1)ANOTHER ENACTMENT OF YEHOSHUA
(a)Question: Ravin said that R. Yochanan taught that if the foliage of Reuven's tree extends into Shimon's field, or if Reuven's tree is planted on the border of Shimon's field, Reuven may bring Bikurim and recite ("...the land that You (Hash-m) gave to me...", even though it did not (fully) grow in Reuven's land). Yehoshua made the inheritance of Eretz Yisrael conditional on this enactment.
(b)Answer: Indeed, the teaching about Yehoshua's 10 enactments is not a Beraisa, rather, a teaching of R. Yehoshua ben Levi. R. Yochanan argues with R. Yehoshua ben Levi.
1.Rav Gaviha recited this teaching in R. Yehoshua ben Levi's name.
(a)Ezra made 10 enactments:
1.We read the Torah at Minchah on Shabbos;
2.We read the Torah on Mondays and Thursdays;
3.Beis Din sits to judge on Mondays and Thursdays;
4.One should launder clothes on Thursday;
5.We eat garlic on Shabbos night;
6.A woman should rise early on Erev Shabbos and bake (bread);
7.A woman should wear a Sinar (underpants);
8.A woman should wash her hair before immersing;
9.(Perfume) peddlers should go around in cities;
10.One who had an emission of seed must immerse.
(b)We read the Torah at Minchah on Shabbos.
1.This is for the sake of idle people who do not come to hear it on Mondays and Thursdays.
(c)We read the Torah on Mondays and Thursdays.
(d)Question: This was enacted before Ezra (in the days of Moshe)!
1.(Beraisa): "They traveled three days in the wilderness, and did not find water" - expounders say that this refers to Torah - "all who are thirsty should come to water."
2.Because they went three days without Torah, they wearied. Prophets among them enacted to read the Torah on Shabbos, Mondays and Thursdays, so there would never be three days without Torah.
(e)Answer: At first, they enacted that one man read three verses, or alternatively, that three men will read one verse each;
1.Three corresponds to Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim.
2.Ezra enacted that three men should read 10 verses, corresponding to the 10 men who have no job and are always in Beis ha'Keneses.
(f)Beis Din sits to judge on Mondays and Thursdays.
1.This is because people come to the city on those days to hear the Torah.
(g)One should launder clothes on Thursday.
1.This is to honor Shabbos (so he will have freshly laundered clothing for Shabbos. Nevertheless, one should not launder on Friday, lest he not have enough time to prepare the other needs of Shabbos).
(h)We eat garlic on Shabbos night.
1.This is because (garlic increases semen, and) Shabbos is the ideal time for Bi'ah - "(Hash-m) will give its fruit in its time";
i.(Rav Yehudah): The verse discusses one who has Bi'ah only on Shabbos nights.
2.(Beraisa): Garlic does five things: it satiates, it warms a person, it makes his countenance radiant, it increases a man's seed, and it kills intestinal lice.
i.Some say, it also increases love and dispels envy.
(i)A woman should rise early on Erev Shabbos and bake (bread).
1.This is so bread will be available for the poor.
(j)A woman should wear a Sinar.
1.This is a safeguard from immorality.
(k)A woman should wash her hair before immersing.
(l)Question: The Torah requires this!
1."He will wash Es Besaro (his flesh) in water" - nothing should separate between his flesh and the water;
2."Es Besaro" includes what is secondary to his flesh.
3.Question: What is this?
4.Answer: It is hair.
(m)Answer: Mid'Oraisa, it suffices to look if any hairs are tied, or if anything is in the hair;
1.Ezra enacted that she must wash it.
(n)Peddlers should go around in cities.
1.This is so that perfume will be available to women, lest they become repulsive to their husbands.
(o)One who had an emission of seed must immerse.
(p)Question: This is mid'Oraisa!
1."A man who will have an emission of seed... will wash his flesh in water."
