MEGILAH 31 - Dedicated by Mr. Avi Berger of Queens, NY, in memory of his father, Reb Pinchas ben Reb Avraham Yitzchak, in honor of his Yahrzeit (16 Adar).


(a)We do not interrupt during the Klalos. Rather, one person reads them all.

(b)On Monday, Thursday and Shabbos afternoon we read from the (coming) weekly Parshah;

(c)This does not count towards reading the Parshah. We read the entire Parshah the coming Shabbos.

(d)"Va'Ydaber Moshe Es Mo'adei Hash-m El Benei Yisrael" - they should read about each Mo'ed in its time.

(e)(Gemara - Beraisa): The Torah readings and Haftoros for the Mo'adim are as follows:

1.On the first day of Pesach we read Parshas Mo'adim, and (the Haftorah is) the Korban Pesach brought in Gilgal;

2.The Haftorah for the second day (Yom Tov of Chutz la'Aretz) is the Korban Pesach in the days of Yoshiyahu.

3.On the other days we read from various Parshiyos relating to Pesach.

i.(Rav Papa): The acronym for them is MAFU (Mishchu, Im Kesef, Pesal Lecha, va'Yedaber).

4.On the seventh day we read "Va'Yehi b'Shalach", and "Va'Yedaber David" (for the Haftorah).

5.On the eighth day (in Chutz la'Aretz) we read "Kol ha'Bechor", and "Od ha'Yom."

i.(Abaye): Today the custom is to read on the eight days "Meshech", "Tura", "Kadesh", "b'Kaspa", "Pesal", "b'Madbera", "Shelach", "Buchra".

6.On Shavu'os we read "Sheva Shavu'os" and the Haftorah is in Chabakuk;

7.Others say, we read "In the third month", and the Merkavah (in Yechezkeil);

i.Nowadays (that we have two days of Yom Tov) we read like both of them. On the first day we read like Others, and on the second like the first Tana.

8.On Rosh Hashanah we read "Ba'Chodesh ha'Shevi'i", and "Ha'Ben Yakir Li" (for the Haftorah);

9.Others say, we read "Va'Shem Pokad Es Sarah" and about Chanah (Hash-m gave pregnancy to both of them on Rosh Hashanah).

i.Nowadays we read like Others on the first day. On the second day we read the Akeidah and "Ha'Ben Yakir Li."

10.On Yom Kipur we read "Acharei Mos" and "Ki Ko Omar Ram v'Nisa". At Minchah we read the Parshas Arayos, and the Haftorah is Sefer Yonah.

i.(R. Yochanan): Wherever Hash-m's greatness is mentioned, His humility is mentioned right after this. We find this in Torah, Nevi'im, and Kesuvim.

ii.In Torah it says "Hash-m... Elokei ha'Elokim... Ose Mishpat Yasom v'Almanah". In Nevi'im it says "Cho Omar Ram v'Nisa... v'Es Daka u'Shfal Ru'ach". In Kesuvim it says "Solu la'Rochev ba'Aravos ... Avi Yesomim v'Dayan Almanos".

(f)On the first day of Sukos we read Parshas Mo'adim in Vayikra, and "Hinei Yom Ba la'Shem" for the Haftorah;

(g)On the second day we read the same Torah reading, and "Melech Shlomo gathered".

(h)The rest of Sukos we read the Korbanos of each day.

(i)On Shmini Atzeres we read the Mitzvos and Chukim that apply at this time, and "Kol ha'Bechor". The Haftorah is "When Shlomo finished... "

(j)On Simchas Torah we read "V'Zos ha'Berachah", and "And Shlomo stood... "

(k)(Rav Huna): The Shabbos of Chol ha'Moed (of both Pesach and Sukos) we read "Re'e Atah... " On Pesach the Haftorah is "These dry bones". On Sukos it is "Ba'Yom Ba Gog".

(l)On Chanukah we read (Chanukas ha'Mishkan of) the Nesi'im, and (on Shabbos) the Neros in Zecharyah for the Haftorah;

1.If there is a second Shabbos, its Haftorah is the Neros of Shlomo.

(m)On Purim we read "Va'Yavo Amalek".

(n)On Rosh Chodesh we read "uv'Roshei Chodsheichem". When Rosh Chodesh is on Shabbos, the Haftorah is "V'Hayah Midei Chodesh b'Chodsho".

1.When Rosh Chodesh begins on Motza'ei Shabbos, the Haftorah of Shabbos is "Machar Chodesh".


