30) [line 2] BASAR SHEVARIM SHADINAN LEI - do we (lit. throw it) group it together with the [first two times that it gored] oxen
31) [line 6] CHAMOR V'GAMAL SHOR SHOR V'SHOR, MAHU? - if it gored a donkey, a camel, and then three oxen, what is the Halachah? RASHI and TOSFOS DH Shor explain that this question assumes that the answer to the previous one is that the animal becomes a Mu'ad for Shevarim. There are two ways to understand such a ruling. One is that we always view the first three times that an animal attacks to be one unit. The other is that is reasonable to assume that the three attacks on oxen were a unit since the animal attacked the same species of animal. If the latter is true, then it could be that even if the final three attacks were on the same species, then they should be viewed as a single unit.
32) [line 20] TEIKU - An Unanswered Question
(a) The Gemara often leaves a question unanswered with the word "Teiku". The PRI MEGADIM (Igeres preceding his introduction to Orach Chaim, #9) cites three explanations for this term:
1. [this question shall remain] sealed in its container (ARUCH, Erech Tik)
2. let [the question] stand ("Tehei Ka'I"; MUSAF HA'ARUCH)
3. Tishbi Yetaretz Kushyos v'Ibayos - Eliyahu ha'Navi will answer difficulties and questions (TOSFOS YOM TOV, end of Eduyos)
33) [line 21] YOM TES ZAYIN B'CHODESH ZEH - the sixteenth day of the next month
34) [line 22] PELUGTA D'RAV U'SHMUEL - [whether or not this animal has become a Mu'ad to gore in intervals of a month and a day] is dependant upon a disagreement between Rav and Shmuel
35) [line 22] RA'ASAH ... KAV'AH LAH VESES (NIDAH: KEVI'US VESES - The Establishment of a Regular Menstrual Cycle)
(a) By Torah Law, a woman is a Nidah for seven days following her period, whether she saw blood only once or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she may immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah.
(b) One may not have relations nor engage in intimate contact with his wife while she is a Nidah. Doing so is punishable by Kares (Vayikra 18:19,29; see Background to Yevamos 49:2). She also has the status of an Av ha'Tum'ah (see Background to 4:43).
(c) A Veses refers to a woman's menstrual cycle. If a woman has a fixed menstrual cycle (a "Veses Kavu'a"), then she may assume that she will menstruate on the expected day. If she does not have a fixed menstrual cycle (a "Veses she'Eino Kavu'a"), then she must assume that she will menstruate at the same time that she had done so on her previous month. On the day that a woman expects to menstruate she is prohibited to her husband whether or not she actually experiences bleeding.
(d) The Gemara (Nidah 63 (see Chart there) and elsewhere) and Rishonim discuss various ways in which a women establishes a Veses Kavu'a:
1. VESES HA'GUF - Menstruation whose onset is marked by specific bodily functions such as sneezing, aches, etc. (Mishnah Nidah 63a);
2. VESES B'ONES - Menstruation brought on by an external factor. This type of Veses can be further categorized into two sub-categories:
a. A Veses b'Ones that indirectly causes the onset of the Veses, such as that which follows the consumption of garlic, onions, or peppercorns (Gemara Nidah 63b; see TOSFOS DH Achlah)
b. A Veses b'Ones that directly causes the onset of the Veses, such as that which follows jumping or another physical activities (Nidah 11a; see TOSFOS ibid.);
3. VESES HAFLAGAH - Menstruation that occurs at intervals, such as a cycle that repeats every x number of days. A woman must observe four cycles in order to record three intervals;
5. VESES HA'CHODESH - Menstruation that occurs on a specific calendar date, even though the intervals are uneven due to that which not every month has the same amount of days;
6. VESES YAMIM - Menstruation that occurs on a specific day of the week, such as every third Sunday (RAMBAN to Nidah 64a citing TOSFOS).
(e) Certain Vestos Kavu'a can be established in a limited manner or through a combination of factors. Examples include:
1. L'DILUGIN - A Veses in which the trigger increases incrementally, e.g., she menstruates after intervals of 28, 29, and 30 days;
2. L'SEIRUGIN - A Veses in which the trigger alternates, e.g. she menstruates on every second Rosh Chodesh;
3. L'SHA'AH KEVU'AH - A Veses in which the trigger occurs at a certain time of day, e.g., after she eats garlic at sunrise (BEIS YOSEF to YD 189, citing the RA'AVAD in BA'ALEI HA'NEFESH)
4. TZEIRUF - A Veses that is established by a combination of two factors, e.g., menstruation that occurs after she jumps on Rosh Chodesh.
(f) There are two possible differences between a Veses Kavu'a and a Veses she'Eino Kavu'a:
1. A woman with a Veses Kavu'a does not become Teme'ah retroactively for the twenty-four hours prior to the onset of her menstruation. According to some Tana'im, however, a woman with a Veses she'Eino Kavu'a does become Teme'ah retroactively for the twenty-four hours prior to the onset of her menstruation (Metamei me'Es l'Es).
2. According to those who maintain that the Halachos of Vestos are mid'Oraisa in origin (Nidah 16a), a woman with a Veses Kavu'a becomes Teme'ah at the time that she expects to begin menstruating even if she did not conduct an internal examination at that time, and even if she found no blood afterward.
36) [line 25] AD SHE'TESHALESH B'DILUG - [she has not established a Veses Kavu'a] until she has had three intervals [that require four menstrual cycles] (See Insights)
37) [line 25] SHAMA KOL SHOFAR - [if an ox] heard the sound of a Shofar
38) [line 28] SIYUTA B'ALMA HU D'NAKTEI - it was merely seized by a fright [and gored due to the fact that it was startled, and therefore that first time should not count toward Mu'adus]
39a) [line 30] SHOR SHEL HEKDESH - a sanctified ox [that is either designated as a Korban or whose value is sanctified to the fund of the Beis ha'Mikdash]
b) [line 31] SHOR SHEL HEDYOT - a privately owned ox
40) [line 31] "[V'CHI YIGOF SHOR ISH ES] SHOR RE'EHU ..." - "[And if a man's ox shall gore] his fellow's ox [and it shall die, then they shall sell the live ox and split its value, and split the dead ox as well]" (Shemos 21:35). The words "his fellow ox" imply that the damaged ox belongs to a contemporary.
41) [line 33] (KENA'ANI) [NOCHRI] - This word was changed by the censor.
42) [line 40] AMREI - [the scholars in the Beis ha'Midrash discussing this Mishnah] said
43) [line 43] KA MAISI LEI - he derives it
44) [line 45] DAYO L'BA MIN HA'DIN LIHEYOS KA'NIDON - it is enough for that which is derived from a Kal va'Chomer to be equal to the source from which it is derived
45) [line 46] HA'KOL HAYU BI'CHLAL NEZEK SHALEM - all [situations of one animal damaging that belonging to another] were included in [the obligation to pay] full damages [that is written regarding a Mu'ad] (Shemos 21:36, where the limitation of "Re'ehu" does not appear)
Index to Background for Maseches Bava Kama