(q)Answer: The Torah obligates him to immerse before eating Terumah or Kodshim. Ezra obligated him to immerse before Talmud Torah.
3)THE UNIQUENESS OF YERUSHALAYIM
(a)(Beraisa): Ten things are special about Yerushalayim:
1.If one sells a house in Yerushalayim, he may redeem it whenever he wants (if he does not, it returns to him in Yovel);
2.Yerushalayim does not behead a calf (even if it is the closest city to a murdered corpse);
3.It cannot become an Ir ha'Nidachas (normally, if the majority of its residents of a city were convicted for serving idolatry, we burn the entire city );
4.Houses in Yerushalayim do not become Tamei through Tzara'as;
5.We may not have beams or balconies sticking out of houses;
6.We do not make waste-heaps in the city;
7.We do not have furnaces (to make pottery) in the city;
8.We do not have gardens or orchards in the city, except for the rose gardens (which were needed for the incense) from the days of the first prophets;
9.We do not raise chickens in the city;
10.We do not leave a corpse overnight in the city.
(b)(Beraisa): If one sells a house in Yerushalayim, he may redeem it whenever he wants.
1.Normally, one may not redeem a house in a walled city after one year, like it says "the house in the walled city will remain the buyer's forever, for his generations." However, the Tana of this Beraisa holds that Yerushalayim was not divided among the tribes. Any city that was not divided among the tribes returns to its original owner in Yovel, whether or not it has a wall. (It is likewise excluded from any law regarding which the Torah discusses 'your land' or 'your inheritance.')
(c)(Beraisa): Yerushalayim does not behead a calf.
1.It says "if you will find a corpse in the land that Hash-m gives it you for an inheritance."
(d)(Beraisa): It cannot become an Ir ha'Nidachas.
1.It says "(If people will serve idolatry in one of) your cities".
2.(Beraisa): Houses in Yerushalayim do not become Tamei through Tzara'as.
3.It says "...Tzara'as in a house of the land of your inheritance".
(e)(Beraisa): We may not have beams or balconies sticking out of houses.
1.Such protrusions can impart Tum'ah (if one is under them at the same time as Tum'as Mes is under them); also, people coming for the festival may get hurt on them.
(f)(Beraisa): We do not make waste-heaps in the city.
1.Sheratzim (rodents) breed in waste-heaps (Sheratzim spread Tum'ah).
(g)(Beraisa): We do not have furnaces (to make pottery) in the city.
1.They make smoke, which would blacken the city wall. That would be a disgrace.
(h)(Beraisa): We do not have gardens or orchards in the city.
1.This is because people cast out weeds. Also, they fertilize them with rotting manure.
(i)(Beraisa): We do not raise chickens in the city.
1.They can cause Tum'ah to Kodshim.
(j)(Beraisa): We do not leave a corpse overnight in the city.
1.We have a tradition for this.
4)RAISING PIGS AND CHOCHMAS YEVANIS
(a)We may not raise pigs anywhere.
(b)(Beraisa): When the Chashmonai kings were fighting each other, Hurkenus was inside Yerushalayim, and Aristobulus was besieging it from outside. Every day, those inside lowered a basket of coins over the wall, and those outside gave them lambs for the Tamid (daily Korban), which were lifted over the wall.
1.An elder told the besiegers, in the language of Chochmas Yevanis, that they will not conquer it as long as the Korbanos are brought. The next day, the besiegers gave a pig instead of lambs. When the pig was halfway up, it stuck its claws into the wall. All of Eretz Yisrael shook 400 Parsah by 400 Parsah (about 1600 kilometers).
i.Chachamim imposed a curse on anyone who will raise pigs or teach his son Chochmas Yevanis.
2.Regarding that period we learned that the Omer offering was brought from barley from the Gagos Tzrifin (a place far from Yerushalayim, because the grain nearby was destroyed) and the two loaves brought on Shavuos were brought from wheat of Ein Socher.