(o)(Rav Huna): When Rosh Chodesh Av falls on Shabbos, the Haftorah is "Chodsheichem u'Mo'adeichem San'ah Nafshi...."

1."Hayu Alai l'Torach" - they force Hash-m to devise an appropriate punishment.

(p)(Rav): On Tish'ah b'Av, the Haftorah is "Eichah Haysah l'Zonah".

(q)(Beraisa - Others): The Torah reading is "V'Im Lo Tishme'u Li";

(r)R. Nosan bar Yosef says, it is "Ad Anah Yena'atzuni ha'Am ha'Zeh";

(s)Some say it is "Ad Anah la'Edah ha'Ra'ah ha'Zos".

(t)(Abaye): The custom is to read "Ki Solid Banim", and "Asof Asifem" for the Haftorah.


(a)(Mishnah): On Ma'amados we read Ma'ase Bereishis.

(b)Question: What is the source of this?

(c)Answer (R. Ami): Heaven and earth would not endure without (the Torah of Yisrael, who would not endure without) the merit of Ma'amados. It says "Im Lo Brisi Yomam va'Laylah Chukos Shamayim va'Aretz Lo Samti", and it says "Ba'Meh Eda";

1.Avraham asked Hash-m: If Benei Yisrael will sin, will they be destroyed like Dor ha'Mabul or scattered like Dor ha'Flagah?

2.Hash-m: No.

3.Avraham: "Ba'Meh Eda (how can I teach them to get Kaparah for their sins)?"

4.Hash-m: "Kache Li Eglah... (Korbanos can atone for them)."

5.Avraham: What will happen when there is no Beis ha'Mikdash?

6.Hash-m: When they read the Parshiyos of Korbanos, I consider it as if they offered them, and I will pardon all their sins.


(a)(Mishnah): On Ta'aneisim we read Berachos and Klalos. We do not end an Aliyah in the middle of the Klalos.

(b)Question: What is the reason?

(c)Answer #1 (R. Chiya bar Gamda): "My son, do not despise the rebuke of Hash-m."

(d)Answer #2 (Reish Lakish): We do not bless on punishments. (Even though in the days of the Mishnah only the first and last Olim blessed, in the Yerushalmi Reish Lakish says that there are certain Parshiyos over which we bless before and after. Berachos and Klalos are among them - Tosfos R. Akiva Eiger.)

(e)(Beraisa): The one who reads the Klalos starts a verse before them, and reads a verse after them. (It seems that this is like the Tana (22a) who permits reading one verse from a Parshah.)

(f)(Abaye): This applies to the Klalos in Vayikra, but not to those in Devarim.

(g)Question: What is the reason?

(h)Answer: The Klalos in Vayikra were said in the plural ("Im Lo Tishme'u... "), and Hash-m said them through Moshe. Those in Devarim were said in the singular, and Moshe said them (with Ru'ach ha'Kodesh).

(i)Levi bar Buti was hurriedly muttering the Klalos in Devarim (he was distressed to say them). Rav Huna told him that one may stop in the middle of the Klalos in Devarim.

(j)(Beraisa -R. Shimon ben Elazar): Ezra enacted that we should read the Klalos in Vayikra before Shavu'os, and those in Devarim before Rosh Hashanah.

(k)(Abaye): This is so we should finish the year and its Klalos.

(l)Question: This does not explain those in Vayikra!

(m)Answer: It does!

1.(Mishnah): The world is judged on Shavu'os regarding fruits (it is also like a new year).

(n)(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): If elders tell you to destroy, and youths tell you to build, listen to the elders - their destruction is building, and the building of youths is destruction, like we find regarding Rechavam. (Elders told him to be gentle for one day, to solidify his kingship. Youths told him to be harsh to solidify his reign, and this caused him to lose most of the kingdom - Melachim 1:12.)


(a)(Beraisa - R. Meir): Each time we read the Torah (Shabbos morning, Shabbos afternoon, Monday, and Thursday) we begin reading where we stopped the previous time;

(b)R. Yehudah says, on Shabbos afternoon, Monday, Thursday and the coming Shabbos morning we begin where we stopped last Shabbos morning.

(c)(R. Zeira): The Halachah is, on Shabbos afternoon, Monday, Thursday and the coming Shabbos morning we begin where we stopped last Shabbos morning.

(d)Question: Why didn't he simply say that the Halachah follows R. Yehudah?

(e)Answer: He had to say the law explicitly, because some switch the opinions of R. Meir and R. Yehudah (from our text of the Beraisa).