POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
1) WHICH "MUMIM" NECESSITATE DIVORCE
(a) (Mishnah): Chachamim say that this applies only to Mumim
in hidden places.
(b) (Rav Nachman): If a woman has epileptic fits, this is
considered a hidden Mum.
1. This is if it comes at fixed times (she is careful
to be secluded at these times). If not, it is like
an exposed Mum.
(c) (Mishnah): If Mumim arose in a man, we do not force him
to divorce his wife;
(d) R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, this applies to small Mumim.
Regarding big Mumim, we force him to divorce her.
(e) (Gemara - Rav Yehudah): The Mishnah says 'arose';
(f) (Chiya bar Rav): The text says 'were'.
1. The opinion that says 'arose' holds that all the
more so if the Mum was there (he need not divorce
her), for she saw the Mum and accepted it;
(g) Question (Mishnah - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): This applies
to small Mumim. Regarding big Mumim, we force him to
2. The opinion that says 'were', would say that we
force him to divorced if Mumim arose
1. We understand this according to the text 'arose'.
(h) Answer: She thought she could bear them. Now she sees
that she cannot bear them.
2. But according to the text 'were', what difference
does it make if they are small or big? She saw them
and accepted them!
(i) (R. Shimon ben Gamliel): The following are big Mumim: his
eye was blinded, his arm was cut off, or his leg was
broken. (Bach - this is a Mishnah. It seems that the Rif
and Rosh agree.)
(j) (Rav Acha bar Yakov, citing R. Yochanan): The Halachah
follows R. Shimon ben Gamliel.
(k) (Rava): The Halachah follows Chachamim.
(l) Question: Did R. Yochanan really (need to) say that
(here) the Halachah follows R. Shimon ben Gamliel?!
1. (Rabah bar bar Chanah, citing R. Yochanan): The
Halachah always follows R. Shimon ben Gamliel in the
Mishnayos, except for three places: a co-signer, the
case in Tzidon, and bringing a later proof.
(m) Answer: Rav Acha and Rabah argue about what R. Yochanan
2) MAJOR "MUMIM"
(a) (Mishnah): If a husband has any of the following Mumim or
occupations, we force him to divorce his wife: leprosy,
Pulipus, a Mekametz, a Metzaref of copper (these will be
explained), or a tanner, whether these preceded the
marriage or came during the marriage;
1. R. Meir says, regarding all of them, even if he
stipulated with her she can say 'I thought that I
could bear it, but now I see that I cannot.'
(b) A case occurred in Tzidon and a tanner's wife fell to
Yibum to a tanner. Chachamim said that she can claim 'I
could bear your brother, but not you.'
2. Chachamim say that she must bear it, except for a
leper, for this harms her.
(c) (Gemara) Question: What is Pulipus?
(d) Answer #1 (Shmuel): It is a smell that comes from the
(e) Answer #2 (Beraisa): It is a smell that comes from the
1. Rav Asi switched the opinions, and gave a Siman to
remember who said which: 'Shmuel's mouth has not
ceased in this entire Perek.'
(f) Question: What is a Mekametz?
(g) Answer (Rav Yehudah): It is one who gathers dung of dogs.
(h) Question (Beraisa): A Mekametz is a tanner.
1. Counter-question: The Mishnah lists both a Mekametz
and a Borsi (a tanner)!
(i) Answer: Tana'im argue about the meaning of a Mekametz.
2. Answer: A Mekametz is one who tans few hides. A
Borsi is a large-scale tanner!
3. The question from the Beraisa remains difficult for
1. (Beraisa): A Mekametz is a tanner;
(j) Question: What is a Metzaref of copper?
2. Some say that it is one who gathers dung of dogs.
(k) Answer #1 (Rav Ashi): It is one who smelts it and makes
(l) Answer #2 (Rabah bar bar Chanah): It is one who quarries
it from its source.
(m) Support (Beraisa): A Metzaref is one who quarries copper
from its source.
3) WHOM WE FORCE TO DIVORCE HIS WIFE
(a) (Rav): If one says 'I will not feed or support my wife',
we force him to divorce her and pay her Kesuvah.
(b) R. Elazar said this in front of Shmuel.
(c) Shmuel: Feed to Elazar barley (like an animal)! Rather
than forcing the husband to divorce her, force him to
1. Rav holds that a person cannot live with a snake in
one basket. (We do not force her to live with an
(d) R. Binyamin bar Yefet said in the name of R. Yochanan
(e) R. Zeira: R. Elazar was fed barley for teaching thusly!
(f) (Rav Yehudah, citing Rav Asi): We force a husband to
divorce his wife only if she is forbidden to him.
(g) (Rav Yehudah citing Shmuel): This applies in cases such
as a widow married to a Kohen Gadol, a divorcee or
Chalutzah to a regular Kohen, a Mamzeres or Nesinah to a
Yisrael, or a Bas Yisrael to a Nasin or Mamzer. We do not
force a man who has been married for 10 years without
(h) (Rav Tachlifa citing Shmuel): We force even a man who has
been married for 10 years without children.
(i) (Mishnah): If a husband has any of the following Mumim,
we force him to divorce his wife: leprosy, Pulipus...
(j) This is not difficult for Rav Asi. He can say that the
Mishnah lists only cases when mid'Rabanan we force him to
divorce her, not when mid'Oraisa he must divorce her.
