BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
The numbers that appear next to certain entries represent the number assigned to those items in the diagram of the Beis ha'Mikdash of the Tiferes Yisrael (e.g. TY #43). This diagram, which was included in a separate mailing and can be found on our site, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (in Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).
[22a - 59 lines; 22b - 53 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 22a [line 34]:
"Matzi'a Es ha'Gemara, Mesayei'a Lei l'Rebbi Ila'i, d'Amar Rebbi Ila'i" מציע את הגמרא מסייע ליה לרבי אלעאי דאמר רבי אלעאי
Rashi's Girsa is:
"Matzi'a Es ha'Gemara, Amar Rebbi Ila'i" מציע את הגמרא אמר רבי אלעאי
 Gemara [line 48]:
The words "she'Lo Yehu Talmidei Chachamim Metzuyim" שלא יהו תלמידי חכמים מצויים
should be "she'Lo Yehu Talmidim Metzuyim" שלא יהו תלמידים מצויים
This is the Girsa in Dikdukei Sofrim #5. This is also the intention of Rashi DH Chad Tani.
 Gemara [line 58]:
The words "v'Rebbi Yehudah Gelustera" ורבי יהודה גלוסטרא
should be "v'Rebbi Yehudah Kelustera'ah" ורבי יהודה קלוסטראה (Dikdukei Sofrim #10)
 Rashi 22a DH Tiken Chatzba : ד"ה תקן חצבא
The words "Liten Mayim la'Talmidim Aleihem" ליתן מים לתלמידים עליהם
should be "Liten Mayim la'Talmidim she'Yitnu Aleihem" ליתן מים לתלמידים שיתנו עליהם (M. KORNFELD)
 Gemara 22b [line 27]:
The words "v'Chad me'Hai Zuga a'Reisha, Chad Amar" וחד מהאי זוגא ארישא חד אמר
should be "v'Chad me'Hai Zuga a'Reisha, v'Chad me'Hai Zuga v'Chad me'Hai Zuga a'Seifa, Chad me'Hai Zuga a'Reisha, Chad Amar" וחד מהאי זוגא ארישא וחד מהאי זוגא וחד מהאי זוגא אסיפא חד מהאי זוגא ארישא חד אמר (Dikdukei Sofrim #80)
 Tosfos 22b DH Mamtin [at the end] : ד"ה ממתין
The words "Lo Atrechuhu Rabanan Lachzor b'Tefilah" לא אטרחוהו רבנן לחזור בתפלה
should be "Lo Atrechuhu Rabanan v'Chozer l'Tefilaso" לא אטרחוהו וחוזר לתפלתו as the Beraisa concludes ("v'Chozer u'Mispalel") and as is found in Tosfos Ri he'Chasid. Our Girsa in Tosfos is mistaken, since, according to one opinion in our Sugya, he must indeed start over again from the beginning.
1) [line 2] גרידא GEREIDA - by itself
2) [line 10] הלכות דרך ארץ HILCHOS DERECH ERETZ - the laws found in Maseches Derech Eretz (Rabah and Zuta), which deals with proper conduct and behavior
3a) [line 11] אימה EIMAH - dread
b) [line 11] ביראה YIR'AH - awe
c) [line 13] רתת RESES - trembling
d) [line 13] זיע ZI'A - shuddering
4) [line 15] באין על נדות BA'IN AL NIDOS (BO'EL NIDAH)
(a) A Nidah (see ) is an Av ha'Tum'ah. She can cause objects (other than Klei Cheres, earthenware objects) that are under her to become Avos ha'Tum'ah, whether they touch her or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon). Two examples of Midras are known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Nidah (or the Tachton, of a Nidah). An object that is under her becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.
(b) A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or the Nidah herself gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.
(c) Utensils or clothes that lie above the Nidah also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether she touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Nidah.
