1)BREAD MADE FOR KUTACH
(a)(R. Chiya - Beraisa #1): Bread made for Kutach (it was baked in the sun, not in an oven) is exempt from Chalah.
(b)Contradiction (Beraisa #2): Chalah must be taken from it.
(c)Resolution (Seifa of Beraisa #2 - R. Yehudah): Its shape reveals the intent -- if it was formed into thick buns (i.e. it was intended to be bread), it is obligated; if it is in strips, it is exempt.
(d)Question (Abaye): What blessing do we make on Kuva d'Ar'a?
(e)Answer (Rav Yosef): Do you think that it is bread?! No, it is merely [baked] dough, one blesses Borei Minei Mezonos.
(f)Mar Zutra established his meal on it; he blessed ha'Motzi and Birkas ha'Mazon.
(g)(Mar bar Rav Ashi): [If it is Matzah,] one can fulfill the Mitzvah of Matzah with it.
(h)Question: What is the reason?
(i)Answer: It is "Lechem Ani" (poor man's bread).
2)THINGS THAT CHANGED FORM
(a)(Mar bar Rav Ashi): One blesses sheha'Kol on date honey.
(b)Question: What is the reason?
(c)Answer: It is a mere extract, it is not the essence of the fruit.
(d)This is like the following Tana: Rebbi Yehoshua
1.(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): If Terumah fruit was used to make date honey, apple wine, vinegar (from grapes that never ripen), or other fruit juice:
i.If a non-Kohen drinks it by accident, he gives juice of Chulin to the Kohen (and it becomes Terumah); he gives as much as he ate plus an added fifth.
ii.R. Yehoshua exempts [from the added fifth, if it belonged to a Kohen; if it had not yet been given to a Kohen, he is totally exempt).
(e)Question (a Talmid): What is the law of Trima (something crushed, not minced)?
1.Rava did not understand the question.
(f)Ravina: Do you refer to [oil of] crushed sesame, or crushed saffron (which is added to wine), or crushed grapes (to make raisin wine from the pits)?
(g)Rava now understood, and said, "Surely, you ask about something crushed; you reminded me of Rav Asi's teaching":
1.(Rav Asi): It is permitted to crush Terumah dates (they are still considered dates), it is forbidden to make beer from them.
(h)The Halachah is, one blesses Borei Pri ha'Etz on crushed dates.
(i)Question: What is the reason?
(j)Answer: They are still considered dates.
(k)(Rav): One blesses sheha'Kol on Shesisa (made of flour ground from parched grain, oil and water).
(l)(Shmuel): One blesses Borei Minei Mezonos.
(m)(Rav Chisda): They do not argue -- Shmuel discusses thick Shesisa, Rav discusses thin Shesisa;
1.Thick Shesisa is made to be eaten, thin Shesisa is for a cure.
(n)Question (Rav Yosef - Beraisa): All agree that one may mix Shesus on Shabbos, and one may drink Zesum ha'Mitzri (a drink that relieves constipation or diarrhea).
1.If Shesisa was for a cure, it would be forbidden to make it on Shabbos!
(o)Answer (Abaye): Surely, it is permitted!
1.(Mishnah): One may eat and drink any food and drink (normally eaten by healthy people) for the sake of a cure on Shabbos.
2.Version #1: You must say that he intends it as food; here also, he intends it as food!
3.Version #2: You must say, he intends it as food, and incidentally he is cured as well; here also, he intends it as food, and incidentally he is cured as well!
(p)We need Rav's teaching:
1.The Mishnah teaches only that when he intends it as food, we are not concerned that incidentally he is also cured, but when he intends to be cured, one might have thought that he does not bless at all; Rav teaches, this is not so.
3)THE BLESSING FOR BREAD
(a)(Mishnah): On bread we say ha'Motzi...
(b)(Beraisa): One says ha'Motzi Lechem Min ha'Aretz;
(c)R. Nechemyah says, one says Motzi Lechem Min ha'Aretz.
(d)(Rava): All agree that "Motzi" means "He took out" -- "Kel Motzi'am mi'Mitzrayim" (said after Yetzi'as Mitzrayim) -- they argue about "ha'Motzi";
1.Chachamim say that it also means took out -- "ha'Motzi Lecha Mayim mi'Tzur ha'Chalamish";
2.R. Nechemyah says that it means "He will take out" -- "ha'Motzi Eschem mi'Tachas Sivlos Mitzrayim" (this was said before Yetzi'as Mitzrayim).
