BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
[31a - 37 lines; 31b - 35 lines]
1) [line 2] KUSIM
(a) The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos).
(b) After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of non-Jews. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like non-Jews l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the Rambam (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.)
2) [line 2] SHUM - garlic
3) [line 23] LOKE'ACH B'YOSER U'MOCHER B'FACHOS - he buys from Jews at a more expensive price and sells to them at a cheaper price
4) [line 27] UMAN - craftsman
5) [line 27] L'VAKRO - to test it out
6) [line 31] B'ZEVINA D'RAMI AL APEI - a difficult item to sell
7) [line 36] ZEVINA CHARIFA - a bargain, something easy to sell
8) [line 1] ZEVINA MITZ'A - an average deal
9) [line 3] TAGAR - a merchant
10) [line 5] TOVAS HANA'AH
(a) The words "Tovas Hana'ah" denote the trivial benefit (in terms of pleasure or compensation) that a person receives in return for giving away an object or goods to which he has only very limited rights.
(b) A common example of this is selecting a particular individual to be the recipient of a gift that he is obligated to bestow to others. For example, Terumah must be given to a Kohen, and Ma'aser to a Levi. The Tovas Hana'ah of a Yisrael who separates Terumah or Ma'aser from his produce is the right to give the Terumah or Ma'aser to the Kohen or Levi of his choice.
(c) Another example is selling an object to which one will not have full rights until a later date, or to which one may never gain full rights. For example, a woman only receives a Kesuvah from her husband if the husband dies before her or divorces her. She may sell her rights to collect the Kesuvah for Tovas Hana'ah. Since the possibility exists that she will die before her husband and the purchaser will not receive the Kesuvah, the Tovas Hana'ah of the Kesuvah is worth much less than the Kesuvah itself.
11) [line 7] NOSEI SACHAR
One of the "Four Watchmen" listed in Bava Metzia, the Nosei Sachar, or Shomer Sachar, is one who is paid to watch an article. He is liable for damages in cases of Peshi'ah (negligence) or theft, but is not liable in a case of Ones (an unavoidable accident).
12) [line 7] SAFSIRA - an agent
13) [line 13] A'BAVA D'VEISEI - at the door of his house
14) [line 21] "TA'ALOZNA" - rejoice
15) [line 23] SHELOSH ESREH BERISOS - the word Bris (covenant) appears 13 times when HaSh-m commands Avraham to perform Bris Milah -- Bereishis 17:2-21, representing a very strong bond between HaSh-m and Benei Yisrael
16) [line 32] KESHE'NISRASHEL - when he was lax
Index to Background for Maseches Nedarim