(d) A man who has relations with a Nidah becomes Tamei for seven days, like the Nidah herself. His laws of Tum'ah, however, are less stringent. The objects he touches, as well as Tachtono, the objects underneath him, have the same status as the objects above a Nidah, namely, Rishon l'Tum'ah, as it states in Vayikra 15:24 (see Nidah 33a, and Charts to Nidah 33:8b). After seven days, he immerses in a Mikvah during the day to complete his purification process.
5) [line 19] רגיליות REGILIYOS - Mishnayos in which he is well-versed
6) [line 19] יציע YATZI'A - (a) to teach others (ARUCH); (b) to teach in a careful, unhurried manner, explaining all the details (RITVA)
7) [line 31] מגמגם MEGAMGEM - (a) reading indiscriminately, swallowing words and not being careful about the pronunciation; a limited reading; (b) reading quickly, like someone who is confused (RITVA - reading like this is considered "mi'Toch Eimah va'Reses"); (c) hesitating whether to read or not to read (YOSEF DA'AS)
8) [line 31] למעלה LEMAILAH - in front of (lit. above)
9) [line 38] תלת סבי TLAS SAVEI - three elders, Chachamim
10) [line 38] ראשית הגז REISHIS HA'GEZ
(a) Every time a flock of sheep is shorn, it is a Mitzvas Aseh to give the first shearings to a Kohen, as stated in Devarim (18:4), "v'Reishis Gez Tzoncha Titen Lo." Although the Mishnah (Chulin 135a) states that this Mitzvah applies both in Eretz Yisrael and in Chutz la'Aretz, the Halachah follows the ruling of Rebbi Ila'i (ibid. 136b and here) who rules that the Mitzvah applies only in Eretz Yisrael (Rambam Hilchos Bikurim 10:1).
(b) The owner is obligated to give the first shearings to the Kohen only when a minimum amount of fleece is shorn from a minimum number of sheep. The minimum number of sheep is two according to Beis Shamai and five according to Beis Hillel. The Halachah follows Beis Hillel (Chulin 135a). The minimum amount of fleece that must be shorn from each of the five sheep is the amount of fleece that weighs a "Maneh u'Feras" (a Maneh and a half) according to Rebbi Dosa ben Harkinas (ibid.). (A Maneh equals one hundred silver Dinerin, each one of which occupies the volume of 96 grains of barley - Kidushin 12a.) As such, the total minimum amount of fleece that must be shorn according to Rebbi Dosa is 750 silver Dinerin. According to the Rabanan, the weight of twelve Sela'im must be shorn from each sheep, for a total of 60 Sela'im (i.e. 240 Dinerin), according to Shmuel; the Halachah follows his opinion - Chulin 137b. Rav argues with regard to the opinion of the Rabanan, claiming that even a total weight of 150 Dinerin of wool from all five animals is obligated in Reishis ha'Gez.
(c) After all of one's sheep are shorn, one must give to the Kohen one-sixtieth of all of the shearings, whether it is a lot or a little (as long as the minimum required amount is fulfilled, as mentioned above). When one gives the wool to the Kohanim, he must not give less than the weight of five Shekalim (ten Dinerin) of wool to each Kohen, which is the amount that suffices for the wool of an Avnet, the belt of the Bigdei Kehunah (Chulin 138a - see there).
11) [line 38] כלאים KILA'YIM (KIL'EI HA'KEREM)
(a) The word Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture," which refers to two items, each of which is permitted, which the Torah prohibits to combine. Many different types of forbidden mixtures can be referred to by the term "Kil'ayim." Three types of Kil'ayim apply to plants: Kil'ei ha'Kerem (see below), Kil'ei Zera'im (see ) and Harkavas ha'Ilan (see ). Two types of Kil'ayim apply to animals: Harba'ah (see ), and Charishah b'Shor va'Chamor (see ). One type of Kil'ayim applies to clothing: Sha'atnez (see ). (It is also prohibited to cook meat and milk together, but this is not referred to as "Kil'ayim.") Our Gemara refers to Kil'ei ha'Kerem. Of the many different types of Kil'ayim, only Kil'ei ha'Kerem is Asur b'Hana'ah.