3.Chachamim explain, Hash-m told Yisrael, "When I will take you out, I will do wonders for you to make you know that I took you out" -- "vi'Yedatem Ki Ani Hash-m Elokechem ha'Motzi..."
(e)Rabanan were praising Rav Zevid's son to R. Zeira, that he is a great sage and an expert in the laws of blessings; Rav Zevid's son once visited R. Zeira and said "Motzi" on bread.
(f)R. Zeira: They say that he is an expert on Berachos?!
1.Had he said "ha'Motzi," we would have learned the meaning of the verse and that the Halachah follows Chachamim;
2.But by saying "Motzi," he did not teach us anything!
(g)He said "Motzi" to fulfill his obligation according to all opinions.
(h)The Halachah follows Chachamim, one says ha'Motzi, it means "took out."
4)THE BLESSING FOR SHELAKOS
(a)(Mishnah): On Yerek (vegetables) we say...
(b)Yerek was taught immediately after bread, to teach that the Mishnah is referring to a type of Yerek that is like bread, i.e. it changed through fire (cooking or baking);
(c)(Ravnai): This teaches that one blesses Borei Pri ha'Adamah on Shelakos (cooked vegetables).
(d)(Rav Chisda citing Rav): One blesses Borei Pri ha'Adamah on Shelakos.
(e)(Ula citing R. Yochanan): One blesses sheha'Kol.
(f)(Ula himself): [Rav and R. Yochanan do not argue.] Anything for which we say [when raw] Borei Pri ha'Adamah, if it was cooked we say sheha'Kol; anything for which we say [when raw] sheha'Kol, if it was cooked we say Borei Pri ha'Adamah.
(g)Question: We understand the latter clause -- [it refers to vegetables such as] cabbage, beets and gourds [that are normally eaten cooked]; when raw the blessing is sheha'Kol, when cooked it is Borei Pri ha'Adamah;
1.But on what do we bless Borei Pri ha'Adamah when it is raw, and sheha'Kol when it is cooked?
(h)Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): It applies to garlic and leeks.
(i)(Rav Nachman citing Shmuel): One blesses Borei Pri ha'Adamah on Shelakos; Ula cited R. Yochanan to say sheha'Kol;
(j)Rav Nachman: I say that they argue (like the following Tana'im):
1.(Beraisa - R. Meir): One may fulfill the Mitzvah of eating Matzah with a wafer [even if it was] soaked [in water], or if it was cooked but did not dissolve;
2.R. Yosi says, one is Yotzei with a soaked wafer, but not if it was cooked, even if it did not dissolve.
3.(R. Yosi holds that cooked bread is not called bread; likewise, cooking changes the blessing for the food; R. Meir holds that cooking changes neither.)
(k)Rejection: No, all agree that one blesses Borei Pri ha'Adamah on Shelakos;
1.R. Yosi disqualifies cooked Matzah because it loses the taste of Matzah, but he agrees that vegetables do not lose their Berachah.
(l)(R. Chiya bar Aba citing R. Yochanan): One blesses Borei Pri ha'Adamah on Shelakos.
(m)(R. Binyamin bar Yefes citing R. Yochanan): One blesses sheha'Kol.
1.(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Ula adopted R. Binyamin's mistake.
2.R. Zeira: Why do we mention R. Binyamin's opinion with R. Chiya bar Aba's?! R. Chiya bar Aba learns meticulously from R. Yochanan and reviews his learning every 30 days in front of R. Yochanan, R. Binyamin does neither of these;
3.Also, R. Yochanan said that one blesses Borei Pri ha'Adamah on Tormesa (a bean) that is cooked seven times in a pot and eaten for dessert.
(n)(R. Chiya bar Aba): I saw R. Yochanan eat a salted (i.e. pickled) olive, he blessed before and after eating it.
(o)Question: We understand this if Shelakos retain their blessing (pickling is like cooking); he blessed Borei Pri ha'Etz beforehand, and me'Ein Shalosh afterwards;
1.But if Shelakos lose their blessing, he blessed sheha'Kol beforehand, but what did he bless afterwards?!
(p)Answer: Perhaps he blessed Borei Nefashos!
(q)Question (R. Yitzchak bar Shmuel - Mishnah): One may fulfill the Mitzvah of Maror by eating the vegetables (that are considered Maror) or their stalks, but not if they were pickled, Shelukim (thoroughy cooked) or cooked.
1.If Shelakos keep their original status, one should fulfill the Mitzvah of Maror with them even if they were cooked!
(r)Answer: He is not Yotzei because we require the taste of Maror, which is lost through cooking.