[138a - 52 lines; 138b - 41 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

[1] Rashi 138b DH u'Meshani :

"Asu Rebbi Avin v'Rebbi Maisha l'Hanach"

The word "l'Hanach" appears to be unnecessary

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1)[line 1] MANEH BEN ARBA'IM SELA'IM (CURRENCY)

(a)Equivalents of coins and amounts used in the Gemara:

1 Maneh = 25 Sela'im = 100 Dinerin [of Kesef, silver]

1 Dinar Zahav = 25 Dinerin

1 Sela = 4 Dinerin

1 Dinar = 6 Ma'in

1 Me'ah = 2 Pundeyonin

1 Pundeyon = 2 Isarin

1 Isar = 6-8 Perutos (based on Kidushin 12a)

(b)Another name for a Dinar of Kesef is a Zuz. All of the coins listed above are silver except for the Dinar Zahav, which is gold, and the Perutos, which are copper.

(c)Our Gemara proves from the Tosefta (Kelim Bava Metzia 6:2) that there is another Maneh which is equivalent to forty Sela'im. As such, a Maneh and a half is sixty Sela'im, or 240 Dinerin.

2)[line 2]CHEMES- (O.F. bolzole) a leather shepherd's purse, made by sewing up the hide of an animal

3)[line 2]'' AF AL PI SHE'MEKABELES RIMONIM (TUM'AS KELIM)

(a)A utensil is considered ready to receive Tum'ah only after it is completely finished. If the artisan even decided that the utensil needs no more work, it is considered complete and may become Tamei. If the artisan afterwards decides to do more work on the utensil, it remains Tamei until an action is performed on the utensil that makes his intention clear (Kidushin 59a-b).

(b)The action that must be performed to change the status of a utensil must be an action that renders the utensil unfit for its original purpose. For example, if a tanner decided to use a hide as a rug, it may become Tamei from that moment on. If he then changes his mind and decides to make shoes out of it, it remains in its current status until he begins to cut the hide for shoes.

(c)A finished utensil such as the Chemes of our Gemara becomes Tahor when broken or ripped to the extent that it is unfit for ordinary use. It is considered fit for use even when punctured, unless the puncture leaves a hole large enough for a three-pomegranate bunch to fall through, at which point it becomes Tahor. However, if the utensil has not yet been finished, it is Tahor even if a hole much smaller than that size remains.

4)[line 5] PAKIYOS SHEL SHESI- balls of thread used for the warp (the longitudinal threads of the loom, which are thinner than the latitudinal threads)

5)[line 7] LO SHE'YILABNENU V'YITNENU LO- the requirement is not such that the Yisrael needs to clean the Reishis ha'Gez

6)[line 10]"[ ' ] [ ', .]""[KI VO BACHAR...] LA'AMOD LESHARES [B'SHEM HASH-M, HU U'VANAV KOL HA'YAMIM.]"- "[For HaSh-m has chosen him...] to stand to minister [in the Name of HaSh-m, him and his sons forever.]" (Devarim 18:5) - Since this verse is adjacent to the verse that commands the Mitzvah of Reishis ha'Gez, the Gemara learns that the fleece should be of a quantity that is enough to make the smallest of the Bigdei Kehunah.

7)[line 11] / AVNET / ME'IL (BIGDEI KEHUNAH: BIGDEI CHOHEN GADOL)

(a)A Kohen who performs the Divine Service must wear the proper Bigdei Kehunah in order to do so.

(b)The Kohen Gadol must wear the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol which are 1. Tzitz (forehead-plate), 2. Efod (apron), 3. Choshen (breastplate), 4. Me'il (robe), 5. Kutones (long shirt), 6. Michnasayim (breeches), 7. Avnet (belt), 8. Mitznefes (turban).

(c)The vestments of the ordinary Kohanim are 1. Kutones (long shirt), 2. Michnasayim (breeches), 3. Avnet (belt), 4. Migba'as (hat).

(d)A Kohen who performs the Divine Service while he is not dressed in the proper Bigdei Kehunah is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, as learned from the verse in Shemos 29:9 (Sanhedrin 83b), since they are considered like Zarim (see Background to Sanhedrin 83:1).

