1)THE ENTRANCE TO GEHINOM
(a)(R. Yirmeyah ben Elazar): Hash-m's ways are unlike the ways of people. When a mortal king executes someone, they prop his mouth open to prevent him from cursing the king;
1.When Hash-m takes a person's life, the person is quiet (he knows that he was judged properly, and he fears more punishment in Gehinom) -- "Lecha Dumiyah Sehilah";
2.Moreover, he praises Hash-m -- "Sehilah";
3.Moreover, he accepts afflictions and considers them like a Korban to Hash-m - "u'Lecha Yeshulam Neder".
(b)This is like R. Yehoshua ben Levi taught;
1.Question (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): What is the meaning of "Ovrei b'Emek ha'Bacha Mayan Yeshisuhu Gam Berachos Yateh Moreh"?
2.Answer: "Ovrei" refers to people who transgress Hash-m's will. "B'Emek' - Gehinom is made deep for them. "Ha'Bacha" - they cry, and their tears drip like a Mayan (spring) of Shitin (a conduit descending from the Mizbe'ach to the depths);
3."Gam Berachos Yateh Moreh" - they justify their judgment, saying that Hash-m properly vindicated or obligated them, and that it was good that He prepared Gehinom for Resha'im and Gan Eden for Tzadikim.
(c)Question: Reish Lakish taught that Resha'im do not repent even at the entrance of Gehinom!
1."Va'Yotz'u v'Ra'u b'Figrei ha'Anashim ha'Posh'im Bi"- it does not say that they sinned, rather, that they [continue to] sin!
(d)Answer: That refers to Nochri sinners, but sinners of Yisrael repent.
(e)Support: If we would not say so, Reish Lakish would contradict himself!
(f)(Reish Lakish): A Kal va'Chomer from the golden Mizbe'ach teaches that the fire of Gehinom does not rule over sinners of Yisrael:
1.The golden Mizbe'ach is plated with the mere thickness of a gold Dinar, yet the fire of [coals that burn Ketores every day for] so many years never harmed it (the wood underneath - Tosfos (Chagigah); Rashi - the gold);
2.Sinners of Yisrael are full of Mitzvos like a pomegranate [is full of seeds] - "k'Felach ha'Rimon Rakasech." All the more so the fire of Gehinom does not rule over them!
i.(Reish Lakish): We read "Rakasech" like 'Reikasayich'. Even Reikim (empty Yisraelim) are full of Mitzvos like a pomegranate.
3.Question: It says "Ovrei b'Emek ha'Bacha"!
4.Answer: Those sentenced go briefly to Gehinom, and Avraham takes them out, except for a Yisrael who had relations with a Nochris. The foreskin of such a man stretches, and he does not appear like a Yisrael to Avraham. (Nevertheless, the possibility of even a brief time in Gehinom terrified R. Yochanan ben Zakai (Berachos 28b).)
(g)Objection (Rav Kahana): If "ha'Posh'im" means sinners who still sin, we should also say that "ha'Motzi [Eschem me'Eretz Mitzrayim]" and "ha'Ma'aleh [Eschem...]" are still happening! (Rashi; Maharsha - we cite "ha'Motzi Lecha Mayim mi'Tzur ha'Chalamish" (Devarim 8:15). Some say that 'ha'Motzi' (Shemos 6:7) regarding Yetzi'as Miztrayim refers to the future (Berachos 38a).)
1.Rather, it means that He was Motzi. Likewise, "ha'Posh'im" means people who sinned [while alive]!
(h)(R. Yirmeyah ben Elazar): There are three openings to Gehinom:
1.There is one in the Midbar [that swallowed the families of Korach, Dasan and Aviram] -- "va'Yerdu... Chayim She'olah";
2.There is one in the sea [where Yonah was] -- "mi'Beten She'ol Shivati";
3.There is one in Yerushalayim -- "Ne'um Hash-m Asher Ur Lo b'Tziyon... ";
i.(Tana d'vei R. Yishmael - Beraisa): "Asher Ur Lo b'Tziyon" is Gehinom. "V'Sanur Lo bi'Yrushalayim" is the opening to Gehinom.
(i)Question: There are more openings to Gehinom!
1.(R. Meryon): There are two date trees in Gei (the valley of) Ven Hinom. Smoke comes from between them;
2.We learned that [Lulavim of] Tzinei Har ha'Barzel are Kesherim. This refers to these two trees.
3.This is the opening to Gehinom.
(j)Answer: Perhaps that is the opening in Yerushalayim.
