)[line 2]דיין שעתןDAYAN SHAITAN- the Mishnah discusses the case of a woman who finds Dam Nidah during an internal check for menstrual blood with a Bedikah-cloth. The question in the Mishnah is whether we are to assume that the blood that was found is fresh (Dayan Sha'atan) or whether it had been there for some time, in which case the woman will be judged to be Teme'ah retroactively from the time the blood reached the Bayis ha'Chitzon. The Gemara (3b) concludes that even according to those who judge the woman to be Teme'ah retroactively, this is only a Chumrah d'Rabanan with regard to Terumah and Kodshim. With regard to making her husband and Chulin Teme'im, and with regard to her status mid'Oraisa, she is Tehorah, since she had a Chezkas Taharah.

3)[line 3]מפקידה לפקידהMI'PEKIDAH L'PEKIDAH- from the last time that she checked until this time

4)[line 4]מעת לעת ממעטת על יד מפקידה לפקידהME'ES L'ES MEMA'ETES AL YAD MI'PEKIDAH L'PEKIDAH- if her previous Bedikah was more than 24 hours ago, then we are only Machmir retroactively for a period of 24 hours

5)[line 7]וסתVESES- the fixed cycle when a woman usually menstruates

6)[line 7]המשמשת בעדיםHA'MESHAMESHES B'EIDIM- and a woman who used Bedikah-cloths to check if she is Teme'ah before and after marital relations

2b----------------------------------------2b

7)[line 2]מקוה שנמדד ונמצא חסרMIKVAH SHE'NIMDAD V'NIMTZA CHASER - a Mikvah that was measured and found to be lacking [the required minimum amount of 40 Se'in of non-drawn water] (MIKVA'OS)

(a)The Torah rules that rainwater is Metaher (purifies) only when it is collected in a cavity, or "b'Ashboren," a fact that is learned from Vayikra 11:36, where the verse states that a "Mikveh Mayim" (an accumulation of water) purifies. While the rainwater is flowing (e.g. down a slope, known as Chardelis or Katafras), it cannot be Metaher.

(b)There must be at least forty Se'ah of rainwater in a Mikvah in order for it to be Metaher, which is approximately equal to 288, 331.78 or 576 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

(c)Spring water is Metaher both while it is flowing (Zochelin) as in a river, and when it is collected in a cavity.

(d)Drawn water is called Mayim She'uvin. Only water that never entered a utensil (non-drawn water) may be used to fill a Mikvah. Once there are already 40 Se'in of non-drawn water in the Mikvah, drawn water may be added. However, if before there are 40 Se'ah in the Mikvah three Lugim of drawn water fall into it, they render the Mikvah invalid.

8)[line 3]כל טהרות שנעשו על גביוKOL TAHAROS SHE'NA'ASU AL GABAV- all items of Taharah (ritual purity), such as Terumah, Kodshim and the like, that were touched by people or utensils that relied on this Mikvah to become Tehorim

9)[line 4]למפרעL'MAFRE'A- retroactively

10)[line 4]רשות הרבים / רשות היחידRESHUS HA'RABIM / RESHUS HA'YACHID (SAFEK TUM'AH BI'RESHUS HA'RABIM / BI'RESHUS HA'YACHID)

(a)When there is a doubt as to whether an object is Tahor or Tamei, if the object is found in Reshus ha'Rabim the object is Tahor. If it is found in a private, concealed place, it is judged to be Tamei.

(b)This is learned from the case of the Sotah woman. In the case of a Sotah, where only two people were present at the time that there arose a question as to her status, she is judged Teme'ah/culpable and is prohibited to her husband (for a full discussion of the Sotah woman, see Background to Nidah 3:1). Similarly, whenever there are only two people present (i.e. a Reshus ha'Yachid l'Tum'ah), if a doubt arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tamei. Whenever more than two people frequent a certain area, it is a Reshus ha'Rabim l'Tum'ah. If a doubt arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tahor.

11)[line 6]תוליןTOLIN- (lit. [their status is left] hanging) the status of the Taharos that the woman touched are forever in doubt, and receive the stringency of both Taharos and objects of Tum'ah

12)[line 8]העמד טמא על חזקתוHA'AMED TAMEI AL CHEZKASO (CHAZAKAH)

(a)One of the most confusing aspects of the subject of "Chazakah" is that the term "Chazakah" is used to describe so many unrelated laws. Just about any logical clarification of a doubt (and more) is referred to by this name. In our Sugya, it is referring to the rule that when doubt arises as to whether the status of a certain person or object has changed, we assume that is has not changed.

1.Such a "Chazakah" may be used in regard to a purely Halachic status (such as Tamei/Tahor or Mutar/Asur), or in regards to a physical status that affects the Halachah (such as a woman being Tehorah, or a Mikvah not lacking the necessary amount of water). In our Sugya, the Chazakah tells us that the person who is Tamei retains the status of Tum'ah until we know that he became Tahor.

2.A Chazakah may work forward in time (Chazakah D'Ikara), proving what will be, or backward in time (Chazakah D'Hashta), proving what was.

(b)A Chazakas Isur tells us that when in doubt about whether a person has immersed in a proper Mikvah or not, we need proof that the Mikvah was filled with the necessary amount of water before we may declare him Tahor.

13)[line 12]חסר ואתא, חסר ואתאCHASER V'ASA, CHASER V'ASA- its volume gradually decreased

14)[line 14]הגס הגס חזיתיהHA'GAS HA'GAS CHAZISEI- some of the Dam Nidah seeped out as it built up inside her womb

15)[line 15]תרתי לריעותאTARTEI L'REI'USA- there are two negative factors. When the person immersed himself in a Mikvah that was previously found to contain forty Se'in of water, and later was found to contain less than forty Se'in, we rule that the person is Tamei due to a combination of two negative factors: (a) The person who immersed had a Chezkas Tamei, and (b) the Mikvah is presently lacking the required amount of water

16)[line 18]תרומהTERUMAH (TERUMAH / TEVEL)

(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated Ma'aser Rishon, and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.

(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).

(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.

(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there by its owner. Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon, redemption - see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5). Once the Ma'aser Sheni produce enters the walls of Yerushalayim, it may not be redeemed. It is considered "Niklat," "captured" by the walls.

(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.

17)[line 18]חומץCHOMETZ- vinegar

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