8)[line 12] ; TAFASTA MERUBAH LO TAFASTA; TAFASTA MU'AT TAFASTA - if you take hold of the larger amount you will not be able to grasp it, if you take hold of the smaller amount you will be able to grasp it

(a)This principle states that if one rules according to (lit. take hold of) the larger amount, one will not be able to retain that ruling (lit. to grasp it). If you rule according to (lit. take hold of) the smaller amount you will be able to retain that ruling (lit. to grasp it). That is, where a verse is teaching a number, quantity or size but it is unclear what that number, quantity or size is, we assume that it is referring to the smaller one. In our Gemara, the unknown item (the article of clothing from the Bigdei Kehunah for which there must be enough wool from the Reishis ha'Gez) may be the Me'il or the Avnet, which is smaller than the Me'il. We assume that it is referring to the Avnet.

(b)The logic behind this principle is that if one is faced with a choice of two numbers and is in doubt which to choose, choosing the smaller number is always preferable, regardless of which of the two numbers was actually the correct one (because included in the larger number is the smaller one). On the other hand, if the larger number is chosen, and the smaller one was the correct one, then an error will be made because the smaller number does not include the larger one. (RASHI, TOSFOS)

9)[line 13] KIPAH SHEL TZEMER- a [small] hat of felt, pressed wool

10)[line 15]TZITZ

The Tzitz is one of the eight Bigdei Kehunah of the Kohen Gadol (see above, entry #7). It is a thin gold plate on which was written "Kodesh la'Sh-m," and is worn on the forehead (Shemos 28:36-38; see Charts to Shabbos 63b). The Kohen Gadol was required to constantly keep his mind on it.

11)[line 15]" ..."V'SAMTA OSO AL PESIL TECHELES ..."- "and you shall place it upon a strand of wool that is dyed the color of Techeles ..." (Shemos 28:37) - Our Gemara states that the commandment of this verse is fulfilled by placing the Tzitz upon the Kipah Shel Tzemer (but see RASHI to Shemos ibid.)

12)[line 19] '' AVNETO SHEL KOHEN GADOL LO ZEHU AVNETO SHEL KOHEN HEDYOT- the belt worn by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim was unlike the one worn by the other Kohanim (and even by the Kohen Gadol himself) throughout the year (see next entry)

13)[line 22] ZEHU AVNETO SHEL KOHEN HEDYOT

(a)The Torah specifies that the belt that the Kohen Gadol wore on Yom ha'Kipurim (for the Avodah that was specific to Yom ha'Kipurim) was made of pure linen (Vayikra 16:4). The belt that he wore during the rest of the year was made of Kil'ayim (a mixture of linen and wool - Shemos 39:29). The Torah does not specify what material was used to make the belt of a Kohen Hedyot (who wore the same type of belt throughout the year).

(b)The Tana'im and Amora'im argue as to what material was used to make the belt of a Kohen Hedyot. One opinion rules that a Kohen Hedyot wore a belt of pure linen, like the Kohen Gadol wore on Yom ha'Kipurim, while others rule that he wore a belt of Kil'ayim, like the Kohen Gadol wore during the rest of the year.

14)[line 24] GAZAZ U'MACHAR RISHONAH- if he sheared the first sheep and sold it (the sheep) before shearing the second

15)[line 33] SHE'HIKNAN LO KOL SHELOSHIM YOM- that he sold it to him for a fixed amount of time, e.g. thirty days, in which time they belonged to him

16)[line 35] SHIYURA GABEI MOCHER- a "remnant" in the possession of the seller

17)[line 37] HA'MOCHER KILCHEI ILAN- one who sells the "stems" of trees (i.e. the actual trees that grow in grain fields, without selling the ground under them)

18)[line 50]MATANOS

See Background to Chulin 134:29.

138b----------------------------------------138b

PEREK #12 SHILU'ACH HA'KEN

19)[line 7] SHILU'ACH HA'KEN

It is forbidden to take a mother bird that is sitting on her nest together with the eggs or baby birds; rather, one must first send the mother away as prescribed in Devarim (22:7). If someone doesn't send the mother away, he transgresses both a positive and a negative commandment (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #544, 545).