(k)(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Gehinom has seven names - She'ol, Avadon, Be'er Shachas, Bor Sha'on, Tit ha'Yaven, Tzalmaves and Eretz ha'Tachtis. (Maharshal - this is to instill Yir'as Shamayim in people);
1.We learn [six] from the following verses - "mi'Beten She'ol Shivati", "ha'Yesupar ba'Kever Chasdecha Emunascha ba'Avadon", "Ki Lo Sa'azov Nafshi li'Sh'ol Lo Siten Chasidcha Lir'os Shachas", "va'Ya'aleni mi'Bor Sha'on mi'Tit ha'Yaven", and "Yoshvei Choshech v'Tzalmaves";
2.We have a tradition for Eretz ha'Tachtis.
(l)Question: There are more names, e.g. Gehinom! (Yehoshua 18:16 mentions "Gei Hinom."
(m)Answer: That is not its name. It merely means the Gei (valley) as deep as Ven Hinom (mentioned in the same verse). Also, people go there due to Chinam (Maharsha - Arayos. Relatives agree to have relations for free, without a Kesuvah.)
(n)Question: It is also called Tafteh - "Ki Aruch me'Esmol Tafteh"!
(o)Answer: [That is not its name.] It means that anyone who is Mispateh (seduced by his Yetzer ha'Ra) falls there.
(p)(Reish Lakish): If Gan Eden is in Eretz Yisrael, the opening is Beis Sha'an. (It has the nicest fruits.) If it is in Araviya, the opening is Beis Garem. If it is between the mountains, its opening is Dumaskanin.
(q)In Bavel, Abaye praised the fruits from the other side of the Peras river. Rava praised the fruits of Herpanya.
2)THE DISTANCE BETWEEN PASIM
(a)(Mishnah): The distance between them [is the width of two teams of bulls... the bulls in each team are tied. They are not loose.]
(b)Objection: Obviously, if they are tied they are not loose!
(c)Answer: One might have thought that they are [close] as if they are tied, but they are not truly tied. 'They are not loose' teaches that they are truly tied.
(d)(Mishnah): One enters at the same time that the other leaves.
(e)(Beraisa): This means that one team enters at the same time that the other leaves.
(f)(Beraisa) Question: How much is Rosho v'Rubo of a cow? (The Mishnah requires this much room between the Pasim and the well.)
(g)Answer: It is two Amos.
(h)Question: What is the width of a cow?
(i)Answer #1 (R. Meir): It is one and two thirds Amos, [so the maximum distance between Pasim is six times as much,] about 10 Amos;
(j)Answer #2 (R. Yehudah): [The maximum distance is eight cow widths,] about 13 or 14 Amos.
(k)Question: Why did R. Meir say about 10 Amos? It is exactly 10!
(l)Answer: This is due to R. Yehudah, who says about 13.
(m)Question: It is more than 13! (It is 13 and a third.)
(n)Answer: This is why he says 'or 14.'
(o)Question: It is less than 14!
(p)Answer (Rav Papa): It is more than 13 and less than 14.
(q)(Rav Papa): All agree that straight Pasim [on the sides, between the corner-posts] are not needed for a pit that is eight [Amos by eight Amos. We need two Amos on each side of the pit for Rosho v'Rubo, in all 12 by 12 Amos. The corner posts are [at least] an Amah in each direction, so at most 10 Amos separate the corner posts];
1.All require straight Pasim for a pit 12 [by 12. There are two more Amos on each side, so in all it is 16 by 16], so the gap between corner posts is 14. (Likewise, if the pit exceeds 11 and a third, the gap exceeds 13 and a third. Rav Papa discusses only whole numbers. Presumably, Rav Papa holds that it does not help to make the corner posts wider; see Abaye's question below. Alternatively, he discusses the need for extra Pasim when the corner posts have minimal width - PF.)
2.They argue about a pit between eight and 12.
(r)Question: We already learn this from the Beraisa!
(s)Answer: Rav Papa taught the Beraisa's law because he did not hear the Beraisa.
3)MAY ONE WIDEN THE DEYUMADIM?
(a)Question (Abaye): According to R. Meir, if one made the Deyumadim wider to diminish the gap to 10, what is the law?
(b)Version #1 - Answer (Rabah - Mishnah): One may distance as much as desired, on condition that he is Marbeh (increases) b'Pasim.
1.Suggestion: This means that he adds to the width of the Deyumadim!
(c)Rejection: No, it means that he makes additional [straight] Pasim.
(d)Question: If so, it should have said 'he is Marbeh Pasim.' Marbeh b'Pasim connotes that he makes the Pasim bigger!
