[45a - 34 lines; 45b - 55 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 45b [line 20]:
The words "she'Ein Birkas ha'Mazon Beineihem" שאין ברכת המזון ביניהם
should be "she'Ein Birkas ha'Zimun Beineihem" שאין ברכת הזימון ביניהם
This is the Girsa of Rashi and appears to be more correct, based on the context of the Sugya (Dikdukei Sofrim, Rashba, and Ritva also have the Girsa ha'Zimun).
 Tosfos 45b DH Ha b'Voneh : ד"ה הא בבונה
The words "b'Chol Berachah u'Verachah" בכל ברכה וברכה
should be "b'Chol Siyum Berachah*" בכל סיום ברכה
(As is evident from the words of Tosfos ha'Rosh.)
1)[line 1]חנקתיה אומצאCHANKASEI UMTZA- a piece of meat was stuck in his throat
2)[line 4]פוק חזי מאי עמא דברPUK CHAZI MAI AMA DEVAR- go out and see how the people on the outside [of the Beis ha'Midrash] act
PEREK #7 SHELOSHAH SHE'ACHLU
3)[line 6]לזמןL'ZAMEN (BIRKAS ZIMUN)
(a)When three or more Jewish males eat together at a meal that contains bread, they are required to recite the Zimun, which is an invitation to those present to get ready to bless HaSh-m for the food He provided. The Zimun precedes Birkas ha'Mazon, and is in responsive form. When ten or more men eat together, the Zimun is slightly changed, adding a name of HaSh-m explicitly.
(b)Birkas ha'Zimun (the correct Girsa in Rebbi Zeira's statement on Daf 45b, see Girsa section #1) is the name of this introduction to Birkas ha'Mazon, according to most Rishonim. Rashi to Berachos 46a DH deka'Savar, however, according to one Amora in the Gemara, explains that Birkas ha'Zimun refers to the introduction plus the first Berachah of Birkas ha'Mazon ("Birkas ha'Zan").
(a)Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance; see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" - "What is this?").
(b)Yochanan Kohen Gadol decreed that Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. Terumah Gedolah, however, because of its stringency, is presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but they are eaten by the owner and not given to the Levi or the Ani (in keeping with the principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").
5)[line 7]מעשר ראשוןMA'ASER RISHON / MA'ASER SHENI
(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated Ma'aser Rishon, and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).
(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there by its owner. Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon, redemption - see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5). Once the Ma'aser Sheni produce enters the walls of Yerushalayim, it may not be redeemed. It is considered "Niklat," "captured" by the walls.
(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.
6)[line 8]שמשSHAMASH- a butler
7)[line 9]כותיKUSI (KUSIM, SAMARITANS)
(a)The king of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron (Melachim II 17:24). They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions (ibid. 17:25-28). The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos - converts because of lions).
(b)After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.)
(c)The Kusim kept many Mitzvos of the Torah down to their last detail. For example, Matzos that were baked by the Kusim, besides being perfectly free of Chometz, were fit to be used for the Mitzvah d'Oraisa of eating a k'Zayis of Matzah Shemurah on the Seder night (Tosefta Pesachim 2:2, Kidushin 76a). As is evident from another Sugya (Chulin 3a), they were also meticulous with regard to Shechitah. However, there were other Mitzvos that they did not keep at all. For example, the Kusim did not refrain from causing others to sin (which is prohibited by the verse, "Lifnei Iver Lo Siten Michshol" - "You shall not put a stumbling block before the blind" - Vayikra 19:14). They interpreted this verse literally, stating that it only applies to a stumbling block, and only before the blind.
(d)Our Gemara (Daf 47b) records another Halachah of the Kusim, namely that they were very meticulous to separate Terumos and Ma'asros, since their obligation is mentioned in the Torah.
8)[line 27]ימעך הקורא קולוYEMA'ECH HA'KOREI KOLO- the reader shall lower his voice
9)[line 7]איכא דעותIKA DEI'OS- Although 100 women are quantitatively considered as two men and do not have an obligation to perform Zimun, qualitatively they have the importance (lit. they are separate minds) that allows them to perform Zimun.
10)[line 9]פריצותאPERITZUSA- lewdness
11)[line 24]מקמי דנחית לבבלMEKAMEI D'NACHIS L'BAVEL- before he went down to Bavel
12)[line 36]בורBUR- an ignoramus
13)[line 41]איהו וחדIHU V'CHAD- he (Rav Papa) and another person
14)[line 44]מופלגMUFLAG- distinguished (i.e. the greatest Torah scholar)
15)[line 48]אין זימון למפרעEIN ZIMUN L'MAFRE'A- Zimun cannot be said after Birkas ha'Mazon
16a)[line 54]בקלאB'KALA- out loud
b)[last line]בלחישאB'LECHISHA- in a whisper