(b) Kil'ei ha'Kerem refers to the prohibition of sowing vegetables or grains in a vineyard, as the Torah states, "Lo Sizra Karmecha Kil'ayim, Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah ha'Zera Asher Tizra u'Sevu'as ha'Karem" - "You shall not sow your vineyard with other species, lest the fruit of the seed which you have sown, and the fruit of the vineyard, be forfeited" (Devarim 22:9). According to some Tana'im, even if one finds other crops growing in his vineyard and does not remove them, he transgresses this prohibition (Makos 21b). One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to receive Malkus.
1. Many Tana'im maintain that the prohibition of Kil'ei ha'Kerem forbids planting any vegetable or grain in a preexisting vineyard, as well as sowing grape seeds together with any vegetable or grain. However, Rebbi Yoshiyah rules that the prohibition of Kil'ei ha'Kerem only applies to sowing grape seeds along with wheat and barley kernels in the same throw of a hand (Berachos 22a). According to this view, one who plants grapes, wheat and barley in such a manner transgresses both the prohibition of Kil'ei ha'Kerem and the prohibition of Kil'ei Zera'im (see Tosfos to Kidushin 39a DH Lo).
2. It is even prohibited to plant vegetables or grains outside of a vineyard in close proximity to it. Such plants must be planted at least 6 Tefachim away from a single grapevine and at least four Amos away from a vineyard. A wall is considered a sufficient separation such that the vineyard and the vegetables or grains may be planted next to the wall on either side. ("Vineyard," in this respect, refers to at least five grapevines, planted in a formation of two parallel rows of two with a fifth vine between (and behind) the two rows - see ). The grapevines and the vegetables or grains that grow in a vineyard that has been planted with Kil'ei ha'Kerem are prohibited to be eaten. They must be burned, as the Torah states, "Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah...," which the Gemara translates as, "lest the produce (of that vineyard) have to be burned ('Tukad Esh')" (RAMBAM Hilchos Kil'ayim 5:7). The amount of growth that causes them to be prohibited is when the grapevines, vegetables or grains grow more than one part in 200 of their previous, permitted growth.
3. Although the Torah only prohibits Kil'ei ha'Kerem in Eretz Yisrael, as with any other Mitzvos ha'Teluyos ba'Aretz, the Rabanan prohibited it in Chutz la'Aretz as well (Kidushin 38b).
(c) If Kil'ei ha'Kerem or Orlah (see ) falls into or is otherwise mixed with permitted food and there were 200 parts of permitted food to one part Kil'ei ha'Kerem, the entire mixture is permitted to be eaten. If it falls into or is otherwise mixed with less than 200 parts of permitted food, the entire mixture is prohibited. (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 15:14)
12) [line 39] עד שיזרע חטה ושעורה וחרצן במפולת יד AD SHE'YIZRA CHITAH U'SE'ORAH V'CHARTZAN B'MAPOLES YAD
Rebbi Yoshiya rules that the prohibition of Kil'ayim forbids only the planting of wheat, barley and grape seed at the same time (with one throw of the hand). This is learned from the verse (Devarim 22:9), "Lo Sizra Karmecha Kil'ayim, Pen Tikdash ha'Mele'ah ha'Zera Asher Tizra u'Sevu'as ha'Karem" - "Do not plant different species in your vineyard lest the yield of both the crops you planted and the fruit of the vineyard will be forfeited (alt. fit to be burned)." TOSFOS (to Kidushin 39a DH ha'Hu) suggests that the words "Karmecha Kil'ayim" indicate that there was a mixture of crops (wheat and barley) planted at the same time that the vineyard was planted.