(e)Answer: Indeed, the Beraisa should say 'he is Marbeh Pasim'.
(f)Version #2 - Answer (Rabah - Mishnah): One may distance as much as desired, on condition that he is Marbeh (increases) b'Pasim.
1.Suggestion: This means that he makes additional [straight] Pasim.
(g)Rejection: No, it means that he adds to the width of the Deyumadim.
(h)Support: This is why it says 'he is Marbeh b'Pasim'. (end of Version #2)
(i)Question (Abaye): According to R. Yehudah, if the gap between Deyumadim is more than 13 and a third, how does one diminish the gap? Does he make additional Pasim, or add to the width of the Deyumadim?
(j)Version #1 - Answer (Rabah - Beraisa) Question: How big an area may be enclosed?
1.Answer #1: One may enclose even a Beis Kor (30 Sa'im) or two [or any amount];
2.Answer #2 (R. Yehudah): It can be up to Beis Sa'atayim, but no more.
3.Chachamim: Don't you agree that there is no limit for a Dir or Sahar (places where animals graze. They are considered Hukaf l'Dirah, for the shepherd stays there at night) or Rechavah or Chatzer!
4.R. Yehudah: Those are different, for a [proper] Mechitzah surrounds them. Mere Pasim surround the well.
5.Summation of answer: If he held that we add to the width of the Deyumadim, also they would be [proper] Mechitzos (to surround Beis Sa'atayim! Each side exceeds 70 Amos, and the Pirtzah (gap) is at most 13 and a third Amos, so the Omed is Merubah.)
(k)Rejection: He means that the Halachos of Mechitzah apply to a Dir [or Sahar...], so it cannot have a gap more than 10 Amos. The Halachos of Pasim apply to Pasei Bira'os, so the gap can be up to 13 and a third. (Therefore, we are not lenient to allow more than Beis Sa'atayim.)
4)WHAT IS KOSHER FOR DEYUMADIM?
(a)Question (Abaye): If a mound slopes 10 Tefachim over a stretch of four Amos [of incline], can it be used for a Deyumad?
(b)Answer (Rabah - Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): A square rock may be considered a Deyumad only if it could be divided and there would be an Amah in each direction;
1.R. Yishmael, son of R. Yochanan ben Brokah says, a round rock may be considered a Deyumad only if it could be carved [to be square] and divided and there would be an Amah in each direction.
2.Question: What do they argue about?
3.Answer: R. Shimon says Ro'im (we consider it as if...) only once (we consider it as if it was divided). R. Yishmael says Ro'im twice (we consider it to be carved and divided. Similarly, to be Machshir a mound we must say Ro'im twice, to consider it vertical, and as if it was divided!)
(c)Version #1 - Question (Abaye): Can a fence of sticks less than three Tefachim from each other be used for a Deyumad?
(d)Answer (Rabah - Beraisa): If there is a tree, fence or Chitzas ha'Kanim, one may use it for a Deyumad.
1.Suggestion: Chitzas ha'Kanim is a fence of sticks less than three Tefachim apart!
(e)Rejection: No, it discusses Gudriyasa of reeds. (Rashi - they grow out of a common stump, and branch out below 10 Tefachim. Rambam - it is a bundle of reeds.)
(f)Question: This is just like a tree, which was already taught in the Beraisa!
1.Counter-question: You say that it is sticks less than three Tefachim apart. This is just like a fence, which was already taught!
2.Answer: You must say that the Beraisa teaches about two types of fences (a solid fence, and a fence that relies on Lavud. Ga'on Yakov - even a solid fence is a Chidush. It 'was there', it was not made l'Shem Pasei Bira'os);
(g)Answer: Also I can say that the Beraisa teaches about two types of trees! (It is a Chidush to consider a tree to be carved and divided. Gudriyasa teaches that we also rely on Lavud. The branches separate below 10.)
(h)Version #2 - Question (Abaye): Can Gudriyasa be used for a Deyumad?
(i)Answer (Rabah - Beraisa): If there is a tree, fence or Chitzas ha'Kanim, one may use it for a Deyumad.
1.Suggestion: Chitzas ha'Kanim is Gudriyasa.
(j)Rejection: No, they are sticks less than three Tefachim apart.
(k)Question: This is just like a fence, which was already taught!
1.Counter-question: You say that it is Gudriyasa. This is just like a tree, which was already taught!
2.Answer: You must say that the Beraisa teaches about two kinds of trees.
(l)Answer: Also I can say that the Beraisa teaches about two kinds of fences!