20)[line 9] KISUY HA'DAM

There is a Mitzvah to cover the blood of all birds and Kosher non-farm animals (Chayos) that are slaughtered, as it states in Vayikra (17:13) "v'Ish Ish... Asher Yatzud Tzeid Chayah O Of Asher Ye'achel, v'Shafach Es Damo v'Chisahu b'Afar" - "And any person... who shall capture game consisting of Kosher non-farm animals, or Kosher birds that are eaten, he shall spill its blood and cover it with earth." The blood must be covered from above and below with earth or any similar granular substance.

21)[line 11]MEZUMAN- (lit. prepared) on hand, as opposed to being chanced upon in the field

22)[line 14] AVAZIM V'TARNEGOLIM SHE'KINENU B'FARDES- geese and chickens that [escaped from their owner's yard and] nested in an orchard

23)[line 15] YONEI HARDISA'OS- (a) pigeons from a place with this name (see RASHASH to Beitzah 24a); (b) Herodian pigeons; carrier pigeons

24)[line 18] KOREI ZACHAR- a male Korei bird (possibly the partridge; it is not the cuckoo since this Korei is a kosher bird - RASHI to Daf 140a DH Rebbi Eliezer; TOSFOS to Chulin 63a DH Netz. Rashi to Yirmeyahu 17:11 explains that it is the cuckoo; apparently this name can refer to any of a number of birds.)

25)[line 21] REISHIS HA'GEZ

See Background to Chulin 135:1.

26)[line 25] OSO V'ES BENO

(a)It is forbidden to slaughter a cow, female sheep or female goat and her offspring on the same day, as it states in Vayikra 22:28, "v'Shor O Seh, Oso v'Es Beno Lo Sishchatu b'Yom Echad."

(b)At certain times of year (as enumerated in the Mishnah Daf 83a), it is assumed that one who buys an animal buys it in order to slaughter it immediately and use its meat. Therefore, the seller must inform the buyer if he sold the animal's mother (or offspring) on that day, so that the buyer will not transgress the prohibition of slaughtering the offspring (or the mother) on the same day that the mother (or the offspring) was slaughtered.

27)[line 30] GID HA'NASHEH

(a)The Gid ha'Nasheh is the sciatic nerve, the large main nerve of the lower extremity, running down the back of the leg. Eating the part of the Gid ha'Nasheh that is located on the rounded part of flesh ("Kaf") that is situated on the hipbone is prohibited by the Torah (Bereishis 32:33). Rebbi Yehudah (Pesachim 83b, Chulin 90b) rules that the prohibition only applies to one leg. There is a question whether he says that it "definitely applies" or "most likely applies" to the right leg. According to the other Tana'im, the prohibition applies to both legs (and the Halachah follows this opinion).

(b)The prohibition against eating the Gid ha'Nasheh applies only to wild or domestic four-legged animals but not to birds.

(c)Besides the Gid that is prohibited by the Torah, the Rabanan prohibited certain nearby fats and nerves.

(d)Rebbi Yehudah (Chulin 100b) states that Gid ha'Nasheh was prohibited to the sons of Yakov, who were considered Benei Noach before HaSh-m gave the Torah to Benei Yisrael on Mount Sinai. The Rabanan argue, claiming that the prohibition was only given to Benei Yisrael on Mount Sinai. HaSh-m, however, instructed Moshe to write the verse along with the story of Yakov as an injunction for the future, to reveal the reason for the prohibition (see Background to Chulin 89:34a). Even Rebbi Yehudah agrees that only Benei Yisrael, and not all Benei Noach, were commanded not to eat the Gid ha'Nasheh, as the verse states, "Al Ken Lo Yochlu Vnei Yisrael Es Gid Ha'Nasheh..." (Bereishis ibid.).

28)[line 36]"[... .] [ , ; , .]""[... LO SIKACH HA'EM AL HA'BANIM.] SHALE'ACH TESHALACH ES HA'EM, [V'ES HA'BANIM TIKACH LACH ...]"- "[... you shall not take the mother with the young.] Send away the mother [bird, and you may then take the young; in order that Hash-m benefit you, and that you your days be prolonged.]" (Devarim 22:6-7)

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