13) [line 41] מפולת יד MAPOLES YAD - one throw of the hand
14) [line 42] בטלוה לטבילותא BATLUHA L'TEVILUSA - they (the Rabanan) annulled the requirement for a Ba'al Keri to immerse in a Mikvah (before learning and according to some opinions even before prayer - RIF)
15) [line 43] בטלוה לנטילותא BATLUHA L'NETILUSA - they annulled the requirement for a person to wash his hands with water before prayer
16) [line 44] לייט LAYIT - cursed
17) [line 45] קבין KABIN (MEASUREMENTS OF VOLUME)
(a) Equivalents of volume used in the Mishnah and Gemara:
1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in
1 Lesech = 15 Se'in
1 Eifah = 3 Se'in
1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin
1 Tarkav (= 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin
1 Kav = 4 Lugin
1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim
1 Beitzah = 2 k'Zeisim
(b) Modern-day equivalents:
1 k'Zayis = approximately 0.025, 0.0288 or 0.05 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. Therefore 9 Kabin = approximately 10.8, 12.4 or 21.6 liters.
18) [line 45] נחום איש גם זו NACHUM ISH GAM ZU - a Mishnaic sage about whom many incredible stories are related in Ta'anis 21a and Sanhedrin 109a. One reason given for his name (ibid.) is that he would say "Gam Zo l'Tovah" ("This, also, is for the good") about any occurrence, no matter how disastrous it seemed at the onset.
19) [line 45] לחשה LACHASHAH - whispered it
20) [line 46] מאן דתני שנאה MAN TANI SHENA'AH - one said that Ben Azai "taught" it to his students (i.e. without trying to keep it secret.)
21) [line 52] ריקא! REIKA! - You empty, worthless person!
22) [line 54] קאי כוותך KA'I KAVASEICH - is of the same opinion as you
23) [line 55] אגנא דמיא AGNA D'MAYA - a tub of water
24) [line 55] בי מסותא BEI MESUSA - bath-house
25) [line 55] שדי עלואי SHADI ILAVAI - pour it on me
26) [line 57] חצבא CHATZBA - pitcher
27) [line 58] רבי יהודה גלוסטרא REBBI YEHUDAH (GELUSTERA) [KELUSTERA'AH] - Rebbi Yehudah the locksmith
28) [line 58] חולה המרגיל CHOLEH HA'MARGIL - a sick person who brings upon himself Tum'as Keri (by having relations often)
29) [last line] אתבר חצביה דרב נחמן ITEVAR CHATZBEI D'RAV NACHMAN - Rebbi Nachman's pitcher is broken (not needed)
30) [line 1] קילעא KIL'A - the porch
31) [line 3] אצטמיד חצביה דרב נחמן ITZTAMID CHATZBEI D'RAV NACHMAN - Rebbi Nachman's pitcher was put back together (is useful)
32) [line 12] תקן טבילה לבעלי קריין TIKEN TEVILAH L'BA'ALEI KERYIN (BA'AL KERI: TEVILAH / TAKANAS EZRA)
(a) A man who has emitted Keri (semen) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. He may not enter the Machaneh Leviyah (i.e. the Temple Mount), nor may he eat Ma'aser, Terumah or Kodshim. After he immerses in a Mikvah during the day he becomes Tahor and may eat Ma'aser and enter Machaneh Leviyah once again (mid'Oraisa - the Rabanan however prohibited him from entering the Ezras Nashim (TY #10) until nightfall). He remains a "Tevul Yom" until nightfall, after which he may once again eat Terumah or Kodshim.
(b) Ezra instituted that a Ba'al Keri may not recite verses or learn Torah before he immerses. The Gemara discusses whether Takanas Ezra was repealed or not (Berachos 22b-23b). The Takanah for a sick person was more lenient, only requiring him to pour over himself nine Kabin of water.
33) [line 24] אבל לאחרים AVAL L'ACHEIRIM - but [if he wants to teach Torah] to others
34) [line 39] כריכו ריפתא KERICHU RIFTA - ate (lit. broke) bread
35) [line 46] מי המשרה MEI HA'MISHRAH - water in which flax and hemp is soaked
36) [line 46] הצואה HA'TZO'AH - the excrement
37) [line 48] מגמגם MEGAMGEM - recite very quickly (RASHI) (see above, entry #7)
38) [line 50] במקומו BI'MEKOMO - within four Amos of where he is standing
39) [line 52] שותתין SHOSESIN - flowing gently