(k) Question: According to Rav Tachlifa, the Mishnah should
have listed a man who has been married for 10 years
(l) Answer #1 (Rav Nachman): The Mishnah discusses cases when
we force with lashes. If a man has been married for 10
years without children, we force only with words.
(m) Objection (R. Aba): "A slave will not fix his ways due to
(n) Answer #2 (R. Aba): In both cases we force with lashes.
In our Mishnah, we do not force if she wants to stay with
him. We force a childless man in any case.
(o) Objection: The Mishnah lists a leper, even though we do
not allow her to stay with him!
1. (Mishnah - Chachamim): (She must bear him,) except
for a leper, since this harms her.
(p) Answer: Regarding a leper, if she wants to remain with
him with witnesses (who will ensure that they do not have
Bi'ah), we allow her. We do not allow a childless man to
keep his wife even with witnesses.
(a) (Beraisa - R. Yosi): There are 24 types of leprosy. For
all of them, Bi'ah is harmful. The worst is Ba'alei
Ra'asan (there is a Sheretz in the brain).
(b) Question: What causes it?
(c) Answer (Beraisa): If one has Bi'ah after bloodletting,
the children will be weak. If they have Bi'ah after both
let blood, the children will be Ba'alei Ra'asan.
1. (Rav Papa): This applies only if they did not eat in
between. If they ate in between, there is no
(d) The signs of Ba'alei Ra'asan are: his eyes tear, his nose
drips, saliva comes from his mouth, and flies hover about
(e) Question: What is the cure?
(f) Answer (Abaye): Take mint, alum, bark of a nut tree,
shearings of leather, lily, and red date-shells, and cook
them together. Bring the sick one into a marble house, or
whose walls are seven half bricks thick. Pour 300 cups of
the potion on his head, until his skull softens. Cut the
skull; put a myrtle leaf under each leg of the Sheretz,
and remove it with tongs; burn the insect.
1. If you do not burn it, it will return to him.
(g) R. Yochanan warned people to beware of the flies from
Ba'alei Ra'asan. R. Zeira would not sit downwind from
them. R. Elazar would not enter the same tent as them. R.
Ami and R. Asi would not eat eggs from an alley with
(h) R. Yehoshua ben Levi would cling to them and engage in
1. "And it (Torah) gives grace (to those who learn it)"
- all the more so, it protects them!
5) R. YEHOSHUA BEN LEVI'S JOURNEY TO "GAN EDEN"
(a) When R. Yehoshua ben Levi was about to die, the Satan
(angel of death) was told to accede to his desires. The
Satan appeared to him.
(b) R. Yehoshua ben Levi asked to see where his place will be
(in Gan Eden). The Satan consented.
(c) R. Yehoshua ben Levi asked for the Satan's knife, lest it
scare him on the way; he gave it to him.
(d) When they got there, the Satan lifted him up and showed
him. R. Yehoshua ben Levi jumped to the other side, held
onto his garment and swore that he will not leave.
1. Hash-m: If he ever annulled an oath, he will go
back; if not, not. (He had not.)
(e) The Satan asked him to return his knife. R. Yehoshua ben
1. A voice from Heaven: Return it, for it is needed for
the world. (R. Yehoshua ben Levi returned it.)
(f) Eliyahu: Make room for the son of Levi! Make room for the
son of Levi!
(g) R. Yehoshua ben Levi found R. Shimon bar Yochai sitting
on 13 gold chairs.
1. R. Shimon bar Yochai: Are you the son of Levi?
(h) R. Chanina bar Papa was the Satan's close friend. When he
was about to die, the Satan was told to accede to his
desires; he appeared to him.
2. R. Yehoshua ben Levi: Yes.
3. R. Shimon bar Yochai: Was a rainbow seen in your
4. R. Yehoshua ben Levi: Yes.
5. R. Shimon bar Yochai: If so, you are not worthy of
this proclamation. (The rainbow is Hashem's sign not
to destroy the world. Your merit did not suffice to
protect the world!)
i. Really, the rainbow was not seen in his day. R.
Yehoshua ben Levi did not want to take credit
1. R. Chanina bar Papa: Give me 30 days to review my
learning. The angel of death agreed.
(i) The Satan returned after 30 days.
i. Happy is the one who comes to the world to come
and remembers his learning.
(j) R. Chanina bar Papa asked to see where his place will be.
The Satan consented.
(k) R. Chanina bar Papa asked for the Satan's knife, lest it
scare him on the way
1. The Satan: Do you want to do to me as your friend
(l) R. Alexandri came close and asked (that the fire cease)
for the honor of Chachamim. The fire continued. He asked
'for the honor of your father'; the fire continued. He
asked 'for your own honor'; the fire abated.
2. R. Chanina bar Papa: Bring a Sefer Torah, and see if
there is anything in it I didn't fulfill.
3. The Satan: Did you cling to Ba'alei Ra'asan and
engage in Torah?
4. Even though he had not, when he died, a pillar of
fire separated him from everyone else. This happens
for only one or two in a generation.
(m) Abaye: The fire was to keep away anyone who did not
fulfill everything in the Torah.
(n) Rav Ada bar Masnah: This includes yourself! You do not
have a railing on your roof!
1. Really, Abaye had a railing. The wind had blown it
(o) R. Chanina: There are no Ba'alei Ra'asan in Bavel,
because they eat beets and drink beer made from hops that
grow between prickly shrubs.
(p) R. Yochanan: There are no lepers in Bavel, because they
eat beets, drink beer and bathe in the Pras River.
Index to Outlines for Maseches Kesuvos